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Cancers, Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2024) – 158 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) is a highly curable disease, but around 20% of patients experience progression or relapse after standard frontline chemotherapy regimens. In the last decade, due to our increasing understanding of cHL biology and the role of the tumor microenvironment, new molecules have been introduced in clinical practice; antibody–drug conjugates and checkpoint inhibitors nowadays represent curative options for chemorefractory patients. Moreover, many new drugs are also being studied in preclinical or clinical trials, including car T-cells, epigenetic modulators, T-lymphocyte- and NK cell-modulating agents and JAK2 inhibitors, which all show promising efficacy. In this review, we aim to summarize these new therapeutic strategies available for use in the treatment of cHL. View this paper
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18 pages, 5271 KiB  
Article
Immunohistochemical Investigation into Protein Expression Patterns of FOXO4, IRF8 and LEF1 in Canine Osteosarcoma
by Simone de Brot, Jack Cobb, Aziza A. Alibhai, Jorja Jackson-Oxley, Maria Haque, Rodhan Patke, Anna E. Harris, Corinne L. Woodcock, Jennifer Lothion-Roy, Dhruvika Varun, Rachel Thompson, Claudia Gomes, Valentina Kubale, Mark D. Dunning, Jennie N. Jeyapalan, Nigel P. Mongan and Catrin S. Rutland
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101945 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy in people and dogs. Our previous molecular comparisons of canine OSA against healthy bone resulted in the identification of differentially expressed protein-expressing genes (forkhead box protein O4 (FOXO4), interferon regulatory [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy in people and dogs. Our previous molecular comparisons of canine OSA against healthy bone resulted in the identification of differentially expressed protein-expressing genes (forkhead box protein O4 (FOXO4), interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), and lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1)). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and H-scoring provided semi-quantitative assessment of nuclear and cytoplasmic staining alongside qualitative data to contextualise staining (n = 26 patients). FOXO4 was expressed predominantly in the cytoplasm with significantly lower nuclear H-scores. IRF8 H-scores ranged from 0 to 3 throughout the cohort in the nucleus and cytoplasm. LEF1 was expressed in all patients with significantly lower cytoplasmic staining compared to nuclear. No sex or anatomical location differences were observed. While reduced levels of FOXO4 might indicate malignancy, the weak or absent protein expression limits its primary use as diagnostic tumour marker. IRF8 and LEF1 have more potential for prognostic and diagnostic uses and facilitate further understanding of their roles within their respective molecular pathways, including Wnt/beta-catenin/LEF1 signalling and differential regulation of tumour suppressor genes. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in OSA are essential contributions towards the development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment options in human and veterinary medicine contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma)
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13 pages, 1103 KiB  
Review
Antisense Oligonucleotides for Rapid Translation of Gene Therapy in Glioblastoma
by Jelisah F. Desgraves, Mynor J. Mendez Valdez, Jay Chandar, Muhammet Enes Gurses, Lisa Henderson, Jesus R. Castro, Deepa Seetheram, Michael E. Ivan, Ricardo J. Komotar and Ashish H. Shah
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101944 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Purpose: The limited efficacy of current treatments for malignant brain tumors necessitates novel therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to assess the potential of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) as adjuvant therapy for high-grade gliomas, focusing on their CNS penetration and clinical translation prospects. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Purpose: The limited efficacy of current treatments for malignant brain tumors necessitates novel therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to assess the potential of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) as adjuvant therapy for high-grade gliomas, focusing on their CNS penetration and clinical translation prospects. Methods: A comprehensive review of the existing literature was conducted to evaluate the implications of ASOs in neuro-oncology. Studies that investigated ASO therapy’s efficacy, CNS penetration, and safety profile were analyzed to assess its potential as a therapeutic intervention for high-grade gliomas. Results: ASOs present a promising avenue for enhancing targeted gene therapies in malignant gliomas. Their potent CNS penetration, in vivo durability, and efficient transduction offer advantages over conventional treatments. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro studies suggest ASOs as a viable adjuvant therapy for high-grade gliomas, warranting further exploration in clinical trials. Conclusions: ASOs hold significant promise as adjuvant therapy for high-grade gliomas, offering improved CNS penetration and durability compared with existing treatments. While preliminary studies are encouraging, additional research is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of ASO therapy in clinical settings. Further investigation and clinical trials are warranted to validate ASOs as a transformative approach in neuro-oncology. Full article
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13 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Precision Oncology: Circulating Microvesicles as New Biomarkers in a Very Early Stage of Colorectal Cancer
by Anastasios G. Kriebardis, Leonidas Chardalias, Christos Damaskos, Abraham Pouliakis, Nikolaos Garmpis, Sotirios P. Fortis, Aspasia Papailia, Christiana Sideri, Hara T. Georgatzakou, Effie G. Papageorgiou, Theodoros Pittaras, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Marianna Politou, Ioannis Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios Dimitroulis and Serena Valsami
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101943 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Background: The release of microvesicles (MVs) is an essential phenomenon for inter-cellular signaling in health and disease. The role of MVs in cancer is multidimensional and includes cancer cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. In this prospective study, we analyzed MV levels in colorectal [...] Read more.
Background: The release of microvesicles (MVs) is an essential phenomenon for inter-cellular signaling in health and disease. The role of MVs in cancer is multidimensional and includes cancer cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. In this prospective study, we analyzed MV levels in colorectal cancer patients and assessed the importance of MV release in early-stage colorectal cancer and survival. Methods: This study included 98 patients and 15 controls. The characterization of MVs from human plasma was performed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Results: The levels of total MVs and MUC-1-positive, tissue factor (TF)-positive, and endothelial cell-derived MVs (EMVs) were statistically significantly higher in the colon cancer patients than in the controls (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the subgroup of patients with very early-stage colorectal cancer also had statistically significant differences in the levels of the abovementioned MVs compared to the controls (p < 0.01). Highly differentiated tumors had lower levels of MUC-1-positive MVs (p < 0.02), EMVs (p < 0.002), and EMV/TF combinations (p < 0.001) versus those with tumors with low/intermediate differentiation. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the analysis of circulating MV levels in plasma could possibly become a tool for the early diagnosis of colon cancer at a very early stage of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictive Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer)
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20 pages, 721 KiB  
Systematic Review
Clinical Biomarkers of Tumour Radiosensitivity and Predicting Benefit from Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review
by Christopher W. Bleaney, Hebatalla Abdelaal, Mark Reardon, Carmel Anandadas, Peter Hoskin, Ananya Choudhury and Laura Forker
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101942 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Modern advanced radiotherapy techniques have improved the precision and accuracy of radiotherapy delivery, with resulting plans being highly personalised based on individual anatomy. Adaptation for individual tumour biology remains elusive. There is an unmet need for biomarkers of intrinsic radiosensitivity that can predict [...] Read more.
