Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 9, April

Cells, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 255 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Podocytes are terminally differentiated epithelial kidney cells and provide pivotal structures of the glomerular filter with their interdigitating foot processes. Glomerular hyperfiltration is a typical feature of several common forms of chronic kidney diseases exposing podocytes to increased fluid flow shear stress. Activation of the autocrine/paracrine cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway associates with podocyte damage in this setting. Using distinct analysis of cellular PGE2 and its metabolites by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI‐MS/MS), a concerted action involving PGE2 signaling via both PGE2 receptor type 2 (EP2) and type 4 (EP4) in the COX2/PGE2 pathway was identified in human podocytes. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Progress and Challenges in the Use of MAP1LC3 as a Legitimate Marker for Measuring Dynamic Autophagy In Vivo
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051321 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Tremendous efforts have been made these last decades to increase our knowledge of intracellular degradative systems, especially in the field of autophagy. The role of autophagy in the maintenance of cell homeostasis is well documented and the existence of defects in the autophagic [...] Read more.
Tremendous efforts have been made these last decades to increase our knowledge of intracellular degradative systems, especially in the field of autophagy. The role of autophagy in the maintenance of cell homeostasis is well documented and the existence of defects in the autophagic machinery has been largely described in diseases and aging. Determining the alterations occurring in the many forms of autophagy that coexist in cells and tissues remains complicated, as this cellular process is highly dynamic in nature and can vary from organ to organ in the same individual. Although autophagy is extensively studied, its functioning in different tissues and its links with other biological processes is still poorly understood. Several assays have been developed to monitor autophagy activity in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, based on different markers, the use of various inhibitors and activators, and distinct techniques. This review emphasizes the methods applied to measure (macro-)autophagy in tissue samples and in vivo via a protein, which centrally intervenes in the autophagy pathway, the microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (MAP1LC3), which is the most widely used marker and the first identified to associate with autophagosomal structures. These approaches are presented and discussed in terms of pros and cons. Some recommendations are provided to improve the reliability of the interpretation of results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Autophagy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Exploring Extracellular Vesicles Biogenesis in Hypothalamic Cells through a Heavy Isotope Pulse/Trace Proteomic Approach
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051320 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Studies have shown that the process of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secretion and lysosome status are linked. When the lysosome is under stress, the cells would secrete more EVs to maintain cellular homeostasis. However, the process that governs lysosomal activity and EVs secretion remains [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that the process of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secretion and lysosome status are linked. When the lysosome is under stress, the cells would secrete more EVs to maintain cellular homeostasis. However, the process that governs lysosomal activity and EVs secretion remains poorly defined and we postulated that certain proteins essential for EVs biogenesis are constantly synthesized and preferentially sorted to the EVs rather than the lysosome. A pulsed stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (pSILAC) based quantitative proteomics methodology was employed to study the preferential localization of the newly synthesized proteins into the EVs over lysosome in mHypoA 2/28 hypothalamic cell line. Through proteomic analysis, we found numerous newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes—such as the cathepsin proteins—that preferentially localize into the EVs over the lysosome. Chemical inhibition against cathepsin D promoted EVs secretion and a change in the EVs protein composition and therefore indicates its involvement in EVs biogenesis. In conclusion, we applied a heavy isotope pulse/trace proteomic approach to study EVs biogenesis in hypothalamic cells. The results demonstrated the regulation of EVs secretion by the cathepsin proteins that may serve as a potential therapeutic target for a range of neurological disorder associated with energy homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles: Biogenesis, Cargo and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Acute Induction of Translocon-Mediated Ca2+ Leak Protects Cardiomyocytes Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051319 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
During myocardial infarction, dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis between the reticulum, mitochondria, and cytosol occurs in cardiomyocytes and leads to cell death. Ca2+ leak channels are thought to be key regulators of the reticular Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival. The present [...] Read more.
During myocardial infarction, dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis between the reticulum, mitochondria, and cytosol occurs in cardiomyocytes and leads to cell death. Ca2+ leak channels are thought to be key regulators of the reticular Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival. The present study aimed to determine whether a particular reticular Ca2+ leak channel, the translocon, also known as translocation channel, could be a relevant target against ischemia/reperfusion-mediated heart injury. To achieve this objective, we first used an intramyocardial adenoviral strategy to express biosensors in order to assess Ca2+ variations in freshly isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes to show that translocon is a functional reticular Ca2+ leak channel. Interestingly, translocon activation by puromycin mobilized a ryanodine receptor (RyR)-independent reticular Ca2+ pool and did not affect the excitation–concentration coupling. Second, puromycin pretreatment decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ content and slowed down the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and the rate of cytosolic Ca2+ increase during hypoxia. Finally, this translocon pre-activation also protected cardiomyocytes after in vitro hypoxia reoxygenation and reduced infarct size in mice submitted to in vivo ischemia-reperfusion. Altogether, our report emphasizes the role of translocon in cardioprotection and highlights a new paradigm in cardioprotection by functionally uncoupling the RyR-dependent Ca2+ stores and translocon-dependent Ca2+ stores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dysregulation of Calcium Signalling in Disease)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Improving Precise CRISPR Genome Editing by Small Molecules: Is there a Magic Potion?
