Special Issue "Muscle Homeostasis and Regeneration: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Opportunities"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Antonio Musarò
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia–Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, DAHFMO-Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa, 14, 00161 Rome, Italy
Interests: aging and neuromuscular diseases; role of stem cells and tissue niche on muscle regeneration; role of growth factors and cytokines in the physiopathology of skeletal muscle

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The capacity of adult muscle to regenerate in response to injury stimuli represents an important homeostatic process. Regeneration is a highly coordinated program that partially recapitulates the embryonic developmental program and involves the activation of the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells, whose activity is strictly dependent on environmental signals. However, muscle regeneration is severely compromised in several pathological conditions due to either the progressive loss of stem cell populations or to missing signals that limit the damaged tissues from efficiently activating a regenerative program. It is, therefore, plausible that the loss of control over these cells fate might lead to pathological cell differentiation, limiting the ability of a pathological muscle to sustain an efficient regenerative process. This Special Issue offers an Open Access forum that aims to bring together a collection of original research and review articles addressing the intriguing field of the cellular and molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration and to suggest potential therapeutic approaches for degenerating muscle diseases. We hope to provide a stimulating resource for the fascinating subject of muscle research.

 

Prof. Antonio Musarò
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • muscle homeostasis
  • muscle regeneration
  • satellite cells
  • stem cells
  • FAPs
  • tissue niche
  • growth factors
  • inflammatory response
  • muscle pathology
  • aging