Modern advanced radiotherapy techniques have improved the precision and accuracy of radiotherapy delivery, with resulting plans being highly personalised based on individual anatomy. Adaptation for individual tumour biology remains elusive. There is an unmet need for biomarkers of intrinsic radiosensitivity that can predict tumour response to radiation to facilitate individualised decision-making, dosing and treatment planning. Over the last few decades, the use of high throughput molecular biology technologies has led to an explosion of newly discovered cancer biomarkers. Gene expression signatures are now used routinely in clinic to aid decision-making regarding adjuvant systemic therapy. They have great potential as radiotherapy biomarkers. A previous systematic review published in 2015 reported only five studies of signatures evaluated for their ability to predict radiotherapy benefits in clinical cohorts. This updated systematic review encompasses the expanded number of studies reported in the last decade. An additional 27 studies were identified. In total, 22 distinct signatures were recognised (5 pre-2015, 17 post-2015). Seventeen signatures were ‘radiosensitivity’ signatures and five were breast cancer prognostic signatures aiming to identify patients at an increased risk of local recurrence and therefore were more likely to benefit from adjuvant radiation. Most signatures (15/22) had not progressed beyond the discovery phase of development, with no suitable validated clinical-grade assay for application. Very few signatures (4/17 ‘radiosensitivity’ signatures) had undergone any laboratory-based biological validation of their ability to predict tumour radiosensitivity. No signatures have been assessed prospectively in a phase III biomarker-led trial to date and none are recommended for routine use in clinical guidelines. A phase III prospective evaluation is ongoing for two breast cancer prognostic signatures. The most promising radiosensitivity signature remains the radiosensitivity index (RSI), which is used to calculate a genomic adjusted radiation dose (GARD). There is an ongoing phase II prospective biomarker-led study of RSI/GARD in triple negative breast cancer. The results of these trials are eagerly anticipated over the coming years. Future work in this area should focus on (1) robust biological validation; (2) building biobanks alongside large radiotherapy randomised controlled trials with dose variance (to demonstrate an interaction between radiosensitivity signature and dose); (3) a validation of clinical-grade cost-effective assays that are deliverable within current healthcare infrastructure; and (4) an integration with biomarkers of other determinants of radiation response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Radiotherapy for Improved Clinical Benefit)
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10 pages, 581 KiB  
Perspective
Epigenetics Meets CAR-T-Cell Therapy to Fight Cancer
by Simeon Santourlidis, Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo, Lars Erichsen and Marcelo L. Bendhack
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101941 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Based on the impressive success of Car-T-cell therapy in the treatment of hematological malignancies, a broad application for solid tumors also appears promising. However, some important hurdles need to be overcome. One of these is certainly the identification of specific target antigens on [...] Read more.
Based on the impressive success of Car-T-cell therapy in the treatment of hematological malignancies, a broad application for solid tumors also appears promising. However, some important hurdles need to be overcome. One of these is certainly the identification of specific target antigens on cancer cells. Hypomethylation is a characteristic epigenetic aberration in many tumor entities. Genome-wide screenings for consistent DNA hypomethylations in tumors enable the identification of aberrantly upregulated transcripts, which might result in cell surface proteins. Thus, this approach provides a new perspective for the discovery of potential new Car-T-cell target antigens for almost every tumor entity. First, we focus on this approach as a possible treatment for prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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11 pages, 269 KiB  
Review
Keratin-Positive Giant Cell-Rich Tumor: A Review and Update
by Jun Nishio, Shizuhide Nakayama, Kaori Koga and Mikiko Aoki
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101940 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Keratin-positive giant cell-rich tumor (KPGCT) is an extremely rare and recently described mesenchymal neoplasm that occurs in both soft tissue and bone, frequently found in young women. It has locally recurrent potential if incompletely excised but low risk for metastasis. KPGCT is histologically [...] Read more.
Keratin-positive giant cell-rich tumor (KPGCT) is an extremely rare and recently described mesenchymal neoplasm that occurs in both soft tissue and bone, frequently found in young women. It has locally recurrent potential if incompletely excised but low risk for metastasis. KPGCT is histologically similar to conventional giant cell tumors of soft tissue but shows the presence of keratin-positive mononuclear cells. Interestingly, KPGCT also shares some morphological features with xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumors. These two tumors have recently been shown to harbor an HMGA2NCOR2 fusion, arguing in favor of a single entity. Surgery is the treatment of choice for localized KPGCT. Therapeutic options for advanced or metastatic disease are unknown. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, histopathology, and treatment of KPGCT. In addition, we will discuss the differential diagnosis of this emerging entity. Full article
16 pages, 20524 KiB  
Article
Ex Vivo Vascular Imaging and Perfusion Studies of Normal Kidney and Tumor Vasculature
by Ragnar Hultborn, Lilian Weiss, Egil Tveit, Stefan Lange, Eva Jennische, Malin C. Erlandsson and Martin E. Johansson
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101939 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
This work describes a comprehensive study of the vascular tree and perfusion characteristics of normal kidney and renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Nephrectomy specimens were perfused ex-vivo, and the regional blood flow was determined by infusion of radioactive microspheres. The vascular architecture was characterized [...] Read more.
This work describes a comprehensive study of the vascular tree and perfusion characteristics of normal kidney and renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Nephrectomy specimens were perfused ex-vivo, and the regional blood flow was determined by infusion of radioactive microspheres. The vascular architecture was characterized by micronized barium sulphate infusion. Kidneys were subsequently sagitally sectioned, and autoradiograms were obtained to show the perfusate flow in relation to adjacent contact X-ray angiograms. Vascular resistance in defined tissue compartments was quantified, and finally, the tumor vasculature was 3D reconstructed via the micro-CT technique. Results show that the vascular tree of the kidney could be distinctly defined, and autoradiograms disclosed a high cortical flow. The peripheral resistance unit of the whole perfused specimen was 0.78 ± 0.40 (n = 26), while that of the renal cortex was 0.17 ± 0.07 (n = 15 with 114 samples). Micro-CT images from both cortex and medulla defined the vascular architecture. Angiograms from the renal tumors demonstrated a significant vascular heterogeneity within and between different tumors. A dense and irregular capillary network characterized peripheral tumor areas, whereas central parts of the tumors were less vascularized. Despite the dense capillarity, low perfusion through vessels with a diameter below 15 µm was seen on the autoradiograms. We conclude that micronized barium sulphate infusion may be used to demonstrate the vascular architecture in a complex organ. The vascular resistance was low, with little variation in the cortex of the normal kidney. Tumor tissue showed a considerable vascular structural heterogeneity with low perfusion through the peripheral nutritive capillaries and very poor perfusion of the central tumor, indicating intratumoral pressure exceeding the perfusion pressure. The merits and shortcomings of the various techniques used are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma 2024–2025)
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10 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
Significance of Prediction Models for Post-Hepatectomy Liver Failure Based on Type IV Collagen 7s Domain in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Takuma Okada, Hiroji Shinkawa, Satsuki Taniuchi, Masahiko Kinoshita, Kohei Nishio, Go Ohira, Kenjiro Kimura, Shogo Tanaka, Ayumi Shintani, Shoji Kubo and Takeaki Ishizawa