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051318 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) genome editing has become a standard method in molecular biology, for the establishment of genetically modified cellular and animal models, for the identification and validation of drug targets in animals, and is heavily tested for use [...] Read more.
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) genome editing has become a standard method in molecular biology, for the establishment of genetically modified cellular and animal models, for the identification and validation of drug targets in animals, and is heavily tested for use in gene therapy of humans. While the efficiency of CRISPR mediated gene targeting is much higher than of classical targeted mutagenesis, the efficiency of CRISPR genome editing to introduce defined changes into the genome is still low. Overcoming this problem will have a great impact on the use of CRISPR genome editing in academic and industrial research and the clinic. This review will present efforts to achieve this goal by small molecules, which modify the DNA repair mechanisms to facilitate the precise alteration of the genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CRISPR Genome Editing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
TLR2 and Dectin-1 Signaling in Mouse Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Impacts the Ability of the Antigen Presenting Cells They Produce to Activate CD4 T Cells
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051317 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Microbial recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) not only activates myelopoiesis but also programs the function of the monocytes and macrophages they produce. For instance, changes in HSPC programming modify the ability of macrophages derived [...] Read more.
Microbial recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) not only activates myelopoiesis but also programs the function of the monocytes and macrophages they produce. For instance, changes in HSPC programming modify the ability of macrophages derived from them to produce inflammatory cytokines. While HSPCs exposed to a TLR2 agonist give rise to tolerized macrophages (lower proinflammatory cytokine production), HSPCs treated with Dectin-1 ligands produce trained macrophages (higher proinflammatory cytokine production). However, nothing is known about the impact of HSPC exposure to microbes on the function of antigen presenting cells (APCs). In this study we evaluated whether treatment of murine bone marrow HSPCs with a TLR2 or Dectin-1 ligand impacts the antigen presenting capacity of APCs derived from them in vitro. Following activation with microbial ligands or Candida albicans yeasts, APCs derived from TLR2/Dectin-1-programed HSPCs exhibit altered expression of MHCII (signal 1), co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86; signal 2) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12 p40 and IL-2; signal 3). Moreover, APCs derived from TLR2/Dectin-1-programed HSPCs prime enhanced Th1 and Th17 responses, which are important for antifungal defense, in CD4 T cell cocultures. Overall, these results demonstrate for the first time that microbial detection by bone marrow HSPCs can modulate the adaptive immune response by inducing the production of APCs with an altered phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendritic Cells in Immunity and Inflammation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Modeling of Reoxygenation Effects on mRNA and Protein Levels in Hypoxic Tumor Cells upon Entry into the Bloodstream
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051316 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
Background: Solid epithelial tumors like breast cancer are the most frequent malignancy in women. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are frequently released from hypoxic areas into the blood, where CTCs face elevated oxygen concentrations. This reoxygenation might challenge the use of CTCs for liquid [...] Read more.
Background: Solid epithelial tumors like breast cancer are the most frequent malignancy in women. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are frequently released from hypoxic areas into the blood, where CTCs face elevated oxygen concentrations. This reoxygenation might challenge the use of CTCs for liquid biopsy. Methods: We modeled this situation in vitro using the breast cancer cell lines—MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231—and the cell line BC-M1 established from DTCs in the bone marrow. Cells were cultured under hypoxia, followed by a reoxygenation pulse for 4 h, reflecting the circulation time of CTCs. Analyzed were gene products like EGFR, ErbB-2, EpCAM, PD-L1 on mRNA and protein level. Results: mRNAs of erbb2 or pdl1 and protein levels of PD-L1 displayed significant changes, whereas ErbB-2 protein levels remained constant. The strongest discrepancy between protein and mRNA levels under hypoxia was observed for EGFR, supporting the idea of cap-independent translation of egfr mRNA. Analyses of the phosphorylation of AKT, Erk 1/2, and Stat3 revealed strong alterations after reoxygenation. Conclusions: CTCs reaching secondary sites faster than reoxygenation could alter the mRNA and protein levels in the cells. CTC and DTC with high PD-L1 levels might become quiescent under hypoxia but were easily reactivated by reoxygenation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Visfatin Increases VEGF-Dependent Angiogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells during Osteoarthritis Progression
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051315 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) pannus contains a network of neovascularization that is formed and maintained by angiogenesis, which is promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in VEGF-induced vessel formation in OA. The adipokine visfatin stimulates the [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) pannus contains a network of neovascularization that is formed and maintained by angiogenesis, which is promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in VEGF-induced vessel formation in OA. The adipokine visfatin stimulates the release of inflammatory cytokines during OA progression. In this study, we found significantly higher visfatin and VEGF serum concentrations in patients with OA compared with healthy controls. We describe how visfatin enhanced VEGF expression in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) and facilitated EPC migration and tube formation. Treatment of OASFs with PI3K and Akt inhibitors or siRNAs attenuated the effects of visfatin on VEGF synthesis and EPC angiogenesis. We also describe how miR-485-5p negatively regulated visfatin-induced promotion of VEGF expression and EPC angiogenesis. In our OA rat model, visfatin shRNA was capable of inhibiting visfatin and rescuing EPC angiogenesis and pathologic changes. We detail how visfatin affected VEGF expression and EPC angiogenesis in OASFs by inhibiting miR-485-5p synthesis through the PI3K and Akt signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Trichinella spiralis Infection Ameliorates Subsequent RSV Infection-Induced Inflammatory Response
