Special Issue "10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Anthony R. Lupo
Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Alexander V. Chernokulsky
Website
Guest Editor
Academy of Sciences, A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow, Russia
Interests: clouds; extreme weather and climate events (forest fires, droughts, tornadoes, heavy rains, and floods); atmospheric convection; solar energy resources; cyclonic and anticyclonic activity; geoengineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jiafu Mao
Website
Guest Editor
Climate Change Science Institute, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6201, USA
Interests: hydrology; carbon cycling; vegetation dynamics in the terrestrial ecosystems field measurements; satellite data; process-oriented land surface; earth system models
Prof. Dr. Andreas Matzarakis
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Research Center Human Biometeorology, German Meteorological Service, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Interests: human-biometeorology; urban bioclimatology; climate and tourism; climate impact research
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Richard Müller
Website
Guest Editor
German Weather Service, Frankfurter Str. 135, 63067 Offenbach, Germany
Interests: remote sensing of surface radiation; clouds and aerosols; sensor calibration; methods for "merging" in situ data with remote sensing data
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Dr. Chris G. Tzanis
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Section of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece
Interests: climate dynamics; climate physics; climate change and variability; aerosols; ambient air quality; ozone-climate interactions; atmospheric physics and chemistry; nonlinear processes; artificial intelligence and machine learning; remote sensing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Chuixiang Yi
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367, USA
Interests: forest resilience; tipping point; extreme climates; nonlinear system theory; dendroclimatology; carbon cycle; atmosphere–biosphere interactions; abrupt climate transition
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The MDPI journal, Atmosphere, is marking its 10th anniversary in 2019. Since the initial release in December 2010 as an open access journal, Atmosphere has published more than 1000 peer-review journal articles. The publication was initially a quarterly journal, but by 2015, the frequency was increased to monthly. In 2014, Atmosphere received its first Impact Factor, and the impact has steadily improved over the next five years. The success of Atmosphere led to the journal being divided into five sub-disciplines within the meteorology and atmospheric science, and these are as follows: Aerosols, Air Quality, Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions, Climatology and Meteorology, and Biometeorology. The success of Atmosphere would not be possible without the dedication and support of our authors, reviewers, editors, staff, and readers.

In order to celebrate the 10th anniversary, we are organizing Special Issues for each of the five key areas in order to acknowledge this milestone. This particular Special Issue will accept submissions for possible publication in the Climatology and Meteorology section. Climatology and Meteorology is the largest sub-discipline, with more than 400 peer-reviewed articles published. All scholars in the community are invited to submit original articles, reviews, research notes, and short communications in the areas covered by the keywords describing Climatology and Meteorology, which can found at the following link: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/sections/climatology_meteorology. This Special Issue will be devoted to topics that remain at the heart of the weather and climate inquest, including cross-disciplinary studies devoted to basic or applied research. Please encourage interested colleagues to submit manuscripts. In particular, review articles on new and timely topics are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Anthony R. Lupo
Dr. Alexander V. Chernokulsky
Prof. Dr. Luis Gimeno
Dr. Jiafu Mao
Prof. Dr. Andreas Matzarakis
Dr. Richard Müller
Prof. Dr. Chuixiang (Tree) Yi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climatology
  • climate dynamics
  • climate change and variability
  • general circulation and teleconnections
  • operational meteorology
  • synoptic and dynamic meteorology
  • mesoscale meteorology
  • weather analysis and forecasting
  • numerical methods
  • physical meteorology
  • remote sensing
  • precipitation and clouds

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Rise of Climate-Driven Sediment Discharge in the Amazonian River Basin
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020208 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The occurrence of hydrological extremes in the Amazon region and the associated sediment loss during rainfall events are key features in the global climate system. Climate extremes alter the sediment and carbon balance but the ecological consequences of such changes are poorly understood [...] Read more.