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101938 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have attempted to establish predictive models for post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing liver resection. However, a versatile and useful predictive model for PHLF remains to be developed. Therefore, we aimed to develop predictive models [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have attempted to establish predictive models for post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing liver resection. However, a versatile and useful predictive model for PHLF remains to be developed. Therefore, we aimed to develop predictive models for PHLF based on type IV collagen 7s domain (7s collagen) in patients with HCC. Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 972 patients with HCC who had undergone initial curative liver resection between February 2000 and December 2020 at our hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using a restricted cubic spline was performed to evaluate the effect of 7s collagen on the incidence of PHLF. A nomogram was developed based on 7s collagen. Results: PHLF grades B or C were identified in 104 patients (11%): 98 (10%) and 6 (1%) PHLF grades B and C, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the preoperative serum level of 7s collagen was significantly associated with a proportional increase in the risk of PHLF, which was confirmed in both laparoscopic and open liver resections. A nomogram was developed based on 7s collagen, with a concordance index of 0.768. The inclusion of 7s collagen values in the predictive model increased the predictive accuracy. Conclusion: The findings highlight the efficacy of the serum level of 7s collagen as a predictive factor for PHLF. Our novel nomogram using 7s collagen may be useful for predicting the risk of PHLF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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17 pages, 306 KiB  
Review
Targeted Therapies in the Treatment of Mantle Cell Lymphoma
by Colin J. Thomas, Veronica Carvajal and Stefan K. Barta
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101937 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare, heterogeneous B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The standard front-line treatment utilizes chemotherapy, often followed by consolidation with an autologous hematopoietic cell transplant; however, in most patients, the lymphoma will recur and require subsequent treatments. Additionally, mantle cell lymphoma [...] Read more.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare, heterogeneous B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The standard front-line treatment utilizes chemotherapy, often followed by consolidation with an autologous hematopoietic cell transplant; however, in most patients, the lymphoma will recur and require subsequent treatments. Additionally, mantle cell lymphoma primarily affects older patients and is frequently chemotherapy-resistant, which has further fostered the necessity for new, chemotherapy-free treatment options. In the past decade, targeted therapies in mantle cell lymphoma have been practice-changing as the treatment paradigm shifts further away from relying primarily on cytotoxic agents. Here, we will review the pathophysiology of mantle cell lymphoma and discuss the emergence of targeted, chemotherapy-free treatments aimed at disrupting the abnormal biology driving its lymphomagenesis. Treatments targeting the constitutive activation of NF-kB, Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase signaling, and anti-apoptosis will be the primary focus as we discuss their clinical data and toxicities. Our review will also focus primarily on the emergence and use of targeted therapies in the relapsed/refractory setting but will also discuss the emergence of their use in front-line therapy and in combination with other agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mantle Cell Lymphoma: From Biology to Therapy)
13 pages, 1052 KiB  
Article
Use of Bladder-Related Medication in Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients
by Linea Blichert-Refsgaard, Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Mette Nørgaard and Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101936 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Repeated transurethral bladder resections (TURBs) and instillation treatments in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) might influence bladder function and, therefore, quality of life. Bladder-related medication is a surrogate marker of compromised bladder function. The objective was to investigate whether TURBs and adjuvant instillation [...] Read more.
Repeated transurethral bladder resections (TURBs) and instillation treatments in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) might influence bladder function and, therefore, quality of life. Bladder-related medication is a surrogate marker of compromised bladder function. The objective was to investigate whether TURBs and adjuvant instillation therapy are associated with the use of anticholinergics, β3-agonists, and cystitis-relevant antibiotics. We divided all Danish patients diagnosed with primary NMIBC during 2002–2017 registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) based on TURB-load within the first five years from diagnosis (1 TURB, 2–4 TURBs, ≥5 TURBs). Instillation therapy with either mitomycin C (MMC) or bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (BCG) was independent exposure (yes or no). We included 17,774 patients; 76% men, median age: 70 years (IQR: 63, 77). Patients exposed to ≥5 TURBs had a higher risk of using bladder-relaxing medication than patients exposed to 1 TURB, HR = 4.01 [3.33; 4.83], and higher risk of cystitis, HR = 2.27 [2.05; 2.51]. BCG-exposed patients had a higher risk of bladder-relaxing medication use compared to non-exposed, HR = 1.92 [1.69; 2.18], and a higher risk of cystitis, HR = 1.39 [1.31; 1.48]. Repeated TURBs have the highest impact on bladder function. Adjuvant instillation therapy is also associated with the use of bladder-related medication. Full article
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15 pages, 1813 KiB  
Article
Clinical Correlations between Serological Markers and Endometrial Cancer
by Alina-Gabriela Marin, Alexandru George Filipescu, Răzvan Cosmin Petca, Radu Vlădăreanu and Aida Petca
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101935 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Background: Endometrial cancer is associated with changes in blood cell counts and with high levels of inflammatory markers, thus reflecting the tumor’s impact on various biological processes and suggesting their potential as biomarkers for endometrial cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte [...] Read more.
Background: Endometrial cancer is associated with changes in blood cell counts and with high levels of inflammatory markers, thus reflecting the tumor’s impact on various biological processes and suggesting their potential as biomarkers for endometrial cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood sampled preoperatively from patients have been reported to be independently associated with the prognosis of different types of malignancies. Objectives: This study aimed to compare several blood markers—red blood cells, white blood cells, platelet parameters, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen—in patients with benign or malignant endometrial tumors. Material and methods: Our retrospective study included 670 patients (192 diagnosed with endometrial cancer and 478 with endometrial hyperplasia), and we compared the serological parameters discussed above with those sampled the day before surgery. Results: Analysis of complete blood count indices revealed no significant differences in red blood cell or total white blood cell parameters between the endometrial cancer group and the endometrial hyperplasia group. However, a distinct pattern emerged in the white blood cell differential. The endometrial cancer group showed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte count compared with the endometrial hyperplasia group. In contrast, the endometrial cancer group showed significantly higher mean platelet counts and increased mean platelet volume compared with controls. Furthermore, the endometrial cancer group demonstrated a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by significantly elevated levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio compared with the endometrial hyperplasia group. Conclusions: The current research revealed statistically significant differences in multiple serological biomarkers between the two groups. These findings support the initial hypothesis regarding the potential utility of these biomarkers in endometrial cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response, highlighting the existence of biomarkers affordable for analysis under any health system, regardless of the country’s level of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Choices and Endocrine Dysfunction on Cancer Onset and Risk)
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0 pages, 5975 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Beta-Lactam vs. Beta-Lactam plus Aminoglycoside Combination Therapy in Neutropenic Cancer Patients
by Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Tomoaki Nakamura, Fujimi Kawai, Erika Ota and Nobuyoshi Mori
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101934 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 992 | Correction
Abstract
We performed a systematic review of studies that compared beta-lactams vs. beta-lactams plus aminoglycosides for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients. Method: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase for studies published up to October 2023, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that [...] Read more.