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051314 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection affects the lives of neonates throughout the globe, causing a high rate of mortality upon hospital admission. Yet, therapeutic options to deal with this pulmonary pathogen are currently limited. Helminth therapy has been well received for its immunomodulatory [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection affects the lives of neonates throughout the globe, causing a high rate of mortality upon hospital admission. Yet, therapeutic options to deal with this pulmonary pathogen are currently limited. Helminth therapy has been well received for its immunomodulatory role in hosts, which are crucial for mitigating a multitude of diseases. Therefore, in this study, we used the helminth Trichinella spiralis and assessed its capabilities for modulating RSV infection as well as the inflammatory response induced by it in mice. Our results revealed that RSV-specific antibody responses were enhanced by pre-existing T. spiralis infection, which also limited pulmonary viral replication. Diminished lung inflammation, indicated by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cell influx was confirmed, as well as through histopathological assessment. We observed that inflammation-associated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancement of activated B cells (NF-κB) and its phosphorylated forms were down-regulated, whereas antioxidant-associated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein expression was upregulated in mice co-infected with T. spiralis and RSV. Upregulated Nrf2 expression contributed to increased antioxidant enzyme expression, particularly NQO1 which relieved the host of oxidative stress-induced pulmonary inflammation caused by RSV infection. These findings indicate that T. spiralis can mitigate RSV-induced inflammation by upregulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors: Potential for the Development of New Therapeutics
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051313 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
The metalloproteinase (MP) family of zinc-dependent proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) plays a crucial role in the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and degradation activities. A wide range of substrates [...] Read more.
The metalloproteinase (MP) family of zinc-dependent proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) plays a crucial role in the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and degradation activities. A wide range of substrates of the MP family includes ECM components, chemokines, cell receptors, and growth factors. Metalloproteinases activities are tightly regulated by proteolytic activation and inhibition via their natural inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and the imbalance of the activation and inhibition is responsible in progression or inhibition of several diseases, e.g., cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. We provide an overview of the structure, function, and the multifaceted role of MMPs, ADAMs, and TIMPs in several diseases via their cellular functions such as proteolysis of other cell signaling factors, degradation and remodeling of the ECM, and other essential protease-independent interactions in the ECM. The significance of MP inhibitors targeting specific MMP or ADAMs with high selectivity is also discussed. Recent advances and techniques used in developing novel MP inhibitors and MP responsive drug delivery tools are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix Remodeling 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Pipeline for the Generation and Characterization of Transgenic Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using the CRISPR/Cas9 Technology
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051312 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Recent advances in genome engineering based on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology have revolutionized our ability to manipulate genomic DNA. Its use in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has allowed a wide range of mutant cell lines to be obtained at an unprecedented rate. The [...] Read more.
Recent advances in genome engineering based on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology have revolutionized our ability to manipulate genomic DNA. Its use in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has allowed a wide range of mutant cell lines to be obtained at an unprecedented rate. The combination of these two groundbreaking technologies has tremendous potential, from disease modeling to stem cell-based therapies. However, the generation, screening and molecular characterization of these cell lines remain a cumbersome and multi-step endeavor. Here, we propose a pipeline of strategies to efficiently generate, sub-clone, and characterize CRISPR/Cas9-edited hPSC lines in the function of the introduced mutation (indels, point mutations, insertion of large constructs, deletions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell-based Therapy and Disease Modeling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Platelet Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Induces Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells to Secrete Interleukin-6
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051311 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
The roles and interactions of platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver regeneration are unclear, and the trigger that initiates hepatocyte proliferation is unknown. We aimed to identify the key factors released by activated platelets that induce liver sinusoidal endothelial cells to [...] Read more.
The roles and interactions of platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver regeneration are unclear, and the trigger that initiates hepatocyte proliferation is unknown. We aimed to identify the key factors released by activated platelets that induce liver sinusoidal endothelial cells to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine implicated in the early phase of liver regeneration. We characterized the releasate of activated platelets inducing the in vitro production of IL-6 by mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and observed that the stimulating factor was a thermolabile protein. Following gel filtration, a single fraction of activated platelet releasate induced a maximal IL-6 secretion by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (90.2 ± 13.9 versus control with buffer, 9.0 ± 0.8 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Mass spectroscopy analysis of this fraction, followed by in silico processing, resulted in a reduced list of 18 candidates. Several proteins from the list were tested, and only recombinant transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) resulted in an increased IL-6 production up to 242.7 ± 30.5 pg/mL, which was comparable to non-fractionated platelet releasate effect. Using neutralizing anti-TGF-β1 antibody or a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor, IL-6 production by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells was dramatically reduced. These results support a role of platelet TGF-β1 β1 in the priming phase of liver regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ascorbic Acid Promotes Functional Restoration after Spinal Cord Injury Partly by Epigenetic Modulation
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051310 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult to achieve, and no fundamental treatment can be applied in clinical settings. DNA methylation has been suggested to play a role in regeneration capacity and neuronal growth after SCI by controlling the expression of [...] Read more.
Axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult to achieve, and no fundamental treatment can be applied in clinical settings. DNA methylation has been suggested to play a role in regeneration capacity and neuronal growth after SCI by controlling the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs). The aim of this study was to examine changes in neuronal DNA methylation status after SCI and to determine whether modulation of DNA methylation with ascorbic acid can enhance neuronal regeneration or functional restoration after SCI. Changes in epigenetic marks (5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5mC)); the expression of Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family genes; and the expression of genes related to inflammation, regeneration, and degeneration in the brain motor cortex were determined following SCI. The 5hmC level within the brain was increased after SCI, especially in the acute and subacute stages, and the mRNA levels of Tet gene family members (Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3) were also increased. Administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) to SCI rats enhanced 5hmC levels; increased the expression of the Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 genes within the brain motor cortex; promoted axonal sprouting within the lesion cavity of the spinal cord; and enhanced recovery of locomotor function until 12 weeks. In conclusion, we found that epigenetic status in the brain motor cortex is changed after SCI and that epigenetic modulation using ascorbic acid may contribute to functional recovery after SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Axon Degeneration and Regeneration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phenotyping the Chilling and Freezing Responses of Young Microspore Stage Wheat Spikes Using Targeted Metabolome and Lipidome Profiling
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051309 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Chilling and frost conditions impose major yield restraints to wheat crops in Australia and other temperate climate regions. Unpredictability and variability of field frost events are major impediments for cold tolerance breeding. Metabolome and lipidome profiling were used to compare the cold response [...] Read more.
Chilling and frost conditions impose major yield restraints to wheat crops in Australia and other temperate climate regions. Unpredictability and variability of field frost events are major impediments for cold tolerance breeding. Metabolome and lipidome profiling were used to compare the cold response in spikes of cold-tolerant Young and sensitive variety Wyalkatchem at the young microspore (YM) stage of pollen development. We aimed to identify metabolite markers that can reliably distinguish cold-tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties for future cold-tolerance phenotyping applications. We scored changes in spike metabolites and lipids for both varieties during cold acclimation after initial and prolonged exposure to combined chilling and freezing cycles (1 and 4 days, respectively) using controlled environment conditions. The two contrasting wheat varieties showed qualitative and quantitative differences in primary metabolites involved in osmoprotection, but differences in lipid accumulation most distinctively separated the cold response of the two wheat lines. These results resemble what we previously observed in flag leaves of the same two wheat varieties. The fact that this response occurs in tissue types with very different functions indicates that chilling and freezing tolerance in these wheat lines is associated with re-modelling of membrane lipid composition to maintain membrane fluidity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Molecular Chaperones and Proteolytic Machineries Regulate Protein Homeostasis in Aging Cells
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051308 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Throughout their life cycles, cells are subject to a variety of stresses that lead to a compromise between cell death and survival. Survival is partially provided by the cell proteostasis network, which consists of molecular chaperones, a ubiquitin-proteasome system of degradation and autophagy. [...] Read more.
Throughout their life cycles, cells are subject to a variety of stresses that lead to a compromise between cell death and survival. Survival is partially provided by the cell proteostasis network, which consists of molecular chaperones, a ubiquitin-proteasome system of degradation and autophagy. The cooperation of these systems impacts the correct function of protein synthesis/modification/transport machinery starting from the adaption of nascent polypeptides to cellular overcrowding until the utilization of damaged or needless proteins. Eventually, aging cells, in parallel to the accumulation of flawed proteins, gradually lose their proteostasis mechanisms, and this loss leads to the degeneration of large cellular masses and to number of age-associated pathologies and ultimately death. In this review, we describe the function of proteostasis mechanisms with an emphasis on the possible associations between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Chaperones: Cancer and Cell Death)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Joint Reconstituted Signaling of the IL-6 Receptor via Extracellular Vesicles
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051307 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling is a crucial regulatory event important for many biological functions, such as inflammation and tissue regeneration. Accordingly, several pathological conditions are associated with dysregulated IL-6 activity, making it an attractive therapeutic target. For instance, blockade of IL-6 or its α-receptor [...] Read more.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling is a crucial regulatory event important for many biological functions, such as inflammation and tissue regeneration. Accordingly, several pathological conditions are associated with dysregulated IL-6 activity, making it an attractive therapeutic target. For instance, blockade of IL-6 or its α-receptor (IL-6R) by monoclonal antibodies has been successfully used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, based on different signaling modes, IL-6 function varies between pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, which is critical for therapeutic intervention. So far, three modes of IL-6 signaling have been described, the classic anti-inflammatory signaling, as well as pro-inflammatory trans-signaling, and trans-presentation. The IL-6/IL-6R complex requires an additional β-receptor (gp130), which is expressed on almost all cells of the human body, to induce STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of signal transcription 3) phosphorylation and subsequent transcriptional regulation. In contrast, the IL-6R is expressed on a limited number of cells, including hepatocytes and immune cells. However, the proteolytic release of the IL-6R enables trans-signaling on cells expressing gp130 only. Here, we demonstrate a fourth possibility of IL-6 signaling that we termed joint reconstituted signaling (JRS). We show that IL-6R on extracellular vesicles (EVs) can also be transported to and fused with other cells that lack the IL-6R on their surface. Importantly, JRS via EVs induces delayed STAT3 phosphorylation compared to the well-established trans-signaling mode. EVs isolated from human serum were already shown to carry the IL-6R, and thus this new signaling mode should be considered with regard to signal intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Signaling and Regulated Cell Death)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Lamin A/C Mechanotransduction in Laminopathies
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051306 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Mechanotransduction translates forces into biological responses and regulates cell functionalities. It is implicated in several diseases, including laminopathies which are pathologies associated with mutations in lamins and lamin-associated proteins. These pathologies affect muscle, adipose, bone, nerve, and skin cells and range from muscular [...] Read more.