The occurrence of hydrological extremes in the Amazon region and the associated sediment loss during rainfall events are key features in the global climate system. Climate extremes alter the sediment and carbon balance but the ecological consequences of such changes are poorly understood in this region. With the aim of examining the interactions between precipitation and landscape-scale controls of sediment export from the Amazon basin, we developed a parsimonious hydro-climatological model on a multi-year series (1997–2014) of sediment discharge data taken at the outlet of Óbidos (Brazil) watershed (the narrowest and swiftest part of the Amazon River). The calibrated model (correlation coefficient equal to 0.84) captured the sediment load variability of an independent dataset from a different watershed (the Magdalena River basin), and performed better than three alternative approaches. Our model captured the interdecadal variability and the long-term patterns of sediment export. In our reconstruction of yearly sediment discharge over 1859–2014, we observed that landscape erosion changes are mostly induced by single storm events, and result from coupled effects of droughts and storms over long time scales. By quantifying temporal variations in the sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables a new understanding of the linkage between climate forcing and river response, which drives sediment dynamics in the Amazon basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Heat Health Warning System in Germany—Application and Warnings for 2005 to 2019
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020170 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
During intense heat episodes, the human population suffers from an increased morbidity and mortality. In order to minimize such negative health impacts, the general public and the public health authorities are informed and warned by means of an advanced procedure known as a [...] Read more.
During intense heat episodes, the human population suffers from an increased morbidity and mortality. In order to minimize such negative health impacts, the general public and the public health authorities are informed and warned by means of an advanced procedure known as a “heat health warning system” (HHWS). It is aimed at triggering interventions and at taking preventive measures. The HHWS in Germany has been in operation since 2005. The present work is aimed at showing the updated structure of an advanced HHWS that has been developed further several times during its 15 years of operation. This is to impart knowledge to practitioners about the concept of the system. In Germany, dangerous heat episodes are predicted on the basis of the numerical weather forecast. The perceived temperature as an appropriate thermal index is calculated and used to assess the levels of heat stress. The thermo-physiologically based procedure contains variable thresholds taking into account the short time acclimatization of the people. The forecast system further comprises the nocturnal indoor conditions, the specific characteristics of the elderly population, and the elevation of a region. The heat warnings are automatically generated, but they are published with possible adjustments and a compulsory confirmation by the biometeorology forecaster. Preliminary studies indicate a reduction in the heat related outcomes. In addition, the extensive duration of the strongest heat wave in summer 2018, which lasted three weeks, highlights the necessity of the HHWS to protect human health and life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Modelling of Temperature-Attributable Deaths in Portuguese Metropolitan Areas under Climate Change: Who Is at Risk?
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020159 - 03 Feb 2020
Abstract
Several studies emphasize that temperature-related mortality can be expected to have differential effects on different subpopulations, particularly in the context of climate change. This study aims to evaluate and quantify the future temperature-attributable mortality due to circulatory system diseases by age groups (under [...] Read more.
Several studies emphasize that temperature-related mortality can be expected to have differential effects on different subpopulations, particularly in the context of climate change. This study aims to evaluate and quantify the future temperature-attributable mortality due to circulatory system diseases by age groups (under 65 and 65+ years), in Lisbon metropolitan area (LMA) and Porto metropolitan area (PMA), over the 2051–2065 and 2085–2099 time horizons, considering the greenhouse gas emissions scenario RCP8.5, in relation to a historical period (1991–2005). We found a decrease in extreme cold-related deaths of 0.55% and 0.45% in LMA, for 2051–2065 and 2085–2099, respectively. In PMA, there was a decrease in cold-related deaths of 0.31% and 0.49% for 2051–2065 and 2085–2099, respectively, compared to 1991–2005. In LMA, the burden of extreme heat-related mortality in age group 65+ years is slightly higher than in age group <65 years, at 2.22% vs. 1.38%, for 2085–2099. In PMA, only people aged 65+ years showed significant temperature-related burden of deaths that can be attributable to hot temperatures. The heat-related excess deaths increased from 0.23% for 2051–2065 to 1.37% for 2085–2099, compared to the historical period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Relationships between Radar-Inferred Kinematic and Microphysical Parameters and Lightning Flash Rates in Alabama Storms
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120796 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Lightning flash rate parameterizations based on polarimetric and multi-Doppler radar inferred microphysical (e.g., graupel volume, graupel mass, 35 dBZ volume) and kinematic (e.g., updraft volume, maximum updraft velocity) parameters have important applications in atmospheric science. Although past studies have established relations between flash [...] Read more.