We performed a systematic review of studies that compared beta-lactams vs. beta-lactams plus aminoglycosides for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients. Method: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase for studies published up to October 2023, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactam monotherapy with any combination of an anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside were included. Result: The all-cause mortality rate of combination therapy showed no significant differences compared with that of monotherapy (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.16, high certainty of evidence). Infection-related mortality rates showed that combination therapy had a small positive impact compared with the intervention with monotherapy (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.05, high certainty of evidence). Regarding treatment failure, combination therapy showed no significant differences compared with monotherapy (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.03, moderate certainty of evidence). In the sensitivity analysis, the treatment failure data published between 2010 and 2019 showed better outcomes in the same beta-lactam group (RR 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01–1.19]). Renal failure was more frequent with combination therapy of any daily dosing regimen (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.60, high certainty of evidence). Conclusions: We found combining aminoglycosides with a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam did not spare the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Few studies included antibiotic-resistant bacteria and a detailed investigation of aminoglycoside serum levels, and studies that combined the same beta-lactams showed only a minimal impact with the combination therapy. In the future, studies that include the profile of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the monitoring of serum aminoglycoside levels will be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Agents and Cancer)
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20 pages, 11490 KiB  
Article
Combination of miR-99b-5p and Enzalutamide or Abiraterone Synergizes the Suppression of EMT-Mediated Metastasis in Prostate Cancer
by Mohammad Waseem and Bi-Dar Wang
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101933 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer deaths among American men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been systemically applied as a first-line therapy for PCa patients. Despite the initial responses, the majority of patients under [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer deaths among American men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been systemically applied as a first-line therapy for PCa patients. Despite the initial responses, the majority of patients under ADT eventually experienced tumor progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), further leading to tumor metastasis to distant organs. Therefore, identifying the key molecular mechanisms underlying PCa progression remains crucial for the development of novel therapies for metastatic PCa. Previously, we identified that tumor-suppressive miR-99b-5p is frequently downregulated in aggressive African American (AA) PCa and European American (EA) CRPC, leading to upregulation of mTOR, androgen receptor (AR), and HIF-1α signaling. Given the fact that mTOR and HIF-1α signaling are critical upstream pathways that trigger the activation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), we hypothesized that miR-99b-5p may play a critical functional role in regulating EMT-mediated PCa metastasis. To test this hypothesis, a series of cell biology, biochemical, and in vitro functional assays (wound healing, transwell migration, cell/ECM adhesion, and capillary-like tube formation assays) were performed to examine the effects of miR-99b-5p mimic on regulating EMT-mediated PCa metastasis processes. Our results have demonstrated that miR-99b-5p simultaneously targets MTOR and AR signaling, leading to upregulation of E-cadherin, downregulation of Snail/N-cadherin/Vimentin, and suppression of EMT-mediated PCa metastasis. MiR-99b-5p alone and in combination with enzalutamide or abiraterone significantly inhibits the EMT-mediated metastasis of AA PCa and EA CRPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Cancer Metastasis)
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10 pages, 2221 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Follow-Up of Peritoneal Interposition Flap in Symptomatic Lymphocele Reduction following Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Insights from the PIANOFORTE Trial
by Christopher Goßler, Matthias May, Steffen Weikert, Sebastian Lenart, Anton Ponholzer, Christina Dreissig, Gjoko Stojanoski, Isabel Anzinger, Josef Riester, Maximilian Burger, Christian Gilfrich, Roman Mayr and Johannes Bründl
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101932 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 406
Abstract
The available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of peritoneal interposition flaps (PIF) on the reduction of symptomatic lymphoceles (sLCs) post robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) do not constitute a sufficient follow-up (FU) to assess the long-term effects. The PIANOFORTE trial was the [...] Read more.
The available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of peritoneal interposition flaps (PIF) on the reduction of symptomatic lymphoceles (sLCs) post robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) do not constitute a sufficient follow-up (FU) to assess the long-term effects. The PIANOFORTE trial was the first of these RCTs, showing no sLC reduction at the 3-month FU. Therefore, all 232 patients from the PIANOFORTE trial were invited for long-term FU. One hundred seventy-six patients (76%) presented themselves for FU and constituted the study group (SG). The median FU duration was 43 months. No significant differences in group allocation or LC endpoints at 90 days were observed between SG patients and patients not presenting themselves for the FU. During the FU period, four patients (2.3%) in the SG developed sLCs, and six patients (3.4%) developed asymptomatic lymphoceles (aLCs), which persisted in five patients (2.9%). There were no significant differences between PIF and non-PIF regarding sLC/aLC formation or persistence, newly developed complications, stress urinary incontinence or biochemical/clinical tumour recurrence. Therefore, this long-term FU confirms the primary outcomes of the PIANOFORTE trial that, while PIF does not impact complications or functionality, it does not reduce sLC/aLC rates. Furthermore, it shows the potential occurrence of LC after the third postoperative month. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer Therapy: Supporting Strategies and Management Options)
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10 pages, 236 KiB  
Review
The Utility of Intraluminal Therapies in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Narrative Review
by Jack Tyrrell, William Chui, Joshua Kealey and Shomik Sengupta
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101931 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is considered for selected cases of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) as it maintains renal function and avoids morbidity associated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). The appropriate selection of patients suitable for NSS without compromising oncological outcomes can sometimes be [...] Read more.
Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is considered for selected cases of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) as it maintains renal function and avoids morbidity associated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). The appropriate selection of patients suitable for NSS without compromising oncological outcomes can sometimes be difficult, given the limitations of diagnostic modalities. Recurrence rates for UTUC can be as high as 36 to 54% after NSS. Intraluminal adjuvant therapy can be attempted following NSS to reduce recurrence, but delivery to the upper tract is more challenging than into the bladder. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and chemotherapy such as Mitomycin (MMC) have been administered via nephrostomy or ureteric catheter, which requires invasive/repeated instrumentation of the upper urinary tract. Drug delivery by reflux from bladder instillation along indwelling stents has also been tried but can potentially be unreliable. Recently, a gel formulation of mitomycin has been developed for the controlled exposure of the upper urinary tract to treatment over a number of hours. Drug-eluting stents to deliver chemotherapy to the upper urinary tract have been developed but have not yet entered clinical practice. Endoluminal phototherapy utilising an intravenous photosensitising agent is another novel approach that has recently been described. Intraluminal therapies may be beneficial in decreasing recurrence rates in UTUC, but currently have some limitations in their usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Management of Urothelial Cancer)
11 pages, 830 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Link between Head and Neck Cancer and the Elevated Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction: A National Population-Based Cohort Study
by Dong-Kyu Kim
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101930 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Enhanced screening protocols for cancer detection have increased survival in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), which highlights the need to address the sequelae of therapy-induced cardiovascular complications. This study was conducted to assess the incidence and risk of acute myocardial infarction [...] Read more.