Mechanotransduction translates forces into biological responses and regulates cell functionalities. It is implicated in several diseases, including laminopathies which are pathologies associated with mutations in lamins and lamin-associated proteins. These pathologies affect muscle, adipose, bone, nerve, and skin cells and range from muscular dystrophies to accelerated aging. Although the exact mechanisms governing laminopathies and gene expression are still not clear, a strong correlation has been found between cell functionality and nuclear behavior. New theories base on the direct effect of external force on the genome, which is indeed sensitive to the force transduced by the nuclear lamina. Nuclear lamina performs two essential functions in mechanotransduction pathway modulating the nuclear stiffness and governing the chromatin remodeling. Indeed, A-type lamin mutation and deregulation has been found to affect the nuclear response, altering several downstream cellular processes such as mitosis, chromatin organization, DNA replication-transcription, and nuclear structural integrity. In this review, we summarize the recent findings on the molecular composition and architecture of the nuclear lamina, its role in healthy cells and disease regulation. We focus on A-type lamins since this protein family is the most involved in mechanotransduction and laminopathies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Lamins and Laminopathies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
γδ T Cells: The Ideal Tool for Cancer Immunotherapy
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051305 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
γδ T cells have recently gained considerable attention as an attractive tool for cancer adoptive immunotherapy due to their potent anti-tumor activity and unique role in immunosurveillance. The remarkable success of engineered T cells for the treatment of hematological malignancies has revolutionized the [...] Read more.
γδ T cells have recently gained considerable attention as an attractive tool for cancer adoptive immunotherapy due to their potent anti-tumor activity and unique role in immunosurveillance. The remarkable success of engineered T cells for the treatment of hematological malignancies has revolutionized the field of adoptive cell immunotherapy. Accordingly, major efforts are underway to translate this exciting technology to the treatment of solid tumors and the development of allogeneic therapies. The unique features of γδ T cells, including their major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent anti-cancer activity, tissue tropism, and multivalent response against a broad spectrum of the tumors, render them ideal for designing universal ‘third-party’ cell products, with the potential to overcome the challenges of allogeneic cell therapy. In this review, we describe the crucial role of γδ T cells in anti-tumor immunosurveillance and we summarize the different approaches used for the ex vivo and in vivo expansion of γδ T cells suitable for the development of novel strategies for cancer therapy. We further discuss the different transduction strategies aiming at redirecting or improving the function of γδ T cells, as well as, the considerations for the clinical applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Epigenetic Features of Human Perinatal Stem Cells Redefine Their Stemness Potential
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051304 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Human perinatal stem cells (SCs) can be isolated from fetal annexes without ethical or safety limitations. They are generally considered multipotent; nevertheless, their biological characteristics are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the pluripotency potential of human [...] Read more.
Human perinatal stem cells (SCs) can be isolated from fetal annexes without ethical or safety limitations. They are generally considered multipotent; nevertheless, their biological characteristics are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the pluripotency potential of human perinatal SCs as compared to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Despite the low expression of the pluripotent factors NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and C-KIT in perinatal SC, we observed minor differences in the promoters DNA-methylation profile of these genes with respect to hiPSCs; we also demonstrated that in perinatal SCs miR-145-5p had an inverse trend in comparison to these stemness markers, suggesting that NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2 were regulated at the post-transcriptional level. The reduced expression of stemness markers was also associated with shorter telomere lengths and shift of the oxidative metabolism between hiPSCs and fetal annex-derived cells. Our findings indicate the differentiation ability of perinatal SCs might not be restricted to the mesenchymal lineage due to an epigenetic barrier, but other regulatory mechanisms such as telomere shortening or metabolic changes might impair their differentiation potential and challenge their clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Stem Cells)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Lung Tumor Cell-Derived Exosomes Promote M2 Macrophage Polarization
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051303 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment (TME) by exosomes is known to promote tumor progression. Tumor promoting macrophages with an M2 phenotype are suppressors of anti-tumor immunity. However, the impact of tumor-derived exosomes in modulating macrophage polarization in the lung TME is largely [...] Read more.
Cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment (TME) by exosomes is known to promote tumor progression. Tumor promoting macrophages with an M2 phenotype are suppressors of anti-tumor immunity. However, the impact of tumor-derived exosomes in modulating macrophage polarization in the lung TME is largely unknown. Herein, we investigated if lung tumor-derived exosomes alter transcriptional and bioenergetic signatures of M0 macrophages and polarize them to an M2 phenotype. The concentration of exosomes produced by p53 null H358 lung tumor cells was significantly reduced compared to A549 (p53 wild-type) lung tumor cells, consistent with p53-mediated regulation of exosome production. In co-culture studies, M0 macrophages internalized tumor-derived exosomes, and differentiated into M2 phenotype. Importantly, we demonstrate that tumor-derived exosomes enhance the oxygen consumption rate of macrophages, altering their bioenergetic state consistent with that of M2 macrophages. In vitro co-cultures of M0 macrophages with H358 exosomes demonstrated that exosome-induced M2 polarization may be p53 independent. Murine bone marrow cells and bone marrow-derived myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) co-cultured with lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived exosomes differentiated to M2 macrophages. Collectively, these studies provide evidence for a novel role for lung tumor-exosomes in M2 macrophage polarization, which then offers new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy of lung cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Protein Phase Separation during Stress Adaptation and Cellular Memory
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051302 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Cells need to organise and regulate their biochemical processes both in space and time in order to adapt to their surrounding environment. Spatial organisation of cellular components is facilitated by a complex network of membrane bound organelles. Both the membrane composition and the [...] Read more.
Cells need to organise and regulate their biochemical processes both in space and time in order to adapt to their surrounding environment. Spatial organisation of cellular components is facilitated by a complex network of membrane bound organelles. Both the membrane composition and the intra-organellar content of these organelles can be specifically and temporally controlled by imposing gates, much like bouncers controlling entry into night-clubs. In addition, a new level of compartmentalisation has recently emerged as a fundamental principle of cellular organisation, the formation of membrane-less organelles. Many of these structures are dynamic, rapidly condensing or dissolving and are therefore ideally suited to be involved in emergency cellular adaptation to stresses. Remarkably, the same proteins have also the propensity to adopt self-perpetuating assemblies which properties fit the needs to encode cellular memory. Here, we review some of the principles of phase separation and the function of membrane-less organelles focusing particularly on their roles during stress response and cellular memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Breaking in Cells and Tissues)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dynamic Characterization of Structural, Molecular, and Electrophysiological Phenotypes of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cerebral Organoids, and Comparison with Fetal and Adult Gene Profiles
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051301 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Background: The development of 3D cerebral organoid technology using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a promising platform to study how brain diseases are appropriately modeled and treated. So far, understanding of the characteristics of organoids is still in its infancy. The current [...] Read more.
Background: The development of 3D cerebral organoid technology using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a promising platform to study how brain diseases are appropriately modeled and treated. So far, understanding of the characteristics of organoids is still in its infancy. The current study profiled, for the first time, the electrophysiological properties of organoids at molecular and cellular levels and dissected the potential age equivalency of 2-month-old organoids to human ones by a comparison of gene expression profiles among cerebral organoids, human fetal and adult brains. Results: Cerebral organoids exhibit heterogeneous gene and protein markers of various brain cells, such as neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells (endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) at 2 months, and increases in neural, glial, vascular, and channel-related gene expression over a 2-month differentiation course. Two-month organoids exhibited action potentials, multiple channel activities, and functional electrophysiological responses to the anesthetic agent propofol. A bioinformatics analysis of 20,723 gene expression profiles showed the similar distance of gene profiles in cerebral organoids to fetal and adult brain tissues. The subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of select canonical pathways related to neural development, network formation, and electrophysiological signaling, revealed that only calcium signaling, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling in neurons, glutamate receptor signaling, and synaptogenesis signaling were predicted to be downregulated in cerebral organoids relative to fetal samples. Nearly all cerebral organoid and fetal pathway phenotypes were predicted to be downregulated compared with adult tissue. Conclusions: This novel study highlights dynamic development, cellular heterogeneity and electrophysiological activity. In particular, for the first time, electrophysiological drug response recapitulates what occurs in vivo, and neural characteristics are predicted to be highly similar to the human brain, further supporting the promising application of the cerebral organoid system for the modeling of the human brain in health and disease. Additionally, the studies from these characterizations of cerebral organoids in multiple levels and the findings from gene comparisons between cerebral organoids and humans (fetuses and adults) help us better understand this cerebral organoid-based cutting-edge platform and its wide uses in modeling human brain in terms of health and disease, development, and testing drug efficacy and toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell-based Therapy and Disease Modeling)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
The Enigma of Centriole Loss in the 1182-4 Cell Line
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051300 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 799
Abstract
The Drosophila melanogaster cell line 1182-4, which constitutively lacks centrioles, was established many years ago from haploid embryos laid by females homozygous for the maternal haploid (mh) mutation. This was the first clear example of animal cells regularly dividing in the absence of [...] Read more.