Lightning flash rate parameterizations based on polarimetric and multi-Doppler radar inferred microphysical (e.g., graupel volume, graupel mass, 35 dBZ volume) and kinematic (e.g., updraft volume, maximum updraft velocity) parameters have important applications in atmospheric science. Although past studies have established relations between flash rate and storm parameters, their expected performance in a variety of storm and flash rate conditions is uncertain due to sample limitations. Radar network and lightning mapping array observations over Alabama of a large and diverse sample of 33 storms are input to hydrometeor identification, vertical velocity retrieval and flash rate algorithms to develop and test flash rate relations. When applied to this sample, prior flash rate linear relations result in larger errors overall, including often much larger bias (both over- and under-estimation) and root mean square errors compared to the new linear relations. At low flash rates, the new flash rate relations based on kinematic parameters have larger errors compared to those based on microphysical ones. Sensitivity of error to the functional form (e.g., zero or non-zero intercept) is also tested. When considering all factors (e.g., low errors including at low flash rate, consistency with past linear relations, and insensitivity to functional form), the flash rate parameterization based on graupel volume has the best overall performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Spatial Asymmetric Tilt of the NAO Dipole Mode and Its Variability
by Yao Yao
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120781 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The dipole structure of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is examined in this study by defining the tilt of the NAO dipole centers on synoptic time scales. All the positive NAO phase (NAO+) and negative NAO phase (NAO−) events are divided into three [...] Read more.
The dipole structure of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is examined in this study by defining the tilt of the NAO dipole centers on synoptic time scales. All the positive NAO phase (NAO+) and negative NAO phase (NAO−) events are divided into three tilting types according to their definition; namely, northeast–southwest (NE–SW), north–south symmetric (N–S, not tilted), and northwest–southeast (NW–SE) tilting NAO events. Then, the associated surface air temperature (SAT), geopotential height, zonal wind, and SST (surface sea temperature) anomalies of each type are examined. It is found that, for different asymmetric NAO tilt types, the local SATs exhibit significantly different distributions. The zonal wind has a good match with the NAO dipole tilt, which also includes the positive feedback of the NAO circulation. The basic zonal flow that removes the NAO days also exhibits a clear tilt structure that favors the tilt of the NAO dipole. Moreover, it is found that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) may be an important factor affecting the tilt of the NAO dipole. The AMO index has a significant 15-year lead for the NAO index and basic zonal flow index, with a high correlation coefficient, which might be seen as a precondition that indicates the tilt of the NAO events, especially on decadal or multidecadal time scales. However, the physical mechanisms and processes are still not fully understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Late-Spring Severe Blizzard Events over Eastern Romania: A Conceptual Model of Development
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120770 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, the mechanism and model-representation of a late-spring severe blizzard event on eastern Romania are studied. The mechanism relies on the coupled contribution of the tropospheric ageostrophic circulations associated to jet streaks. These circulations: (1) interact under local and regional forcing [...] Read more.
In this paper, the mechanism and model-representation of a late-spring severe blizzard event on eastern Romania are studied. The mechanism relies on the coupled contribution of the tropospheric ageostrophic circulations associated to jet streaks. These circulations: (1) interact under local and regional forcing (sea surface temperature, topography and latent heat) and (2) feedback on enhancing an upper-level jet’s secondary streak, leading to a persistent, severe event. The enhanced secondary jet streak appears only for developing systems that lead to extreme impact, as shown by 40 years of knowledge of late-spring severe blizzards over the area. It is shown that actual regional high-resolution models are able to represent the occurrence and the mechanism of late-spring severe blizzard events, thus increasing the confidence on their ability to represent current and future climate extreme variability. Understanding the preconditioning of dynamic and thermodynamic processes indicated by this analysis could be useful in supporting the operational forecast analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Unprecedented Rainfall and Moisture Patterns during El Niño 2016 in the Eastern Pacific and Tropical Andes: Northern Perú and Ecuador
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120768 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Using vertically integrated water vapor and its convergence, associated with large-scale and regional atmospheric circulation, we found two patterns of rainfall over the Eastern Pacific (EP) and the tropical Andes-with a focus in Ecuador and northern Perú-during three recent El Niño events: 1983, [...] Read more.
