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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Wind-Sea- and Swell-Induced Wave Energy along the Norwegian Coast

1
Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
2
Norwegian Meteorological Institute, 5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Institute of Marine Biological Resources and Inland Waters, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), 19013 Anavyssos, Greece
4
Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l’Atmosphère, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, 59140 Dunkerque, France
5
Department of Geography, Harokopio University of Athens (HUA), 17671 Athens, Greece
6
Danish Meteorological Institute, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020166
Received: 8 January 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2020 / Accepted: 26 January 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waves and Wave Climate Analysis and Modeling)
The necessity to reduce C O 2 emissions in combination with the rising energy demand worldwide makes the extensive use of renewable energy sources increasingly important. To that end, countries with long coastlines, such as Norway, can exploit ocean wave energy to produce large amounts of power. In order to facilitate these efforts as well as to provide quantitative data on the wave energy potential of a specific area, it is essential to analyze the weather and climatic conditions detecting any variabilities. The complex physical processes and the atmosphere-wave synergetic effects make the investigation of temporal variability of wave energy a challenging issue. This work aims to shed new light on potential wave energy mapping, presenting a spatio-temporal assessment of swell- and wind-sea-induced energy flux in the Nordic Seas with a focus on the Norwegian coastline using the NORA10 hindcast for the period 1958–2017 (59 years). The results indicate high spatial and seasonal variability of the wave energy flux along the coast. The maximum wave energy flux is observed during winter, while the minimum is observed during summer. The highest coastal wave energy flux is observed in the Norwegian Sea. The majority of areas with dominant swell conditions (i.e., in the Norwegian Sea) are characterized by the highest coastal wave energy flux. The maximum values of wave energy flux in the North Sea are denoted in its northern parts in the intersection with the Norwegian Sea. In contrast to the Norwegian Sea, areas located in the North Sea and the Barents Sea show that wind sea is contributing more than swell to the total wave energy flux.
Keywords: wave energy flux; renewable energy; Norway; North Sea; Norwegian Sea; Barents Sea; wind sea; swell wave energy flux; renewable energy; Norway; North Sea; Norwegian Sea; Barents Sea; wind sea; swell
MDPI and ACS Style

Christakos, K.; Varlas, G.; Cheliotis, I.; Spyrou, C.; Aarnes, O.J.; Furevik, B.R. Characterization of Wind-Sea- and Swell-Induced Wave Energy along the Norwegian Coast. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 166.

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