Enhanced screening protocols for cancer detection have increased survival in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), which highlights the need to address the sequelae of therapy-induced cardiovascular complications. This study was conducted to assess the incidence and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with HNC who have not undergone radiation or chemotherapy using a comprehensive, population-based cohort dataset. A total of 2976 individuals without cancer and 744 individuals with HNC were matched using the propensity score method. The findings indicated that the occurrence rates of AMI were comparable between the HNC (2.19) and non-cancer groups (2.39). Cox regression analysis did not demonstrate a significant increase in the risk of AMI in patients with HNC (hazard ratio: 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.50–1.73). No increased risk of AMI was observed in the HNC group compared to the non-cancer group, regardless of the time since the HNC diagnosis. Subgroup analyses showed no notable differences in the AMI risk between the groups when considering sex, age, comorbidities, and cancer type. This study showed that patients with HNC who have not been treated with radiation or chemotherapy did not exhibit an increased incidence or risk of AMI compared to individuals without cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
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12 pages, 2109 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy of Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) + HIPEC in Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Metastasis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Lodovica Langellotti, Claudio Fiorillo, Giorgio D’Annibale, Edoardo Panza, Fabio Pacelli, Sergio Alfieri, Andrea Di Giorgio and Francesco Santullo
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101929 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis is one of deadliest metastatic patterns of gastric cancer, being associated with a median overall survival (OS) of 4 months. Up to now, palliative systemic chemotherapy (pSC) has been the only recommended treatment. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis is one of deadliest metastatic patterns of gastric cancer, being associated with a median overall survival (OS) of 4 months. Up to now, palliative systemic chemotherapy (pSC) has been the only recommended treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate a potential survival benefit after CRS + HIPEC compared to pSC. Methods: A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines in March 2024. Manuscripts reporting patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer treated with CRS + HIPEC were included. A meta-analysis was performed, comparing the survival results between the CRS + HIPEC and pSC groups, and the primary outcome was the comparison in terms of OS. We performed random-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs). We assessed heterogeneity using the Q2 statistic. Results: Out of the 24 papers included, 1369 patients underwent CRS + HIPEC, with a median OS range of 9.8–28.2 months; and 103 patients underwent pSC, with a median OS range of 4.9–8 months. CRS + HIPEC was associated with significantly increased survival compared to palliative systemic chemotherapy (−1.8954 (95% CI: −2.5761 to −1.2146; p < 0.001). Conclusions: CRS + HIPEC could provide survival advantages in gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis compared to pSC. Full article
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18 pages, 2495 KiB  
Article
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris C60 Upregulates Macrophage Function by Modifying Metabolic Preference in Enhanced Anti-Tumor Immunity
by Suguru Saito, Duo-Yao Cao, Toshio Maekawa, Noriko M. Tsuji and Alato Okuno
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101928 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris C60 is a probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which induces various immune modifications in myeloid lineage cells. These modifications subsequently regulate T cell function, resulting in enhanced immunity both locally and systemically. Here, we report that C60 [...] Read more.
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris C60 is a probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which induces various immune modifications in myeloid lineage cells. These modifications subsequently regulate T cell function, resulting in enhanced immunity both locally and systemically. Here, we report that C60 suppresses tumor growth by enhancing macrophage function via metabolic alterations, thereby increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in a murine melanoma model. Intragastric (i.g.) administration of C60 significantly reduced tumor volume compared to saline administration in mice. The anti-tumor function of intratumor (IT) macrophage was upregulated in mice administered with C60, as evidenced by an increased inflammatory phenotype (M1) rather than an anti-inflammatory/reparative (M2) phenotype, along with enhanced antigen-presenting ability, resulting in increased tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Through this functional modification, we identified that C60 establishes a glycolysis-dominant metabolism, rather than fatty acid oxidation (FAO), in IT macrophages, leading to increased intracellular ATP levels. To address the question of why orally supplemented C60 exhibits functions in distal places, we found a possibility that bacterial cell wall components, which could be distributed throughout the body from the gut, may induce stimulatory signals in peripheral macrophages via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling activation. Thus, C60 strengthens macrophage anti-tumor immunity by promoting a predominant metabolic shift towards glycolysis upon TLR-mediated stimulation, thereby increasing substantial energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Acidosis within the Tumor Microenvironment)
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14 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Impact of Real-World Outpatient Cancer Rehabilitation Services on Health-Related Quality of Life of Cancer Survivors across 12 Diagnosis Types in the United States
by Mackenzi Pergolotti, Kelley C. Wood, Tiffany D. Kendig and Stacye Mayo
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1927; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101927 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Compared to adults without cancer, cancer survivors report poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which is associated with negative treatment outcomes and increased healthcare use. Cancer-specialized physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) could optimize HRQOL; however, the impact among survivors with non-breast malignancies is [...] Read more.
Compared to adults without cancer, cancer survivors report poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which is associated with negative treatment outcomes and increased healthcare use. Cancer-specialized physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) could optimize HRQOL; however, the impact among survivors with non-breast malignancies is unknown. This retrospective (2020–2022), observational, study of medical record data of 12 cancer types, examined pre/post-HRQOL among cancer survivors who completed PT/OT. PROMIS® HRQOL measures: Global Health (physical [GPH] and mental [GMH]), Physical Function (PF), and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities (SRA) were evaluated using linear mixed effect models by cancer type, then compared to the minimal important change (MIC, 2 points). Survivors were 65.44 ± 12.84 years old (range: 19–91), male (54%), with a median of 12 visits. Improvements in GPH were significant (p < 0.05) for all cancer types and all achieved MIC. Improvements in GMH were significant for 11/12 cancer types and 8/12 achieved MIC. Improvements in PF were significant for all cancer types and all achieved the MIC. Improvements in SRA were significant for all cancer types and all groups achieved the MIC. We observed statistically and clinically significant improvements in HRQOL domains for each of the 12 cancer types evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Complications and Supportive Care in Patients with Cancer)
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33 pages, 7910 KiB  
Review
Update on Renal Cell Carcinoma Diagnosis with Novel Imaging Approaches
by Marie-France Bellin, Catarina Valente, Omar Bekdache, Florian Maxwell, Cristina Balasa, Alexia Savignac and Olivier Meyrignac
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101926 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 715
Abstract
This review highlights recent advances in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) imaging. It begins with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), which has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of renal masses. Several studies have suggested the potential benefits of iodine quantification, particularly for [...] Read more.
This review highlights recent advances in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) imaging. It begins with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), which has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of renal masses. Several studies have suggested the potential benefits of iodine quantification, particularly for distinguishing low-attenuation, true enhancing solid masses from hyperdense cysts. By determining whether or not a renal mass is present, DECT could avoid the need for additional imaging studies, thereby reducing healthcare costs. DECT can also provide virtual unenhanced images, helping to reduce radiation exposure. The review then provides an update focusing on the advantages of multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performance in the histological subtyping of RCC and in the differentiation of benign from malignant renal masses. A proposed standardized stepwise reading of images helps to identify clear cell RCC and papillary RCC with a high accuracy. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may represent a promising diagnostic tool for the characterization of solid and cystic renal masses. Several combined pharmaceutical imaging strategies using both sestamibi and PSMA offer new opportunities in the diagnosis and staging of RCC, but their role in risk stratification needs to be evaluated. Although radiomics and tumor texture analysis are hampered by poor reproducibility and need standardization, they show promise in identifying new biomarkers for predicting tumor histology, clinical outcomes, overall survival, and the response to therapy. They have a wide range of potential applications but are still in the research phase. Artificial intelligence (AI) has shown encouraging results in tumor classification, grade, and prognosis. It is expected to play an important role in assessing the treatment response and advancing personalized medicine. The review then focuses on recently updated algorithms and guidelines. The Bosniak classification version 2019 incorporates MRI, precisely defines previously vague imaging terms, and allows a greater proportion of masses to be placed in lower-risk classes. Recent studies have reported an improved specificity of the higher-risk categories and better inter-reader agreement. The clear cell likelihood score, which adds standardization to the characterization of solid renal masses on MRI, has been validated in recent studies with high interobserver agreement. Finally, the review discusses the key imaging implications of the 2017 AUA guidelines for renal masses and localized renal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Imaging of Common Urogenital Neoplasms)
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13 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Conventional versus Hepatic Arteriography and C-Arm CT-Guided Ablation of Liver Tumors (HepACAGA): A Comparative Analysis
by Niek Wijnen, Rutger C. G. Bruijnen, Evert-Jan P. A. Vonken, Hugo W. A. M. de Jong, Joep de Bruijne, Guus M. Bol, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Martijn P. W. Intven and Maarten L. J. Smits
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101925 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Purpose: Hepatic Arteriography and C-Arm CT-Guided Ablation of liver tumors (HepACAGA) is a novel technique, combining hepatic–arterial contrast injection with C-arm CT-guided navigation. This study compared the outcomes of the HepACAGA technique with patients treated with conventional ultrasound (US) and/or CT-guided ablation. Materials [...] Read more.
