Special Issue "10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology and Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Anthony R. Lupo Website E-Mail
Department of Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Phone: 573-884-1638
Interests: dynamic meteorology; synoptic meteorology; climate dynamics; climate variability
Guest Editor
Dr. Alexander V. Chernokulsky Website E-Mail
Academy of Sciences, A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow, Russia
Interests: clouds; extreme weather and climate events (forest fires, droughts, tornadoes, heavy rains, and floods); atmospheric convection; solar energy resources; cyclonic and anticyclonic activity; geoengineering
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luis Gimeno Website E-Mail
Environmental Physics Laboratory (EphysLab), Universidade de Vigo, Ourense, 32004, Spain
Phone: +34-988-387208
Interests: hydrological cycle; extreme precipitation events; atmospheric moisture transport; droughts
Guest Editor
Dr. Jiafu Mao Website E-Mail
Climate Change Science Institute, Environmental Sciences Division, Building 4500N, F129-X, MS-6301, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
Interests: hydrology; carbon cycling; vegetation dynamics in the terrestrial ecosystems field measurements; satellite data; process-oriented land surface; earth system models
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andreas Matzarakis Website E-Mail
Research Center Human Biometeorology, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Stefan-Meier-Str. 4, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Phone: +49 69 8062 9610
Interests: human-biometeorology; urban bioclimatology; climate and tourism; climate impact research
Guest Editor
Dr. Richard Müller Website E-Mail
German Meteorological Service CM-SAF, Frankfurter Straße 135, 63067 Offenbach, Germany
Interests: remote sensing of surface radiation; clouds and aerosols; sensor calibration; methods for "merging" in-situ data with remote sensing data
Guest Editor
Dr. Chris G. Tzanis Website E-Mail
Section of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece
Interests: climate physics; climate dynamics; nonlinear processes; atmospheric physics and chemistry; energy; remote sensing; air quality; aerosols
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chuixiang (Tree) Yi Website E-Mail
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367, USA
Interests: biosphere–atmosphere interaction; boundary layer meteorology; eddy flux measurements and modelling from globally synthetic data analysis to site-specific analysis; tree mortality; forest resilience and tipping point; ecosystem responses to extreme weather/climate

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The MDPI journal, Atmosphere, is marking its 10th anniversary in 2019. Since the initial release in December 2010 as an open access journal, Atmosphere has published more than 1000 peer-review journal articles. The publication was initially a quarterly journal, but by 2015, the frequency was increased to monthly. In 2014, Atmosphere received its first Impact Factor, and the impact has steadily improved over the next five years. The success of Atmosphere led to the journal being divided into five sub-disciplines within the meteorology and atmospheric science, and these are as follows: Aerosols, Air Quality, Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions, Climatology and Meteorology, and Biometeorology. The success of Atmosphere would not be possible without the dedication and support of our authors, reviewers, editors, staff, and readers.

In order to celebrate the 10th anniversary, we are organizing Special Issues for each of the five key areas in order to acknowledge this milestone. This particular Special Issue will accept submissions for possible publication in the Climatology and Meteorology section. Climatology and Meteorology is the largest sub-discipline, with more than 400 peer-reviewed articles published. All scholars in the community are invited to submit original articles, reviews, research notes, and short communications in the areas covered by the keywords describing Climatology and Meteorology, which can found at the following link: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/sections/climatology_meteorology. This Special Issue will be devoted to topics that remain at the heart of the weather and climate inquest, including cross-disciplinary studies devoted to basic or applied research. Please encourage interested colleagues to submit manuscripts. In particular, review articles on new and timely topics are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Anthony R. Lupo
Dr. Alexander V. Chernokulsky
Prof. Dr. Luis Gimeno
Dr. Jiafu Mao
Prof. Dr. Andreas Matzarakis
Dr. Richard Müller
Prof. Dr. Chuixiang (Tree) Yi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climatology
  • climate dynamics
  • climate change and variability
  • general circulation and teleconnections
  • operational meteorology
  • synoptic and dynamic meteorology
  • mesoscale meteorology
  • weather analysis and forecasting
  • numerical methods
  • physical meteorology
  • remote sensing
  • precipitation and clouds

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Subseasonal Influences of Teleconnection Patterns on the Boreal Wintertime Surface Air Temperature over Southern China as Revealed from Three Reanalysis Datasets
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090514 - 01 Sep 2019
Abstract
The daily fields from three reanalysis datasets are utilized to explore the subseasonal influence of teleconnection patterns on the surface air temperature (SAT) over southern China. Due to the similarity of the results from the different datasets, the ensemble mean is then used [...] Read more.