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Priority Strategy of Intracellular Ca2+ Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle Fibers during the Multiple Stresses of Hibernation
Cells 2020, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010042 - 22 Dec 2019
Abstract
Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis plays a vital role in the preservation of skeletal muscle. In view of the well-maintained skeletal muscle found in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during hibernation, we hypothesized that hibernators possess unique strategies of intracellular [...] Read more.
Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis plays a vital role in the preservation of skeletal muscle. In view of the well-maintained skeletal muscle found in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during hibernation, we hypothesized that hibernators possess unique strategies of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Here, cytoplasmic, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels, as well as the potential Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms, were investigated in skeletal muscle fibers of Daurian ground squirrels at different stages of hibernation. The results showed that cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels increased in the skeletal muscle fibers during late torpor (LT) and inter-bout arousal (IBA), and partially recovered when the animals re-entered torpor (early torpor, ET). Furthermore, compared with levels in the summer active or pre-hibernation state, the activity and protein expression levels of six major Ca2+ channels/proteins were up-regulated during hibernation, including the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1), SR Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA1), mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCU complex), and calmodulin (CALM). Among these, the increased extracellular Ca2+ influx mediated by SOCE, SR Ca2+ release mediated by RyR1, and mitochondrial Ca2+ extrusion mediated by LETM1 may be triggers for the periodic elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels observed during hibernation. Furthermore, the increased SR Ca2+ uptake through SERCA1, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake induced by MCU, and elevated free Ca2+ binding capacity mediated by CALM may be vital strategies in hibernating ground squirrels to attenuate cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and restore Ca2+ homeostasis during hibernation. Compared with that in LT or IBA, the decreased extracellular Ca2+ influx mediated by SOCE and elevated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake induced by MCU may be important mechanisms for the partial cytoplasmic Ca2+ recovery in ET. Overall, under extreme conditions, hibernating ground squirrels still possess the ability to maintain intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transthyretin Maintains Muscle Homeostasis through the Novel Shuttle Pathway of Thyroid Hormones during Myoblast Differentiation
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121565 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
Skeletal muscle, the largest part of the total body mass, influences energy and protein metabolism as well as maintaining homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that during murine muscle satellite cell and myoblast differentiation, transthyretin (TTR) can exocytose via exosomes and enter cells as TTR- [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle, the largest part of the total body mass, influences energy and protein metabolism as well as maintaining homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that during murine muscle satellite cell and myoblast differentiation, transthyretin (TTR) can exocytose via exosomes and enter cells as TTR- thyroxine (T4) complex, which consecutively induces the intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) level, followed by T3 secretion out of the cell through the exosomes. The decrease in T3 with the TTR level in 26-week-old mouse muscle, compared to that in 16-week-old muscle, suggests an association of TTR with old muscle. Subsequent studies, including microarray analysis, demonstrated that T3-regulated genes, such as FNDC5 (Fibronectin type III domain containing 5, irisin) and RXRγ (Retinoid X receptor gamma), are influenced by TTR knockdown, implying that thyroid hormones and TTR coordinate with each other with respect to muscle growth and development. These results suggest that, in addition to utilizing T4, skeletal muscle also distributes generated T3 to other tissues and has a vital role in sensing the intracellular T4 level. Furthermore, the results of TTR function with T4 in differentiation will be highly useful in the strategic development of novel therapeutics related to muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
mTORC1 Mediates Lysine-Induced Satellite Cell Activation to Promote Skeletal Muscle Growth
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121549 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
As the first limiting amino acid, lysine (Lys) has been thought to promote muscle fiber hypertrophy by increasing protein synthesis. However, the functions of Lys seem far more complex than that. Despite the fact that satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in [...] Read more.
As the first limiting amino acid, lysine (Lys) has been thought to promote muscle fiber hypertrophy by increasing protein synthesis. However, the functions of Lys seem far more complex than that. Despite the fact that satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in skeletal muscle growth, the communication between Lys and SCs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether SCs participate directly in Lys-induced skeletal muscle growth and whether the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway was activated both in vivo and in vitro to mediate SC functions in response to Lys supplementation. Subsequently, the skeletal muscle growth of piglets was controlled by dietary Lys supplementation. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis showed activated SCs were required for longissimus dorsi muscle growth, and this effect was accompanied by mTORC1 pathway upregulation. Furthermore, SC proliferation was governed by medium Lys concentrations, and the mTORC1 pathway was significantly enhanced in vitro. After verifying that rapamycin inhibits the mTORC1 pathway and suppresses SC proliferation, we conclude that Lys is not only a molecular building block for protein synthesis but also a signal that activates SCs to manipulate muscle growth via the mTORC1 pathway. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor 2 across Muscle Homeostasis: Implications for Treating Muscular Dystrophy
Cells 2020, 9(2), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020441 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) plays a major role in binding and regulating the circulating and tissue levels of the mitogenic peptide insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). IGF2/IGF2R interaction influences cell growth, survival, and migration in normal tissue development, and the [...] Read more.
The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) plays a major role in binding and regulating the circulating and tissue levels of the mitogenic peptide insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). IGF2/IGF2R interaction influences cell growth, survival, and migration in normal tissue development, and the deregulation of IGF2R expression has been associated with growth-related disease and cancer. IGF2R overexpression has been implicated in heart and muscle disease progression. Recent research findings suggest novel approaches to target IGF2R action. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the IGF2R structure and pathways related to muscle homeostasis. Full article
Open AccessReview
Genetic Associations with Aging Muscle: A Systematic Review
Cells 2020, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010012 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
The age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength and function known as ‘sarcopenia’ is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, functional disability and mortality. While skeletal muscle properties are known to be highly heritable, evidence regarding the specific genes [...] Read more.
The age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength and function known as ‘sarcopenia’ is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, functional disability and mortality. While skeletal muscle properties are known to be highly heritable, evidence regarding the specific genes underpinning this heritability is currently inconclusive. This review aimed to identify genetic variants known to be associated with muscle phenotypes relevant to sarcopenia. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were systematically searched (from January 2004 to March 2019) using pre-defined search terms such as “aging”, “sarcopenia”, “skeletal muscle”, “muscle strength” and “genetic association”. Candidate gene association studies and genome wide association studies that examined the genetic association with muscle phenotypes in non-institutionalised adults aged ≥50 years were included. Fifty-four studies were included in the final analysis. Twenty-six genes and 88 DNA polymorphisms were analysed across the 54 studies. The ACTN3, ACE and VDR genes were the most frequently studied, although the IGF1/IGFBP3, TNFα, APOE, CNTF/R and UCP2/3 genes were also shown to be significantly associated with muscle phenotypes in two or more studies. Ten DNA polymorphisms (rs154410, rs2228570, rs1800169, rs3093059, rs1800629, rs1815739, rs1799752, rs7412, rs429358 and 192 bp allele) were significantly associated with muscle phenotypes in two or more studies. Through the identification of key gene variants, this review furthers the elucidation of genetic associations with muscle phenotypes associated with sarcopenia. Full article
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