Purpose: Hepatic Arteriography and C-Arm CT-Guided Ablation of liver tumors (HepACAGA) is a novel technique, combining hepatic–arterial contrast injection with C-arm CT-guided navigation. This study compared the outcomes of the HepACAGA technique with patients treated with conventional ultrasound (US) and/or CT-guided ablation. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) treated with conventional US-/CT-guided ablation between 1 January 2015, and 31 December 2020, and patients treated with HepACAGA between 1 January 2021, and 31 October 2023, were included. The primary outcome was local tumor recurrence-free survival (LTRFS). Secondary outcomes included the local tumor recurrence (LTR) rate and complication rate. Results: 68 patients (120 tumors) were included in the HepACAGA cohort and 53 patients (78 tumors) were included in the conventional cohort. In both cohorts, HCC was the predominant tumor type (63% and 73%, respectively). In the HepACAGA cohort, all patients received microwave ablation. Radiofrequency ablation was the main ablation technique in the conventional group (78%). LTRFS was significantly longer for patients treated with the HepACAGA technique (p = 0.015). Both LTR and the complication rate were significantly lower in the HepACAGA cohort compared to the conventional cohort (LTR 5% vs. 26%, respectively; p < 0.001) (complication rate 4% vs. 15%, respectively; p = 0.041). Conclusions: In this study, the HepACAGA technique was safer and more effective than conventional ablation for HCC and CRLM, resulting in lower rates of local tumor recurrence, longer local tumor recurrence-free survival and fewer procedure-related complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Ablation in the Management for Colorectal Liver Metastases)
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20 pages, 5285 KiB  
Article
Neuropilin2 in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Potential Novel Therapeutic Target in Myelofibrosis
by Karla Vosbeck, Sarah Förster, Thomas Mayr, Anshupa Sahu, El-Mustapha Haddouti, Osamah Al-Adilee, Ruth-Miriam Körber, Savita Bisht, Michael H. Muders, Svetozar Nesic, Andreas Buness, Glen Kristiansen, Frank A. Schildberg and Ines Gütgemann
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101924 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Bone marrow fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), MPN/MDS overlap syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis and early treatment failure. Myelofibrosis (MF) is accompanied by reprogramming of multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) into osteoid [...] Read more.
Bone marrow fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), MPN/MDS overlap syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis and early treatment failure. Myelofibrosis (MF) is accompanied by reprogramming of multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) into osteoid and fiber-producing stromal cells. We demonstrate NRP2 and osteolineage marker NCAM1 (neural cell adhesion molecule 1) expression within the endosteal niche in normal bone marrow and aberrantly in MPN, MDS MPN/MDS overlap syndromes and AML (n = 99), as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Increased and diffuse expression in mesenchymal stromal cells and osteoblasts correlates with high MF grade in MPN (p < 0.05 for NRP2 and NCAM1). Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) re-analysis demonstrated NRP2 expression in endothelial cells and partial co-expression of NRP2 and NCAM1 in normal MSC and osteoblasts. Potential ligands included transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1) from osteoblasts and megakaryocytes. Murine ThPO and JAK2V617F myelofibrosis models showed co-expression of Nrp2 and Ncam1 in osteolineage cells, while fibrosis-promoting MSC only express Nrp2. In vitro experiments with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and analysis of Nrp2/ mouse femurs suggest that Nrp2 is functionally involved in osteogenesis. In summary, NRP2 represents a potential novel druggable target in patients with myelofibrosis. Full article
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18 pages, 9578 KiB  
Article
Exploring Gut Microbiome Composition and Circulating Microbial DNA Fragments in Patients with Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer: A Comprehensive Analysis
by Ippokratis Messaritakis, Andreas Koulouris, Eleni Boukla, Konstantinos Vogiatzoglou, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Evangelia Intze, Maria Sfakianaki, Maria Chondrozoumaki, Michaela Karagianni, Elias Athanasakis, Evangelos Xynos, John Tsiaoussis, Manousos Christodoulakis, Matthaios E. Flamourakis, Eleni S. Tsagkataki, Linda Giannikaki, Evdoxia Chliara, Dimitrios Mavroudis, Maria Tzardi and John Souglakos
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101923 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) significantly contributes to cancer-related mortality, necessitating the exploration of prognostic factors beyond TNM staging. This study investigates the composition of the gut microbiome and microbial DNA fragments in stage II/III CRC. Methods: A cohort of 142 patients with stage [...] Read more.
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) significantly contributes to cancer-related mortality, necessitating the exploration of prognostic factors beyond TNM staging. This study investigates the composition of the gut microbiome and microbial DNA fragments in stage II/III CRC. Methods: A cohort of 142 patients with stage II/III CRC and 91 healthy controls underwent comprehensive microbiome analysis. Fecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA sequencing, and blood samples were tested for the presence of microbial DNA fragments. De novo clustering analysis categorized individuals based on their microbial profiles. Alpha and beta diversity metrics were calculated, and taxonomic profiling was conducted. Results: Patients with CRC exhibited distinct microbial composition compared to controls. Beta diversity analysis confirmed CRC-specific microbial profiles. Taxonomic profiling revealed unique taxonomies in the patient cohort. De novo clustering separated individuals into distinct groups, with specific microbial DNA fragment detection associated with certain patient clusters. Conclusions: The gut microbiota can differentiate patients with CRC from healthy individuals. Detecting microbial DNA fragments in the bloodstream may be linked to CRC prognosis. These findings suggest that the gut microbiome could serve as a prognostic factor in stage II/III CRC. Identifying specific microbial markers associated with CRC prognosis has potential clinical implications, including personalized treatment strategies and reduced healthcare costs. Further research is needed to validate these findings and uncover underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Circulating Tumor Cells as a Liquid Biopsy for Cancers)
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13 pages, 2622 KiB  
Article
A Novel Positive-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Line Marker for High-Dose-Rate (HDR) MRI-Assisted Radiosurgery (MARS)
by Li Wang, Yao Ding, Teresa L. Bruno, R. Jason Stafford, Eric Lin, Tharakeswara K. Bathala, Jeremiah W. Sanders, Matthew S. Ning, Jingfei Ma, Ann H. Klopp, Aradhana Venkatesan, Jihong Wang, Karen S. Martirosyan and Steven J. Frank
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101922 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can facilitate accurate organ delineation and optimal dose distributions in high-dose-rate (HDR) MRI-Assisted Radiosurgery (MARS). Its use for this purpose has been limited by the lack of positive-contrast MRI markers that can clearly delineate the lumen of the HDR [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can facilitate accurate organ delineation and optimal dose distributions in high-dose-rate (HDR) MRI-Assisted Radiosurgery (MARS). Its use for this purpose has been limited by the lack of positive-contrast MRI markers that can clearly delineate the lumen of the HDR applicator and precisely show the path of the HDR source on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences. We investigated a novel MRI positive-contrast HDR brachytherapy or interventional radiotherapy line marker, C4:S, consisting of C4 (visible on T1-weighted images) complexed with saline. Longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) for C4:S were measured on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) tubing filled with C4:S as an HDR brachytherapy line marker was tested for visibility on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences in a tissue-equivalent female ultrasound training pelvis phantom. Relaxivity measurements indicated that C4:S solution had good T1-weighted contrast (relative to oil [fat] signal intensity) and good T2-weighted contrast (relative to water signal intensity) at both room temperature (relaxivity ratio > 1; r2/r1 = 1.43) and body temperature (relaxivity ratio > 1; r2/r1 = 1.38). These measurements were verified by the positive visualization of the C4:S (C4/saline 50:50) HDPE tube HDR brachytherapy line marker on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences. Orientation did not affect the relaxivity of the C4:S contrast solution. C4:S encapsulated in HDPE tubing can be visualized as a positive line marker on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences. MRI-guided HDR planning may be possible with these novel line markers for HDR MARS for several types of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI-Assisted Radiosurgery (MARS))
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25 pages, 1080 KiB  
Review
Influence of Amino Acids and Exercise on Muscle Protein Turnover, Particularly in Cancer Cachexia
by Rashmita Pradhan, Walburga Dieterich, Anirudh Natarajan, Raphaela Schwappacher, Dejan Reljic, Hans J. Herrmann, Markus F. Neurath and Yurdagül Zopf
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101921 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Cancer cachexia is a multifaceted syndrome that impacts individuals with advanced cancer. It causes numerous pathological changes in cancer patients, such as inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, which further diminish their quality of life. Unfortunately, cancer cachexia also increases the risk of mortality in [...] Read more.
Cancer cachexia is a multifaceted syndrome that impacts individuals with advanced cancer. It causes numerous pathological changes in cancer patients, such as inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, which further diminish their quality of life. Unfortunately, cancer cachexia also increases the risk of mortality in affected individuals, making it an important area of focus for cancer research and treatment. Several potential nutritional therapies are being tested in preclinical and clinical models for their efficacy in improving muscle metabolism in cancer patients. Despite promising results, no special nutritional therapies have yet been validated in clinical practice. Multiple studies provide evidence of the benefits of increasing muscle protein synthesis through an increased intake of amino acids or protein. There is also increasing evidence that exercise can reduce muscle atrophy by modulating protein synthesis. Therefore, the combination of protein intake and exercise may be more effective in improving cancer cachexia. This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical approaches for the use of amino acids with and without exercise therapy to improve muscle metabolism in cachexia. Full article
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11 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Genomic Features of Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma and Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Analysis of a Multi-Institutional Database
by Corbin J. Eule, Junxiao Hu, Dale Hedges, Alkesh Jani, Thomas Pshak, Brandon J. Manley, Alejandro Sanchez, Robert Dreicer, Zin W. Myint, Yousef Zakharia and Elaine T. Lam
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101920 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Background: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) are at an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but molecular alterations in RCC specimens arising from ACKD and overall survival (OS) in affected patients are not well defined. Patients and Methods: Using [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) are at an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but molecular alterations in RCC specimens arising from ACKD and overall survival (OS) in affected patients are not well defined. Patients and Methods: Using the Oncology Research Information Exchange Network (ORIEN) Total Cancer Care® protocol, 296 consented adult patients with RCC and somatic tumor whole exome sequencing were included. Patients with ACKD were defined as those with serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL prior to RCC diagnosis. Results: Of 296 patients with RCC, 61 met the criteria for ACKD. The most common somatic mutations in the overall cohort were in VHL (126, 42.6%), PBRM1 (102, 34.5%), and SETD2 (54, 18.2%). BAP1 had a decreased mutational frequency in RCC specimens from patients without ACKD as compared to those with ACKD (10.6% versus 1.6%), but this was not statistically significant in univariable (OR 0.14, p = 0.056) or multivariable (OR 0.15, p = 0.067) analysis. Median OS was not reached in either cohort. Conclusions: Using the clinicogenomic ORIEN database, our study found lower rates of BAP1 mutations in RCC specimens from patients with ACKD, which may reflect a BAP1-independent mutational driver of RCC in patients with ACKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Era of Cancer Research: From Large-Scale Cohorts to Big-Data)
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11 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
Outcomes of Budesonide as a Treatment Option for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Related Colitis in Patients with Cancer
by Antonio Pizuorno Machado, Abdullah Salim Shaikh, Alice Saji, Malek Shatila, Isabella Glitza Oliva, Yinghong Wang and Anusha Shirwaikar Thomas
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101919 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Background: Current treatment guidelines for moderate to severe colitis (IMC) secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) recommend systemic corticosteroids as the primary therapy in conjunction with biologics, namely infliximab and/or vedolizumab. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of oral budesonide in [...] Read more.