The daily fields from three reanalysis datasets are utilized to explore the subseasonal influence of teleconnection patterns on the surface air temperature (SAT) over southern China. Due to the similarity of the results from the different datasets, the ensemble mean is then used in this study. After applying the false discovery rate to the significance test, the composite results reveal that positive Western Pacific (WP) events, East Atlantic (EA) events, Scandinavian (SCA) events, and Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia (EAWR) events are the teleconnection events that have an influence on SAT anomalies over southern China. The timing of inducing significant SAT anomalies over southern China is similar among positive WPevents, EA events and EAWR events, i.e., approximately the first 5-day period after their peak day. In contrast, SCA events exert a lagged significant influence on SAT, i.e., during approximately the second 6-day period after their peak day. Therefore, considering that significant circulation anomalies generally begin to appear at least 4 days before the peak day, these teleconnection events could be used as subseasonal predictors for SAT anomalies over southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Severe Elevated Thunderstorms over Frontal Surfaces Using DCIN and DCAPE
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080449 - 05 Aug 2019
Abstract
A 10-year study of elevated severe thunderstorms was performed using The National Centers for Environmental Information Storm Events Database. A total of 80 elevated thunderstorm cases were identified, verified, and divided into “Prolific” and “Marginal” classes. These severe cases occurred at least 80 [...] Read more.
A 10-year study of elevated severe thunderstorms was performed using The National Centers for Environmental Information Storm Events Database. A total of 80 elevated thunderstorm cases were identified, verified, and divided into “Prolific” and “Marginal” classes. These severe cases occurred at least 80 km away from, and on the cold side of, a surface boundary. The downdraft convective available potential energy (DCAPE), downdraft convective inhibition (DCIN), and their ratio are tools to help estimate the potential for a downdraft to penetrate through the depth of a stable surface layer. The hypothesis is that as the DCIN/DCAPE ratio decreases, there exists enhanced possibility of severe surface winds. Using the initial fields from the Rapid Refresh numerical weather prediction model, datasets of DCIN, DCAPE, and their ratio were created. Mann-Whitney U tests on the Prolific versus Marginal case sets were undertaken to determine if the DCAPE and DCIN values come from different populations for the two different case sets. Results show that the Prolific cases have values of DCIN closer to zero, suggesting the downdraft is able to penetrate to the surface causing severe winds. Thus, comparing DCIN and DCAPE is a viable tool in determining if downdrafts will reach the surface from elevated thunderstorms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Does the IOD Independently Influence Seasonal Monsoon Patterns in Northern Ethiopia?
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080432 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
The dominant large-scale interannual modes in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans—El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)—dominate seasonal rainfall patterns in Ethiopia. However, there is a clear interaction between ENSO and the IOD, and it is unclear whether [...] Read more.
The dominant large-scale interannual modes in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans—El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)—dominate seasonal rainfall patterns in Ethiopia. However, there is a clear interaction between ENSO and the IOD, and it is unclear whether the IOD has an independent influence on seasonal monsoon patterns in Northern Ethiopia. We use monthly rainfall records from 15 stations from two drought–prone regions in Northern Ethiopia (Afar and Amhara) for the period 1966–2006 to explore relationships between rainfall and circulation patterns and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Our analysis confirms that regional summer monsoon (Kiremt) rainfalls in these regions are predominantly modulated by ENSO. Warm and cold ENSO episodes (El Niño/La Nina) are associated with below and above average summer monsoon rainfall, respectively. Lagged relationship between the IOD and Kiremt rainfall shows that positive/negative phases of the IOD are generally conducive to Kiremt rainfall increases/decreases over large parts of Ethiopia. Regression models based on the large-scale circulation indices NINO3.4 and a Dipole Mode Index (DMI)NO-ENSO representing the “ENSO-free IOD” also highlight the role of ENSO. However, the relative-weights for the models with DMINO-ENSO, calculated using Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), were 1.5 and 1.1 times the weights for the ENSO only models for the Afar and Amhara regions, respectively. This suggests that the IOD has an independent regional influence. This is in line with the conception of the IOD as a unique coupled-mode in the tropics, and may have important implications in boosting seasonal forecasting skills in the regions. No statistically significant trends were found in the regional and modeled rainfall time-series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of a Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclone. Sensitivity to WRF Parameterizations and Horizontal Resolution
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080425 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
Due to their rarity and intensity, Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclones (TLCs; also known as medicanes) have been a subject of study over the last decades and lately the interest has undoubtedly grown. The current study investigates a well-documented TLC event crossed south Sicily on [...] Read more.