The Drosophila melanogaster cell line 1182-4, which constitutively lacks centrioles, was established many years ago from haploid embryos laid by females homozygous for the maternal haploid (mh) mutation. This was the first clear example of animal cells regularly dividing in the absence of this organelle. However, the cause of the acentriolar nature of the 1182-4 cell line remained unclear and could not be clearly assigned to a particular genetic event. Here, we detail historically the longstanding mystery of the lack of centrioles in this Drosophila cell line. Recent advances, such as the characterization of the mh gene and the genomic analysis of 1182-4 cells, allow now a better understanding of the physiology of these cells. By combining these new data, we propose three reasonable hypotheses of the genesis of this remarkable phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrosome)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Role of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Progression and Chemoresistance of Ovarian Cancer
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051299 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute the main population of immune cells present in the ovarian tumor microenvironment. These cells are characterized by high plasticity and can be easily polarized by colony-stimulating factor-1, which is released by tumor cells, into an immunosuppressive M2-like phenotype. These [...] Read more.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute the main population of immune cells present in the ovarian tumor microenvironment. These cells are characterized by high plasticity and can be easily polarized by colony-stimulating factor-1, which is released by tumor cells, into an immunosuppressive M2-like phenotype. These cells are strongly implicated in both the progression and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer. The main pro-tumoral function of M2-like TAMs is the secretion of a variety of cytokines, chemokines, enzymes and exosomes that reach microRNAs, directly inducing the invasion potential and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer cells by triggering their pro-survival signaling pathways. The M2-like TAMs are also important players in the metastasis of ovarian cancer cells in the peritoneum through their assistance in spheroid formation and attachment of cancer cells to the metastatic area—the omentum. Moreover, TAMs interplay with other immune cells, such as lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells, to inhibit their responsiveness, resulting in the development of immunosuppression. The detrimental character of the M2-like type of TAMs in ovarian tumors has been confirmed by a number of studies, demonstrating the positive correlation between their high level in tumors and low overall survival of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Axonal Transport as an In Vivo Biomarker for Retinal Neuropathy
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051298 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 751
Abstract
We illuminate a possible explanatory pathophysiologic mechanism for retinal cellular neuropathy by means of a novel diagnostic method using ophthalmoscopic imaging and a molecular imaging agent targeted to fast axonal transport. The retinal neuropathies are a group of diseases with damage to retinal [...] Read more.
We illuminate a possible explanatory pathophysiologic mechanism for retinal cellular neuropathy by means of a novel diagnostic method using ophthalmoscopic imaging and a molecular imaging agent targeted to fast axonal transport. The retinal neuropathies are a group of diseases with damage to retinal neural elements. Retinopathies lead to blindness but are typically diagnosed late, when substantial neuronal loss and vision loss have already occurred. We devised a fluorescent imaging agent based on the non-toxic C fragment of tetanus toxin (TTc), which is taken up and transported in neurons using the highly conserved fast axonal transport mechanism. TTc serves as an imaging biomarker for normal axonal transport and demonstrates impairment of axonal transport early in the course of an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced excitotoxic retinopathy model in rats. Transport-related imaging findings were dramatically different between normal and retinopathic eyes prior to presumed neuronal cell death. This proof-of-concept study provides justification for future clinical translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cells of the Nervous System)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Mechanisms Regulating Muscle Regeneration: Insights into the Interrelated and Time-Dependent Phases of Tissue Healing
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051297 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Despite a massive body of knowledge which has been produced related to the mechanisms guiding muscle regeneration, great interest still moves the scientific community toward the study of different aspects of skeletal muscle homeostasis, plasticity, and regeneration. Indeed, the lack of effective therapies [...] Read more.
Despite a massive body of knowledge which has been produced related to the mechanisms guiding muscle regeneration, great interest still moves the scientific community toward the study of different aspects of skeletal muscle homeostasis, plasticity, and regeneration. Indeed, the lack of effective therapies for several physiopathologic conditions suggests that a comprehensive knowledge of the different aspects of cellular behavior and molecular pathways, regulating each regenerative stage, has to be still devised. Hence, it is important to perform even more focused studies, taking the advantage of robust markers, reliable techniques, and reproducible protocols. Here, we provide an overview about the general aspects of muscle regeneration and discuss the different approaches to study the interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle healing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Deficiency of GABARAP but Not Its Paralogs Causes Enhanced EGF-Induced EGFR Degradation
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051296 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) and its close paralogs GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2 constitute a subfamily of the autophagy-related 8 (Atg8) protein family. Being associated with a variety of dynamic membranous structures of autophagic and non-autophagic origin, Atg8 proteins functionalize membranes [...] Read more.
