Special Issue "Sources and Composition of Ambient Particulate Matter"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Manousos-Ioannis Manousakas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Forschungsstrasse 111, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
Interests: atmospheric pollution; aerosols; chemical characterization; source apportionment; PMF

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research related to ambient particulate matter (PM) remains very relative today, due to the adverse effects PM have on human health. PM are pollutants with varying chemical composition and may originate from many different emission sources, which directly affects their toxicity. To formulate effective control and mitigation strategies, it is necessary to identify PM sources and estimate their influence on ambient PM concentration, a process that is known as source apportionment (SA). Depending on the geographical location and characteristics of an area, many anthropogenic and natural sources may contribute to PM concentration levels, such as dust resuspension, sea salt, traffic, secondary aerosol formation (both organic and inorganic), industrial emissions, ship emissions, biomass burning, power plant emissions, etc.

Different methodological approaches have been used over recent years to study the aforementioned topics, but some scientific challenges remain, mainly related to the subjects of real-time chemical analysis and SA, uncertainty estimation of SA results, and analytical optimization for PM samples. Additionally, there are areas in the world for which results regarding the composition and sources of PM are still scarce.
Manuscripts on all aspects of PM chemical characterization and source apportionment, regarding the inorganic and/or organic fraction of PM, are welcome for this Special Issue.

Dr. Manousos-Ioannis Manousakas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • PM composition
  • chemical characterization
  • analytical techniques
  • source apportionment
  • PMF

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Black Carbon Particle-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Two Sites of Nanjing and Shanghai, China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020202 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern to human health due to their potential high toxicity. Understanding the characteristics and sources of PAHs, as well as the governing factors, is therefore critical. PAHs and refractory black carbon (rBC) are both from [...] Read more.
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern to human health due to their potential high toxicity. Understanding the characteristics and sources of PAHs, as well as the governing factors, is therefore critical. PAHs and refractory black carbon (rBC) are both from combustion sources. This work, for the first time, investigated exclusively the rBC-bound PAH properties by using a laser-only Aerodyne soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). This technique offers highly time-resolved PAH results that a traditional offline measurement is unable to provide. We analyzed two datasets conducted in urban Shanghai during the fall of 2018 and in suburban Nanjing during the winter of 2017, respectively. Results show that the average concentration of PAHs in Nanjing was much higher than that in Shanghai. Nanjing PAHs contained more low molecular weight components while Shanghai PAHs contained more high molecular weight ones. PAHs in Shanghai presented two peaks in early morning and evening, while Nanjing PAHs had only one significant morning peak, but remained high throughout the nighttime. A multi-linear regression algorithm combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses on sources of PAHs reveals that the industry emissions contributed the majority of PAHs in Nanjing (~80%), while traffic emissions dominated PAHs in Shanghai (~70%). We further investigated the relationships between PAHs with various factors. PAHs in both sites tended to positively correlate with primary pollutants, including primary organic aerosol (OA) factors, and gaseous pollutants of CO, NO2 and SO2, but negatively correlated with secondary OA factors and O3. This result highlights the enhancement of rBC-bound PAHs level due to primary emissions and their oxidation loss upon atmospheric aging reactions. High concentration of PAHs seemed to frequently appear under low temperature and high relative humidity conditions, especially in Shanghai. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources and Composition of Ambient Particulate Matter)
Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Volcanic and Fumarolic Emission to the Aerosol in Marine Atmosphere in the Central Mediterranean Sea: Results from Med-Oceanor 2017 Cruise Campaign
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020149 - 30 Jan 2020
Abstract
This work studied the contribution of the geogenic sources volcanoes and fumaroles to the aerosol in marine atmosphere in the central Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, in the framework of the Med-Oceanor measurement program, we carried out a cruise campaign in the summer [...] Read more.
This work studied the contribution of the geogenic sources volcanoes and fumaroles to the aerosol in marine atmosphere in the central Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, in the framework of the Med-Oceanor measurement program, we carried out a cruise campaign in the summer of 2017 to investigate the impact to the aerosol of the most important Mediterranean volcanoes (Mount Etna, Stromboli Island, and Marsili Seamount) and solfatara areas (Phlegraean Fields complex, Volcano Islands, Ischia Island, and Panarea submarine fumarole). We collected PM10 and PM2.5 samples in 12 sites and performed chemical characterization to gather information about the concentration of major and trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and ionic species. The use of triangular plots and the calculation of enrichment factors confirmed the interception of volcanic plume. We integrated the outcomes from chemical characterization with the use of factor analysis and SEM/EDX analysis for the source apportionment. Anthropogenic and natural sources including shipping emissions, volcanic and fumarolic load, as well as sea spray were identified as the main factors affecting aerosol levels in the study area. Furthermore, we performed pattern recognition analysis by stepwise linear discriminant analysis to seek differences in the composition of PM10 and PM2.5 samples according to their volcanic or solfatara origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources and Composition of Ambient Particulate Matter)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Local and global sources of airborne suspended particulate matter in Antarctic region
Authors: Marina-Montesb, L.V. Pérez-Arribasa, J. Anzanob, J.O. Cáceres*a
Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected]
Affiliations: a.- Laser Chemistry Research Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid. Plaza de Ciencias 1, 28040 Madrid, Spain; b.- Laser Lab, Chemistry & Environment Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza. Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Abstract: Transport pathways of heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols reaching Antarctic region were studied.  Quantification of suspended particulate matter (SPM) measurements together statistical tools and backward air mass trajectory analyses were implemented to better understand the main local and remote sources of contamination in this pristine region. Field campaigns were carried out during the austral summer 2016-2017 at the “Gabriel de Castilla” Spanish Antarctic Research Station, located on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic). Aerosols were deposited in an air filter through a low-volume sampler and chemically analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zn, Hf, Zr, V, As, Ti, Mn, Sn and Cr were identified. The study of air masses and high enrichment factor values of several elements (Hf, Zr, As, Cr, Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) together with their correlations (Hf/Zr, V/As, Ti/Mn, Cu/Sn, Na/Mg) suggests a potentially significant role of four main sources in this area: remote maritime traffic, local petrol combustion (generators and/or tourist cruises), remote/local crust and marine environments. Polar contour graphical maps were obtained from meteorological data using chemometrics methods, which allowed reproducing wind maps revealing the local distribution of the aerosols and possible emission sources of different elements in the area, such as S from volcanic activities,  Organic carbon from penguin colonies, Na/Mg correlation from marine inputs, V/As correlation from anthropogenic local pollution and Ti/Mn correlation from terrestrial inputs on the island.  High values of enrichment factors were found for Pb and Cr. Additionally, the investigation of atmospheric flow patterns through backward trajectory analysis revealed that Pb is originated from both local combustion and remote sources,  Hf/Zr correlation was related to a remote crustal origin and Cu/Sn to remote anthropogenic sources. Overall, the present study demonstrates the existence and progression of anthropogenic pollution at this remote site from local as well as distant sources following the Antarctic circumpolar wind pattern.
Keywords: Antarctic region, Deception Island, atmospheric aerosols, particulate matter, enrichment factors, backward trajectories, polar contour maps.

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