Background: Current treatment guidelines for moderate to severe colitis (IMC) secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) recommend systemic corticosteroids as the primary therapy in conjunction with biologics, namely infliximab and/or vedolizumab. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of oral budesonide in the treatment of IMC. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis at MD Anderson Cancer Center of adult cancer patients with a confirmed (based on clinical, radiographic and laboratory assessment) diagnosis of IMC between 1 January 2015 and 31 November 2022, treated with budesonide. Data collection included demographics, oncologic history, IMC-related information and outcomes up to 6 months after the last dose of ICI. Results: Our sample (n = 69) comprised primarily of Caucasian (76.8%) females (55.1%). The majority of patients received combination therapy with anti-PD-1/L1 and anti-CTLA-4 (49.3%), and the most common malignancy treated was melanoma (37.6%). The median grade of diarrhea was 3 and of colitis was 2. Of the 50 patients who underwent endoscopic evaluation, a majority had non-ulcerative inflammation (64%) and active colitis on histology (78%). Budesonide was used as primary treatment at onset of IMC in 56.5% patients, as well as a bridging therapy from systemic corticosteroids in 33.3%. Less than half of the patients (44.9%) required additional therapies such as biologics or fecal microbiota transplant. Additionally, 75.3% of patients achieved full remission of IMC and 24.6% had a recurrence of IMC. ICI was resumed in 31.9% of patients and 17.4% received other forms of cancer therapies. Conclusions: Budesonide may be an effective strategy to treat and prevent the recurrence of IMC. The remission rates observed in our analysis with budesonide alone are comparable to systemic corticosteroids. Patients that require an extended duration of steroid exposure and those with moderate to severe colitis may benefit from budesonide given its lower risk of infection and complications. Furthermore, we observe that budesonide may serve as a successful bridge from systemic corticosteroids with subsequent biologic treatment. Larger prospective studies are necessary to determine the role of budesonide as well as its safety profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Therapy)
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13 pages, 1163 KiB  
Article
Clinical Characteristics, Patterns of Care, and Treatment Outcomes of Radiation-Associated Sarcomas
by Rohit Raj, Han Gil Kim, Menglin Xu, Tyler Roach, David Liebner, David Konieczkowski and Gabriel Tinoco
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101918 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Radiation-associated sarcomas (RASs) are rare tumors with limited contemporary data to inform prognostication and management. We sought to identify the clinical presentation, patterns of care, and prognostic factors of RASs. RAS patients treated at a single institution from 2015 to 2021 were retrospectively [...] Read more.
Radiation-associated sarcomas (RASs) are rare tumors with limited contemporary data to inform prognostication and management. We sought to identify the clinical presentation, patterns of care, and prognostic factors of RASs. RAS patients treated at a single institution from 2015 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed for clinicopathologic variables, treatment strategies, and outcomes. Thirty-eight patients were identified with a median follow-up of 30.5 months. The median age at RAS diagnosis was 68.4 years (27.9–85.4), with a median latency from index radiotherapy (RT) of 9.1 years (3.7–46.3). RAS histologies included angiosarcoma (26%), undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (21%), and osteosarcoma (18%). Most were high-grade (76%). Genomic profiling revealed low tumor mutational burden, frequent inactivating TP53 mutations (44%), CDKN2A deletions (26%), and MYC amplifications (22%), particularly in breast angiosarcomas. Of 38 patients, 33 presented with localized disease, 26 of whom were treated with curative intent. Overall, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.5 months (1.4–34.7), and the overall survival (OS) was 11.1 months (0.6–31.6). Patients with localized vs. metastatic RASs had a longer PFS (HR, 3.0 [1.1–8.5]; p = 0.03) and OS (HR, 3.0 [1.04–8.68]; p = 0.03). Among localized RAS patients, high grade was associated with shorter OS (HR, 4.6 [1.04–20.30]; p = 0.03) and resection with longer OS (mean 58.8 vs. 6.1 months, HR, 0.1 [0.03–0.28]; p < 0.001). Among patients undergoing resection, negative margins were associated with improved OS (mean 71.0 vs. 15.5 months, HR, 5.1 [1.4–18.2]; p = 0.006). Patients with localized disease, particularly those undergoing R0 resection, demonstrated significantly better outcomes. Novel strategies are urgently needed to improve treatment outcomes in this challenging group of diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Research of Cancer)
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10 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
The Incidence of Distant Metastases in Patients with Pleural Mesothelioma Screened for a Multimodal Approach: How Much Staging Do We Really Need?
by Arberit Hyseni, Jan Viehof, Jan Hockmann, Martin Metzenmacher, Wilfried Eberhardt, Ken Herrmann, Hubertus Hautzel, Clemens Aigner and Till Plönes
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101917 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is a very aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Most patients receive systemic treatment only; however, some patients may benefit from multimodality treatment. A precise staging of patients undergoing multimodal treatment is mandatory. We investigated the pattern of metastasis in [...] Read more.
Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is a very aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Most patients receive systemic treatment only; however, some patients may benefit from multimodality treatment. A precise staging of patients undergoing multimodal treatment is mandatory. We investigated the pattern of metastasis in a cohort of patients screened for multimodal treatment to define the extent of staging examinations. Additionally, we investigated the occurrence of metastasis during follow-up. We investigated a single-center experience of 545 patients newly diagnosed and/or treated with PM between the years 2010 and 2022. Patients who were treated naïvely and had a whole set of imaging of the brain were included and further analyzed. A total of 54% of all patients with cerebral imaging had an available 18FDG-PET CT scan. We also recorded metastasis during treatment follow-up. There were 110 patients who had a whole set of imaging (CT = 89% and MRI = 11%) of the brain, and 54% of all patients with cerebral imaging had an available 18FDG-PET CT scan. We identified four patients with cerebral metastasis at the time of first diagnosis, which means that 5.4% of the cohort had cerebral metastasis and 13.3% of all patients in the subgroup with complete data of 18FDG-PET CT had distant non-cerebral metastasis. During the longitudinal follow-up, we found 11 patients with newly diagnosed metastases after a median time of 1.6 years (range: 2 months to 3.3 years) after first diagnosis without metastases. Distant metastases are more frequent in mesothelioma patients than previously thought. This implies that extensive staging is needed for patients selected for multimodal treatment, including brain imaging and 18FDG-PET CT. Full article
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Article
An Investigative Analysis of Therapeutic Strategies in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Raetrospective Examination of 23 Biopsy-Confirmed Cases Emphasizing the Significance of Histopathological Insights
by Anca Zgura, Mugur Cristian Grasu, Radu Lucian Dumitru, Letitia Toma, Laura Iliescu and Cosmin Baciu
Cancers 2024, 16(10), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16101916 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Background: The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) combines standardized terminology with a classification system for imaging findings in patients with HCC, therefore rendering diagnostic biopsy unnecessary in many cases. This retrospective study included 23 patients with a biopsy diagnosis of HCC, [...] Read more.
Background: The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) combines standardized terminology with a classification system for imaging findings in patients with HCC, therefore rendering diagnostic biopsy unnecessary in many cases. This retrospective study included 23 patients with a biopsy diagnosis of HCC, performed either before or after local interventional procedures, in order to evaluate the histopathologic changes induced by previous procedures and their potential influence on the response to immune therapy. Material and Methods: The study encompassed a cohort of patients diagnosed with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Diagnosis was established via contrast-enhanced computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging that identified LI-RADS-5 nodules in conjunction with historical liver disease and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels or via histological examination confirming positivity for glypican3, heat shock protein 70, and glutamine synthetase. The study detailed the liver disease etiology, LI-RADS scores, characteristics and dimensions of HCC nodules, serum AFP concentrations, Edmondson–Steiner grading, and the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the tumor cells. Results: Among the study’s cohort of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients, a portion had not received any prior treatments, while the remainder experienced local HCC recurrence following trans-arterial chemoembolization or radiofrequency ablation. Observations indicated elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in those who had not undergone any previous interventions, showing statistical significance. The Edmondson–Steiner classification predominantly identified grade III differentiation across patients, irrespective of their treatment history. Furthermore, an increase in intra-tumoral programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was noted in patients who had not been subjected to previous therapies. Conclusion: Liver biopsy offers valuable insights for patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), assisting in the tailoring of immune therapy strategies, particularly in cases of recurrence following prior local interventions. Full article
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