The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) and its close paralogs GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2 constitute a subfamily of the autophagy-related 8 (Atg8) protein family. Being associated with a variety of dynamic membranous structures of autophagic and non-autophagic origin, Atg8 proteins functionalize membranes by either serving as docking sites for other proteins or by acting as membrane tethers or adhesion factors. In this study, we describe that deficiency for GABARAP alone, but not for its close paralogs, is sufficient for accelerated EGF receptor (EGFR) degradation in response to EGF, which is accompanied by the downregulation of EGFR-mediated MAPK signaling, altered target gene expression, EGF uptake, and EGF vesicle composition over time. We further show that GABARAP and EGFR converge in the same distinct compartments at endogenous GABARAP expression levels in response to EGF stimulation. Furthermore, GABARAP associates with EGFR in living cells and binds to synthetic peptides that are derived from the EGFR cytoplasmic tail in vitro. Thus, our data strongly indicate a unique and novel role for GABARAP during EGFR trafficking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Autophagy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Dual Independent Roles of the p24 Complex in Selectivity of Secretory Cargo Export from the Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051295 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
The cellular mechanisms that ensure the selectivity and fidelity of secretory cargo protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi are still not well understood. The p24 protein complex acts as a specific cargo receptor for GPI-anchored proteins by facilitating their [...] Read more.
The cellular mechanisms that ensure the selectivity and fidelity of secretory cargo protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi are still not well understood. The p24 protein complex acts as a specific cargo receptor for GPI-anchored proteins by facilitating their ER exit through a specialized export pathway in yeast. In parallel, the p24 complex can also exit the ER using the general pathway that exports the rest of secretory proteins with their respective cargo receptors. Here, we show biochemically that the p24 complex associates at the ER with other cargo receptors in a COPII-dependent manner, forming high-molecular weight multireceptor complexes. Furthermore, live cell imaging analysis reveals that the p24 complex is required to retain in the ER secretory cargos when their specific receptors are absent. This requirement does not involve neither the unfolded protein response nor the retrograde transport from the Golgi. Our results suggest that, in addition to its role as a cargo receptor in the specialized GPI-anchored protein pathway, the p24 complex also plays an independent role in secretory cargo selectivity during its exit through the general ER export pathway, preventing the non-selective bulk flow of native secretory cargos. This mechanism would ensure receptor-regulated cargo transport, providing an additional layer of regulation of secretory cargo selectivity during ER export. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organelle Function)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
On the Host Side of the Hepatitis E Virus Life Cycle
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051294 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in the world. HEV is an enterically transmitted positive-strand RNA virus found as a non-enveloped particle in bile as well as stool and as a quasi-enveloped particle in [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in the world. HEV is an enterically transmitted positive-strand RNA virus found as a non-enveloped particle in bile as well as stool and as a quasi-enveloped particle in blood. Current understanding of the molecular mechanisms and host factors involved in productive HEV infection is incomplete, but recently developed model systems have facilitated rapid progress in this area. Here, we provide an overview of the HEV life cycle with a focus on the host factors required for viral entry, RNA replication, assembly and release. Further developments of HEV model systems and novel technologies should yield a broader picture in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology of Viral Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Blood and Cancer: Cancer Stem Cells as Origin of Hematopoietic Cells in Solid Tumor Microenvironments
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051293 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The concepts of hematopoiesis and the generation of blood and immune cells from hematopoietic stem cells are some steady concepts in the field of hematology. However, the knowledge of hematopoietic cells arising from solid tumor cancer stem cells is novel. In the solid [...] Read more.
The concepts of hematopoiesis and the generation of blood and immune cells from hematopoietic stem cells are some steady concepts in the field of hematology. However, the knowledge of hematopoietic cells arising from solid tumor cancer stem cells is novel. In the solid tumor microenvironment, hematopoietic cells play pivotal roles in tumor growth and progression. Recent studies have reported that solid tumor cancer cells or cancer stem cells could differentiate into hematopoietic cells. Here, we discuss efforts and research that focused on the presence of hematopoietic cells in tumor microenvironments. We also discuss hematopoiesis from solid tumor cancer stem cells and clarify the notion of differentiation of solid tumor cancer stem cells into non-cancer hematopoietic stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasticity in Cancer and in Microenvironmental Cells)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of Oxidative Stress to a Tissue-Engineered Vascular Aging Model Induces Endothelial Cell Senescence and Activation
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051292 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Clinical studies have established a connection between oxidative stress, aging, and atherogenesis. These factors contribute to senescence and inflammation in the endothelium and significant reductions in endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity in aged patients. Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) recapitulate the structure and function of arteries and [...] Read more.
Clinical studies have established a connection between oxidative stress, aging, and atherogenesis. These factors contribute to senescence and inflammation in the endothelium and significant reductions in endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity in aged patients. Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) recapitulate the structure and function of arteries and arterioles in vitro. We developed a TEBV model for vascular senescence and examined the relative influence of endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell senescence on vasoreactivity. Senescence was induced in 2D endothelial cell cultures and TEBVs by exposure to 100 µM H2O2 for one week to model chronic oxidative stress. H2O2 treatment significantly increased senescence in endothelial cells and mural cells, human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (hNDFs), as measured by increased p21 levels and reduced NOS3 expression. Although H2O2 treatment induced senescence in both the endothelial cells (ECs) and hNDFs, the functional effects on the vasculature were endothelium specific. Expression of the leukocyte adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was increased in the ECs, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation decreased. Vasoconstriction and endothelium-independent vasodilation were preserved despite mural cell senescence. The results suggest that the functional effects of vascular cell senescence are dominated by the endothelium. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop