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Cancers, Volume 16, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 218 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by tumor resection is crucial for treatment. The standard for evaluating NAC response is histological assessment using the modified Huvos classification, which has its limitations. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can visualize tumor properties such as perfusion and permeability. The relative wash-in rate (rWIR) correlates with histological response and reflects changes in tumor perfusion before and after NAC. This technique allows pre-resection prediction of NAC response and is a potential tool for treatment personalization. This multicenter retrospective study explores rWIR as a prognostic factor for clinical outcomes and its added value alongside known factors like age, tumor size, metastasis presence, histological response, and local recurrence. View this paper
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16 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Differential Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Grade to Augment Clinical Diagnosis Based on Classifier Models with Tuned Hyperparameters
by Saleh T. Alanezi, Marcin Jan Kraśny, Christoph Kleefeld and Niall Colgan
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112163 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
We developed a novel machine-learning algorithm to augment the clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer utilizing first and second-order texture analysis metrics in a novel application of machine-learning radiomics analysis. We successfully discriminated between significant prostate cancers versus non-tumor regions and provided accurate prediction [...] Read more.
We developed a novel machine-learning algorithm to augment the clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer utilizing first and second-order texture analysis metrics in a novel application of machine-learning radiomics analysis. We successfully discriminated between significant prostate cancers versus non-tumor regions and provided accurate prediction between Gleason score cohorts with statistical sensitivity of 0.82, 0.81 and 0.91 in three separate pathology classifications. Tumor heterogeneity and prediction of the Gleason score were quantified using two feature selection approaches and two separate classifiers with tuned hyperparameters. There was a total of 71 patients analyzed in this study. Multiparametric MRI, incorporating T2WI and ADC maps, were used to derive radiomics features. Recursive feature elimination (RFE), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and two classification approaches, incorporating a support vector machine (SVM) (with randomized search) and random forest (RF) (with grid search), were utilized to differentiate between non-tumor regions and significant cancer while also predicting the Gleason score. In T2WI images, the RFE feature selection approach combined with RF and SVM classifiers outperformed LASSO with SVM and RF classifiers. The best performance was achieved by combining LASSO and SVM into a model that used both T2WI and ADC images. This model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91. Radiomic features computed from ADC and T2WI images were used to predict three groups of Gleason score using two kinds of feature selection methods (RFE and LASSO), RF and SVM classifier models with tuned hyperparameters. Using combined sequences (T2WI and ADC map images) and combined radiomics (1st and GLCM features), LASSO, with a feature selection method with RF, was able to predict G3 with the highest sensitivity at a level AUC of 0.92. To predict G3 for single sequence (T2WI images) using GLCM features, LASSO with SVM achieved the highest sensitivity with an AUC of 0.92. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis)
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24 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
Enablers and Inhibitors to Implementing Tobacco Cessation Interventions within Homeless-Serving Agencies: A Qualitative Analysis of Program Partners’ Experiences
by Isabel Martinez Leal, Ammar D. Siddiqi, Anastasia Rogova, Maggie Britton, Tzuan A. Chen, Teresa Williams, Kathleen Casey, Hector Sanchez and Lorraine R. Reitzel
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112162 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Despite the high tobacco use rates (~80%) and tobacco-related cancers being the second leading cause of death among people experiencing homelessness within the United States, these individuals rarely receive tobacco use treatment from homeless-serving agencies (HSAs). This qualitative study explored the enablers and [...] Read more.
Despite the high tobacco use rates (~80%) and tobacco-related cancers being the second leading cause of death among people experiencing homelessness within the United States, these individuals rarely receive tobacco use treatment from homeless-serving agencies (HSAs). This qualitative study explored the enablers and inhibitors of implementing an evidence-based tobacco-free workplace (TFW) program offering TFW policy adoption, specialized provider training to treat tobacco use, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) within HSAs. Pre- and post-implementation interviews with providers and managers (n = 13) pursued adapting interventions to specific HSAs and assessed the program success, respectively. The organizational readiness for change theory framed the data content analysis, yielding three categories: change commitment, change efficacy and contextual factors. Pre- to post-implementation, increasing challenges impacted the organizational capacity and providers’ attitudes, wherein previously enabling factors were reframed as inhibiting, resulting in limited implementation despite resource provision. These findings indicate that low-resourced HSAs require additional support and guidance to overcome infrastructure challenges and build the capacity needed to implement a TFW program. This study’s findings can guide future TFW program interventions, enable identification of agencies that are well-positioned to adopt such programs, and facilitate capacity-building efforts to ensure their successful participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disparities in Cancer Prevention, Screening, Diagnosis and Management)
12 pages, 2729 KiB  
Review
Evolution of Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Imaging in Thoracic Surgery
by Toyofumi Fengshi Chen-Yoshikawa
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112161 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Radiologic reconstruction technology allows the wide use of three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images in thoracic surgery. A minimally invasive surgery has become one of the standard therapies in thoracic surgery, and therefore, the need for preoperative and intraoperative simulations has increased. Three-dimensional [...] Read more.
Radiologic reconstruction technology allows the wide use of three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images in thoracic surgery. A minimally invasive surgery has become one of the standard therapies in thoracic surgery, and therefore, the need for preoperative and intraoperative simulations has increased. Three-dimensional CT images have been extensively used, and various types of software have been developed to reconstruct 3D-CT images for surgical simulation worldwide. Several software types have been commercialized and widely used by not only radiologists and technicians, but also thoracic surgeons. Three-dimensional CT images are helpful surgical guides; however, in almost all cases, they provide only static images, different from the intraoperative views. Lungs are soft and variable organs that can easily change shape by intraoperative inflation/deflation and surgical procedures. To address this issue, we have developed a novel software called the Resection Process Map (RPM), which creates variable virtual 3D images. Herein, we introduce the RPM and its development by tracking the history of 3D CT imaging in thoracic surgery. The RPM could help develop a real-time and accurate surgical navigation system for thoracic surgery. Full article
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28 pages, 1274 KiB  
Review
The “Road” to Malignant Transformation from Endometriosis to Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancers (EAOCs): An mTOR-Centred Review
by Radwa Hablase, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal Randeva, Emmanouil Karteris and Jayanta Chatterjee
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112160 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is an umbrella term covering a number of distinct subtypes. Endometrioid and clear-cell ovarian carcinoma are endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs) frequently arising from ectopic endometrium in the ovary. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial regulator of cellular homeostasis [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is an umbrella term covering a number of distinct subtypes. Endometrioid and clear-cell ovarian carcinoma are endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs) frequently arising from ectopic endometrium in the ovary. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial regulator of cellular homeostasis and is dysregulated in both endometriosis and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer, potentially favouring carcinogenesis across a spectrum from benign disease with cancer-like characteristics, through an atypical phase, to frank malignancy. In this review, we focus on mTOR dysregulation in endometriosis and EAOCs, investigating cancer driver gene mutations and their potential interaction with the mTOR pathway. Additionally, we explore the complex pathogenesis of transformation, considering environmental, hormonal, and epigenetic factors. We then discuss postmenopausal endometriosis pathogenesis and propensity for malignant transformation. Finally, we summarize the current advancements in mTOR-targeted therapeutics for endometriosis and EAOCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis)
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13 pages, 2509 KiB  
Article
Real-World Prevalence and Tolerability of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Older Adults with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study
by Ryosuke Matsukane, Takahiro Oyama, Ryosuke Tatsuta, Sakiko Kimura, Kojiro Hata, Shuhei Urata and Hiroyuki Watanabe
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112159 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
With cancer diagnosis occurring at older ages, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has extended to older adults. However, the safety of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in this population remains unclear and relies on data extrapolated from younger adults. This multicenter retrospective [...] Read more.
With cancer diagnosis occurring at older ages, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has extended to older adults. However, the safety of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in this population remains unclear and relies on data extrapolated from younger adults. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to examine irAE prevalence and tolerability in older adults. We included 436 patients with non-small lung cancer undergoing ICI therapy and dichotomized them into two age groups (< or ≥75 years). Incidence of any irAE grade, grade ≥3 irAEs, and steroid usage after irAE occurrence was similar between younger (n = 332) and older groups (n = 104). While the younger patients with irAEs showed prolonged overall survival in the 12-month landmark Kaplan–Meier analysis (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–0.89, p = 0.013), the older cohort did not (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.36–1.78, p = 0.588). Although no differences were observed with ICI continuation or re-challenge after irAE onset, the elderly cohort had double the irAE cases that required a transition to best supportive care (BSC) (11.3% vs. 22.4%, p = 0.026). In conclusion, although irAE prevalence remains consistent regardless of age, the increased conversion to BSC post-irAE onset in older adults suggests diminished tolerability and the potential absence of favorable prognosis associated with irAEs in this population. Full article
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11 pages, 669 KiB  
Article
Incidence and Relative Survival of Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2008–2021
by Andreas Stang, Lennart Möller, Ina Wellmann, Kevin Claaßen, Hiltraud Kajüter, Selma Ugurel and Jürgen C. Becker
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112158 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Background: To date, only a few population-representative studies have been carried out on the rare Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). We provide incidence and survival estimates of MCC, including the conditional relative survival. Methods: We analyzed data from the cancer registry of North Rhine-Westphalia, [...] Read more.