Using vertically integrated water vapor and its convergence, associated with large-scale and regional atmospheric circulation, we found two patterns of rainfall over the Eastern Pacific (EP) and the tropical Andes-with a focus in Ecuador and northern Perú-during three recent El Niño events: 1983, 1998, and 2016. Although these three events were the strongest El Niños, the different sources of moisture contribute to different rainfall patterns between El Niño 1983–1998 and 2016. In the region, the spatial pattern of precipitation during El Niño 2016 presents an unprecedented out-of-phase atmospheric response consistent and verified with water vapor transport when compared with El Niño 1983–1998. During El Niño 2016, precipitation in the Andes was enhanced by moist air transported from the Amazon—with an opposite regime compared to the subsidence that dominated in 1983–1998. During the 1983–1998 El Niño, the source of moisture to feed the EP was enhanced by upper-level divergence (300 hPa), which supports moisture influx by middle levels in the EP. In El Niño 2016, this divergent upper-level flow migrated north, followed by the companion moisture. This study illustrates a link between upper-level large-scale circulation and low-level regional mechanisms on the moisture transport in determining different rainfall patterns during El Niño events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Projections of Temperature-Attributable Deaths in Portuguese Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Modelling Approach
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120735 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Climate change is now widely recognised as the greatest global threat over the coming decades. This study aimed to quantify and project the effects of climate change on future temperature-attributable mortality due to circulatory system diseases (CSD) in Lisbon metropolitan area (LMA) and [...] Read more.
Climate change is now widely recognised as the greatest global threat over the coming decades. This study aimed to quantify and project the effects of climate change on future temperature-attributable mortality due to circulatory system diseases (CSD) in Lisbon metropolitan area (LMA) and in Porto metropolitan area (PMA). The future time slices of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5), mid-term (2046–2065) and long-term (2080–2099) were compared with the reference period (1986–2005). There is a significant decreasing trend in proportion to the overall extreme cold temperature-attributable mortality due to CSD in the future periods (2045–2065 and 2081–2099) in LMA, −0.63% and −0.73%, respectively, and in PMA, −0.62% for 2045–2065 and −0.69% for 2081–2099, compared to the historical period. The fraction attributable to extreme hot temperature in the summer months increased by 0.08% and 0.23%, from 0.04% in the historical period to 0.11% during 2046–2065, and to 0.27% during 2081–2099 in LMA. While there were no noticeable changes due to extreme hot temperature during the summer in PMA, significant increases were observed with warmer winter temperatures: 1.27% and 2.80%. The projections of future temperature-attributable mortality may provide valuable information to support climate policy decision making and temperature-related risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Diurnal Variation of Rainfall in a Tropical Coastal Region with Complex Orography
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100604 - 07 Oct 2019
Abstract
We examined the diurnal cycle of the rainfall in a coastal tropical mountainous region in central Veracruz State, Mexico (18°–21° N, 95.5°–98.5° W), featuring a striking topographic gradient running from sea level at the Gulf of Mexico coast to 5000 m above sea [...] Read more.
We examined the diurnal cycle of the rainfall in a coastal tropical mountainous region in central Veracruz State, Mexico (18°–21° N, 95.5°–98.5° W), featuring a striking topographic gradient running from sea level at the Gulf of Mexico coast to 5000 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in less than 100 km horizontal distance. During the summer, this unique location leads to regular the interaction between the easterly moisture inflow and the mountainous barrier. Over the complex terrain, forced ascent leads the occurrence of maximum rainfall during the afternoon (16–19 local time, LT ≈ 1½ hours ahead of solar time in summer), first along the slope and later over the coast. Along the coastal plain, the precipitation continues until the early morning consistent with there being convergence between land breezes and the trade winds. Observations obtained during a measurement campaign from 28 June to 3 July 2015, indicate that during the early evening downslope winds move against easterly flow, likely due to katabatic outflows previously observed over the region. These features are confirmed using spatial (0.88°) and temporal (30 min) resolution CMORPH rainfall estimates, since we observed evening episodes initiating along the slope during the afternoon (14–17 LT) moving later towards the coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Near-Ground Profile of Bora Wind Speed at Razdrto, Slovenia
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100601 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
Southwest Slovenia is a region well-known for frequent episodes of strong and gusty Bora wind, which may damage structures, affect traffic, and poses threats to human safety in general. With the increased availability of computational power, the interest in high resolution modeling of [...] Read more.
Southwest Slovenia is a region well-known for frequent episodes of strong and gusty Bora wind, which may damage structures, affect traffic, and poses threats to human safety in general. With the increased availability of computational power, the interest in high resolution modeling of Bora on local scales is growing. To model it adequately, the flow characteristics of Bora should be experimentally investigated and parameterized. This study presents the analysis of wind speed vertical profiles at Razdrto, Slovenia, a location strongly exposed to Bora during six Bora episodes of different duration, appearing between April 2010 and May 2011. The empirical power law and the logarithmic law for Bora wind, commonly used for the description of neutrally stratified atmosphere, were evaluated for 10-min averaged wind speed data measured at four different heights. Power law and logarithmic law wind speed profiles, which are commonly used in high resolution computational models, were found to approximate well the measured data. The obtained power law coefficient and logarithmic law parameters, which are for modeling purposes commonly taken to be constant for a specific site, were found to vary significantly between different Bora episodes, most notably due to different wind direction over complex terrain. To increase modeling precision, the effects of local topography on wind profile parameters needs to be experimentally assessed and implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Past and Projected Weather Pattern Persistence with Associated Multi-Hazards in the British Isles
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100577 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
Hazards such as heatwaves, droughts and floods are often associated with persistent weather patterns. Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) are important tools for evaluating projected changes in extreme weather. Here, we demonstrate that 2-day weather pattern persistence, derived from the Lamb Weather Types [...] Read more.
Hazards such as heatwaves, droughts and floods are often associated with persistent weather patterns. Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) are important tools for evaluating projected changes in extreme weather. Here, we demonstrate that 2-day weather pattern persistence, derived from the Lamb Weather Types (LWTs) objective scheme, is a useful concept for both investigating climate risks from multi-hazard events as well as for assessing AOGCM realism. This study evaluates the ability of a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model sub-ensemble of 10 AOGCMs at reproducing seasonal LWTs persistence and frequencies over the British Isles (BI). Changes in persistence are investigated under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP8.5 and RCP4.5) up to 2100. The ensemble broadly replicates historical LWTs persistence observed in reanalyses (1971–2000). Future persistence and frequency of summer anticyclonic LWT are found to increase, implying heightened risk of drought and heatwaves. On the other hand, the cyclonic LWT decreases in autumn suggesting reduced likelihood of flooding and severe gales. During winter, AOGCMs point to increased risk of concurrent fluvial flooding-wind hazards by 2100, however, they also tend to over-estimate such risks when compared to reanalyses. In summer, the strength of the nocturnal Urban Heat Island (UHI) of London could intensify, enhancing the likelihood of combined heatwave-poor air quality events. Further research is needed to explore other multi-hazards in relation to changing weather pattern persistence and how best to communicate such threats to vulnerable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Subseasonal Influences of Teleconnection Patterns on the Boreal Wintertime Surface Air Temperature over Southern China as Revealed from Three Reanalysis Datasets
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090514 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The daily fields from three reanalysis datasets are utilized to explore the subseasonal influence of teleconnection patterns on the surface air temperature (SAT) over southern China. Due to the similarity of the results from the different datasets, the ensemble mean is then used [...] Read more.
The daily fields from three reanalysis datasets are utilized to explore the subseasonal influence of teleconnection patterns on the surface air temperature (SAT) over southern China. Due to the similarity of the results from the different datasets, the ensemble mean is then used in this study. After applying the false discovery rate to the significance test, the composite results reveal that positive Western Pacific (WP) events, East Atlantic (EA) events, Scandinavian (SCA) events, and Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia (EAWR) events are the teleconnection events that have an influence on SAT anomalies over southern China. The timing of inducing significant SAT anomalies over southern China is similar among positive WPevents, EA events and EAWR events, i.e., approximately the first 5-day period after their peak day. In contrast, SCA events exert a lagged significant influence on SAT, i.e., during approximately the second 6-day period after their peak day. Therefore, considering that significant circulation anomalies generally begin to appear at least 4 days before the peak day, these teleconnection events could be used as subseasonal predictors for SAT anomalies over southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Severe Elevated Thunderstorms over Frontal Surfaces Using DCIN and DCAPE
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080449 - 05 Aug 2019
Abstract
A 10-year study of elevated severe thunderstorms was performed using The National Centers for Environmental Information Storm Events Database. A total of 80 elevated thunderstorm cases were identified, verified, and divided into “Prolific” and “Marginal” classes. These severe cases occurred at least 80 [...] Read more.
A 10-year study of elevated severe thunderstorms was performed using The National Centers for Environmental Information Storm Events Database. A total of 80 elevated thunderstorm cases were identified, verified, and divided into “Prolific” and “Marginal” classes. These severe cases occurred at least 80 km away from, and on the cold side of, a surface boundary. The downdraft convective available potential energy (DCAPE), downdraft convective inhibition (DCIN), and their ratio are tools to help estimate the potential for a downdraft to penetrate through the depth of a stable surface layer. The hypothesis is that as the DCIN/DCAPE ratio decreases, there exists enhanced possibility of severe surface winds. Using the initial fields from the Rapid Refresh numerical weather prediction model, datasets of DCIN, DCAPE, and their ratio were created. Mann-Whitney U tests on the Prolific versus Marginal case sets were undertaken to determine if the DCAPE and DCIN values come from different populations for the two different case sets. Results show that the Prolific cases have values of DCIN closer to zero, suggesting the downdraft is able to penetrate to the surface causing severe winds. Thus, comparing DCIN and DCAPE is a viable tool in determining if downdrafts will reach the surface from elevated thunderstorms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Does the IOD Independently Influence Seasonal Monsoon Patterns in Northern Ethiopia?
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080432 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The dominant large-scale interannual modes in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans—El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)—dominate seasonal rainfall patterns in Ethiopia. However, there is a clear interaction between ENSO and the IOD, and it is unclear whether [...] Read more.
The dominant large-scale interannual modes in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans—El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)—dominate seasonal rainfall patterns in Ethiopia. However, there is a clear interaction between ENSO and the IOD, and it is unclear whether the IOD has an independent influence on seasonal monsoon patterns in Northern Ethiopia. We use monthly rainfall records from 15 stations from two drought–prone regions in Northern Ethiopia (Afar and Amhara) for the period 1966–2006 to explore relationships between rainfall and circulation patterns and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Our analysis confirms that regional summer monsoon (Kiremt) rainfalls in these regions are predominantly modulated by ENSO. Warm and cold ENSO episodes (El Niño/La Nina) are associated with below and above average summer monsoon rainfall, respectively. Lagged relationship between the IOD and Kiremt rainfall shows that positive/negative phases of the IOD are generally conducive to Kiremt rainfall increases/decreases over large parts of Ethiopia. Regression models based on the large-scale circulation indices NINO3.4 and a Dipole Mode Index (DMI)NO-ENSO representing the “ENSO-free IOD” also highlight the role of ENSO. However, the relative-weights for the models with DMINO-ENSO, calculated using Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), were 1.5 and 1.1 times the weights for the ENSO only models for the Afar and Amhara regions, respectively. This suggests that the IOD has an independent regional influence. This is in line with the conception of the IOD as a unique coupled-mode in the tropics, and may have important implications in boosting seasonal forecasting skills in the regions. No statistically significant trends were found in the regional and modeled rainfall time-series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Analysis of a Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclone. Sensitivity to WRF Parameterizations and Horizontal Resolution
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080425 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Due to their rarity and intensity, Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclones (TLCs; also known as medicanes) have been a subject of study over the last decades and lately the interest has undoubtedly grown. The current study investigates a well-documented TLC event crossed south Sicily on [...] Read more.
Due to their rarity and intensity, Mediterranean Tropical-Like Cyclones (TLCs; also known as medicanes) have been a subject of study over the last decades and lately the interest has undoubtedly grown. The current study investigates a well-documented TLC event crossed south Sicily on November 7–8, 2014 and the added value of higher spatial horizontal resolution through a physics parameterization sensitivity analysis. For this purpose, Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.9) is used to dynamically downscale ECMWF Re-Analysis (version 5) (ERA5) reanalysis 31 km spatial resolution to 16 km and 4 km, as parent and inner domain, respectively. In order to increase the variability and disparity of the results, spectral nudging was implemented on both domains and the outputs were compared against satellite observations and ground-based stations. Although, the study produces mixed results, there is a clear indication that the increase of resolution benefits specific aspects of the cyclone, while it deteriorates others, based on both ground and upper air analyses. The sensitivity of the parent domain displays an overall weak variability while the simulations demonstrate a positive time-lag predicting a less symmetric cyclone with weak warm core. On the contrary, inner domain analysis shows stronger variability between the model simulations reproducing more distinct clear tropical characteristics with less delayed TLC development for most of the experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Analysis of the 2011–2017 North American Monsoon near its Northwest Boundary
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070420 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The seasonal extent of the North American Monsoon (NAM) is highly variable and potentially sensitive to future climate change. Our objective was to determine how regional monsoonal patterns influence mountain precipitation near the NAM northwest boundary. Among the data we analyzed, a unique [...] Read more.
The seasonal extent of the North American Monsoon (NAM) is highly variable and potentially sensitive to future climate change. Our objective was to determine how regional monsoonal patterns influence mountain precipitation near the NAM northwest boundary. Among the data we analyzed, a unique opportunity was provided by hourly observations collected on the Sheep Range (2300 m asl), in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, during 2011–2017. Long-term 800-m Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation time series showed that the site is representative of mountain areas in the NAM northwest region. Based on in situ observations, we divided the water year into three seasons: cool (1 October through 31 March), early warm (1 April through last day with dewpoint <9.4 °C), and late warm (first day with dewpoint ≥9.4 °C through 30 September). Dewpoint temperature differed by about 8 °C between early warm season (mean of −6.3 °C) and late warm season (mean of 2.3 °C). According to ANCOVA model results, increasing hourly dewpoint associated with afternoon thunderstorms in the late warm season had the greatest relationship with hourly precipitation (F-value = 237.8, p-value < 0.01). Except for 2016, more precipitation fell at our study site during the late than the early warm season. Late warm season precipitation contributed the most (43–56%) to total water-year precipitation during the 2012–2015 extended drought. Southwestern USA regional composites of vertically integrated water vapor transport (IVT) suggested that water vapor in the cool and early warm season originated from the Pacific Ocean to the west, while a transition to a NAM-like pattern of northward IVT coincided with the late warm season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Observations of Thermally-Driven Winds in a Small Valley during the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070389 - 12 Jul 2019
Abstract
On the afternoon of 21 August 2017, a partial solar eclipse occurred over the Blue Ridge Mountains in central Virginia, USA. High-resolution meteorological observations were made on the floor of a small valley to investigate the effect of eclipse-induced cooling on thermally-driven winds. [...] Read more.
On the afternoon of 21 August 2017, a partial solar eclipse occurred over the Blue Ridge Mountains in central Virginia, USA. High-resolution meteorological observations were made on the floor of a small valley to investigate the effect of eclipse-induced cooling on thermally-driven winds. Measurements taken both at the surface and in the lower atmosphere indicate cooling throughout much of the atmospheric boundary layer. Multiple surface weather stations observed wind rotations that occurred both during and after the eclipse, as wind direction shifted from upvalley to downvalley and back to upvalley. The direction of these rotations (clockwise vs. counterclockwise) varied between stations and was strongly influenced by the proximity of the stations to topographic features in the valley. Doppler lidar observations over the valley floor show a 300 m thick layer of downvalley winds that formed below a deeper layer of upvalley winds. Changes in boundary layer winds and structure during the solar eclipse are similar to changes during the morning and evening transitions. However, the subtle differences in the direction of wind rotations between diurnal- and eclipse-transition periods provided important new insights into the interaction between slope- and valley flows, incoming solar radiation, and topographic features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Generalized Electric Field Equations of a Time-Varying Current Distribution Based on the Electromagnetic Fields of Moving and Accelerating Charges
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070367 - 01 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In several studies conducted recently, it was shown that equations pertinent to the electric and magnetic fields produced by electrical charges in motion can be used to calculate the electromagnetic fields produced by current pulses propagating along linearly restricted paths. An example includes [...] Read more.
In several studies conducted recently, it was shown that equations pertinent to the electric and magnetic fields produced by electrical charges in motion can be used to calculate the electromagnetic fields produced by current pulses propagating along linearly restricted paths. An example includes the case of current pulses propagating along conductors and conducting channels such as lightning. In this paper, it is shown how the technique can be applied to estimate the electromagnetic fields generated by current and charge distributions moving in arbitrary directions in space. The analysis shows that, depending on the way the problem is formulated using the field equations pertinent to accelerating charges, one procedure leads to the generalized dipole equations, which are independent of the velocity of propagation of the current, and the other procedure leads to a set of equations that depend on the velocity. Using the well-tested transmission line model of lightning return strokes as an example, it is shown that both sets of field equations give rise to the same total electromagnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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