Due to their rarity and intensity, Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclones (TLCs; also known as medicanes) have been a subject of study over the last decades and lately the interest has undoubtedly grown. The current study investigates a well-documented TLC event crossed south Sicily on November 7–8, 2014 and the added value of higher spatial horizontal resolution through a physics parameterization sensitivity analysis. For this purpose, Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.9) is used to dynamically downscale ECMWF Re-Analysis (version 5) (ERA5) reanalysis 31 km spatial resolution to 16 km and 4 km, as parent and inner domain, respectively. In order to increase the variability and disparity of the results, spectral nudging was implemented on both domains and the outputs were compared against satellite observations and ground-based stations. Although, the study produces mixed results, there is a clear indication that the increase of resolution benefits specific aspects of the cyclone, while it deteriorates others, based on both ground and upper air analyses. The sensitivity of the parent domain displays an overall weak variability while the simulations demonstrate a positive time-lag predicting a less symmetric cyclone with weak warm core. On the contrary, inner domain analysis shows stronger variability between the model simulations reproducing more distinct clear tropical characteristics with less delayed TLC development for most of the experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Analysis of the 2011–2017 North American Monsoon near its Northwest Boundary
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070420 - 21 Jul 2019
Abstract
The seasonal extent of the North American Monsoon (NAM) is highly variable and potentially sensitive to future climate change. Our objective was to determine how regional monsoonal patterns influence mountain precipitation near the NAM northwest boundary. Among the data we analyzed, a unique [...] Read more.
The seasonal extent of the North American Monsoon (NAM) is highly variable and potentially sensitive to future climate change. Our objective was to determine how regional monsoonal patterns influence mountain precipitation near the NAM northwest boundary. Among the data we analyzed, a unique opportunity was provided by hourly observations collected on the Sheep Range (2300 m asl), in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, during 2011–2017. Long-term 800-m Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation time series showed that the site is representative of mountain areas in the NAM northwest region. Based on in situ observations, we divided the water year into three seasons: cool (1 October through 31 March), early warm (1 April through last day with dewpoint <9.4 °C), and late warm (first day with dewpoint ≥9.4 °C through 30 September). Dewpoint temperature differed by about 8 °C between early warm season (mean of −6.3 °C) and late warm season (mean of 2.3 °C). According to ANCOVA model results, increasing hourly dewpoint associated with afternoon thunderstorms in the late warm season had the greatest relationship with hourly precipitation (F-value = 237.8, p-value < 0.01). Except for 2016, more precipitation fell at our study site during the late than the early warm season. Late warm season precipitation contributed the most (43–56%) to total water-year precipitation during the 2012–2015 extended drought. Southwestern USA regional composites of vertically integrated water vapor transport (IVT) suggested that water vapor in the cool and early warm season originated from the Pacific Ocean to the west, while a transition to a NAM-like pattern of northward IVT coincided with the late warm season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Observations of Thermally-Driven Winds in a Small Valley during the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070389 - 12 Jul 2019
Abstract
On the afternoon of 21 August 2017, a partial solar eclipse occurred over the Blue Ridge Mountains in central Virginia, USA. High-resolution meteorological observations were made on the floor of a small valley to investigate the effect of eclipse-induced cooling on thermally-driven winds. [...] Read more.
On the afternoon of 21 August 2017, a partial solar eclipse occurred over the Blue Ridge Mountains in central Virginia, USA. High-resolution meteorological observations were made on the floor of a small valley to investigate the effect of eclipse-induced cooling on thermally-driven winds. Measurements taken both at the surface and in the lower atmosphere indicate cooling throughout much of the atmospheric boundary layer. Multiple surface weather stations observed wind rotations that occurred both during and after the eclipse, as wind direction shifted from upvalley to downvalley and back to upvalley. The direction of these rotations (clockwise vs. counterclockwise) varied between stations and was strongly influenced by the proximity of the stations to topographic features in the valley. Doppler lidar observations over the valley floor show a 300 m thick layer of downvalley winds that formed below a deeper layer of upvalley winds. Changes in boundary layer winds and structure during the solar eclipse are similar to changes during the morning and evening transitions. However, the subtle differences in the direction of wind rotations between diurnal- and eclipse-transition periods provided important new insights into the interaction between slope- and valley flows, incoming solar radiation, and topographic features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Generalized Electric Field Equations of a Time-Varying Current Distribution Based on the Electromagnetic Fields of Moving and Accelerating Charges
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070367 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
In several studies conducted recently, it was shown that equations pertinent to the electric and magnetic fields produced by electrical charges in motion can be used to calculate the electromagnetic fields produced by current pulses propagating along linearly restricted paths. An example includes [...] Read more.
In several studies conducted recently, it was shown that equations pertinent to the electric and magnetic fields produced by electrical charges in motion can be used to calculate the electromagnetic fields produced by current pulses propagating along linearly restricted paths. An example includes the case of current pulses propagating along conductors and conducting channels such as lightning. In this paper, it is shown how the technique can be applied to estimate the electromagnetic fields generated by current and charge distributions moving in arbitrary directions in space. The analysis shows that, depending on the way the problem is formulated using the field equations pertinent to accelerating charges, one procedure leads to the generalized dipole equations, which are independent of the velocity of propagation of the current, and the other procedure leads to a set of equations that depend on the velocity. Using the well-tested transmission line model of lightning return strokes as an example, it is shown that both sets of field equations give rise to the same total electromagnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Analysis of a Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclone. Sensitivity to WRF Parameterizations and Horizontal Resolution
Authors: Markos P. Mylonas, Kostas C. Douvis, Iliana D. Polychroni, Nadia Politi, Panagiotis T. Nastos *
Affiliations:
Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, Faculty of Geology and Geoenviroment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University Campus, GR 15784 Athens, Greece; Email: [email protected]
Abstract: Due to their rarity and intensity, Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclones (TLCs; also known as medicanes) have been a subject of study over the last decades and lately the interest has undoubtedly grown. The current study investigates a well-documented TLC event crossed south Sicily on November 7-8, 2014 and the added value of higher spatial horizontal resolution through a physics parameterization sensitivity analysis. For this purpose, Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.9) is used to downscale ERA5 reanalysis 31 km spatial resolution to 12 km and 4 km, as parent and inner domain, respectively. In order to increase the variability and disparity of the results, spectral nudging was implemented on both domains and the outputs were compared against satellite observations and ground based stations. Although, the study produces mixed results, there is a clear indication that the increase of resolution benefits specific aspects of the cyclone, while it deteriorates others, based on both ground and upper air analyses. The sensitivity of the parent domain displays an overall weak variability while the simulations demonstrate a positive time-lag predicting a less symmetric cyclone with weak warm core. On the contrary, inner domain analysis shows stronger variability between the model simulations reproducing more distinct tropical characteristics with reduced time-lag for most of the experiments.

Title: Urban Biometeorological Approaches in an Era of Climate Change—A 10 Year Projection into the Future: A Review
Authors: A. Santos Nouri, A. Matzarakis *
Affiliations:
Research Center Human Biometeorology, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Stefan-Meier-Str. 4, 79104 Freiburg, Germany; Email: [email protected]
Abstract: Urban biometeorology is a discipline which has grown exponentially in the past two decades, both in terms of its application, and its interdisciplinary integration with other fields of knowledge and practice. Such is the case of thermal sensitive urban design and planning, which since the turn of the century has presented means to identify and attenuate local human thermo-physiological risk factors within urban environments. Moreover and conceivably catalysed by the climate change adaptation agenda, methods of improving current and future local outdoor thermal comfort thresholds are progressively becoming more crucial for local assessment and adaptation guidelines. More specifically, these methods include how urban biometeorology can be embraced by non-climatological experts to: (i) conduct in-situ bioclimatic surveys to determine local human thermo-physiological risk factors; (ii) utilise data from meteorological stations, which can be subsequently refined to particular locations, with their own urban specificities and morphological characteristics; and lastly, (iii) deliberate how the identified risk factors can be addressed through concrete bottom-up adaptation efforts. Given the importance of this maturing interdisciplinary interlace of urban biometeorology with that of urban planning and design, by reviewing the state-of-the-art, this article constructs a 10 year projection into the future. The disclosed projection explores the short-term practical and socio-economic challenges/opportunities for urban biometeorology in a century prone to climatic aggravations as a result of climate change.
Keywords: urban biometeorology; human thermal comfort; bottom-up climate change adaptation; urban planning and design

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