Background: To date, only a few population-representative studies have been carried out on the rare Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). We provide incidence and survival estimates of MCC, including the conditional relative survival. Methods: We analyzed data from the cancer registry of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2008–2021, covering a population of 18 million. We included all newly diagnosed MCCs and calculated age-standardized (old European Standard population) incidence rates and unconditional and conditional relative survival. Results: Our analysis included 2164 MCC patients. The age-standardized incidence of MCC was 5.2 (men) and 3.8 (women) per million person-years. The 5-year relative survival was 58.8% (men) and 70.7% (women). Survival was lower among men than women in all age–sex groups and was highest for MCC of the upper extremity in both men (68.2%) and women (79.3%). The sex difference in survival is particularly due to the better survival of women with MCC of the head and neck. In terms of survival, the first two years are particularly critical. Conclusions: Our data validate the worse survival among men and highlights a more favorable prognosis for MCCs located on the limbs. The first two years after diagnosis of MCC are the years with the highest excess mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention)
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13 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Non-Syndromic and Syndromic Defects in Children with Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors: Data of 2610 Children Registered with the German MAKEI 96/MAHO 98 Registry Compared to the General Population
by Judit H. Schultewolter, Anke Rissmann, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Michael Frühwald, Claudia Blattmann, Lars Fischer, Björn Sönke Lange, Rüdiger Wessalowski, Birgit Fröhlich, Wolfgang Behnisch, Irene Schmid, Harald Reinhard, Matthias Dürken, Patrick Hundsdörfer, Martin Heimbrodt, Christian Vokuhl, Stefan Schönberger, Dominik T. Schneider, Guido Seitz, Leendert Looijenga, Ulrich Göbel, Rüdiger von Kries, Heiko Reutter and Gabriele Calaminusadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112157 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
GCTs are developmental tumors and are likely to reflect ontogenetic and teratogenetic determinants. The objective of this study was to identify syndromes with or without congenital anomalies and non-syndromic defects as potential risk factors. Patients with extracranial GCTs (eGCTs) registered in MAKEI 96/MAHO [...] Read more.
GCTs are developmental tumors and are likely to reflect ontogenetic and teratogenetic determinants. The objective of this study was to identify syndromes with or without congenital anomalies and non-syndromic defects as potential risk factors. Patients with extracranial GCTs (eGCTs) registered in MAKEI 96/MAHO 98 between 1996 and 2017 were included. According to Teilum’s holistic concept, malignant and benign teratomas were registered. We used a case–control study design with Orphanet as a reference group for syndromic defects and the Mainz birth registry (EUROCAT) for congenital anomalies at birth. Co-occurring genetic syndromes and/or congenital anomalies were assessed accordingly. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and p-values for Fisher’s exact test with Bonferroni correction if needed. A strong association was confirmed for Swyer (OR 338.6, 95% CI 43.7–2623.6) and Currarino syndrome (OR 34.2, 95% CI 13.2–88.6). We additionally found 16 isolated cases of eGCT with a wide range of syndromes. However, these were not found to be significantly associated following Bonferroni correction. Most of these cases pertained to girls. Regarding non-syndromic defects, no association with eGCTs could be identified. In our study, we confirmed a strong association for Swyer and Currarino syndromes with additional congenital anomalies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Oncology)
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16 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Navigating Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Management through Fukuoka Consensus vs. European Evidence-Based Guidelines on Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms—A Study on Two European Centers
by Vladimir Djordjevic, Djordje Knezevic, Blaz Trotovsek, Ales Tomazic, Miha Petric, Benjamin Hadzialjevic, Nikica Grubor and Mihajlo Djokic
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112156 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
This study addresses the critical need for the accurate diagnosis and management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), which are pancreatic cystic neoplasm types holding a substantial potential for malignancy. It evaluates the diagnostic effectiveness of the Fukuoka consensus guidelines and the European [...] Read more.
This study addresses the critical need for the accurate diagnosis and management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), which are pancreatic cystic neoplasm types holding a substantial potential for malignancy. It evaluates the diagnostic effectiveness of the Fukuoka consensus guidelines and the European evidence-based guidelines in detecting high-grade dysplasia/invasive carcinoma in IPMNs, utilizing a retrospective analysis of 113 patients from two European medical centers. The methods include a comparative analysis of clinical, radiological, and endoscopic ultrasonography data, alongside an assessment of guideline-driven diagnostic performance. The results demonstrate that both guidelines offer similar accuracy in identifying severe disease stages in IPMNs, with certain clinical markers—such as jaundice, solid mass presence, and an increase in CA 19-9 levels—being pivotal in predicting the need for surgical intervention. This study concludes that while both guidelines provide valuable frameworks for IPMN management, there is an inherent need for further research to refine these protocols and improve patient-specific treatment strategies. This research contributes to the ongoing discourse on optimizing diagnostic and treatment paradigms for pancreatic cystic neoplasms, aiming to enhance clinical outcomes and patient care in this challenging medical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis)
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16 pages, 3314 KiB  
Article
Small-Molecule Inhibition of CBX4/7 Hypersensitises Homologous Recombination-Impaired Cancer to Radiation by Compromising CtIP-Mediated DNA End Resection
by Hugh C. Osborne, Benjamin M. Foster, Hazim Al-Hazmi, Stefan Meyer, Igor Larrosa and Christine K. Schmidt
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112155 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The therapeutic targeting of DNA repair pathways is an emerging concept in cancer treatment. Compounds that target specific DNA repair processes, such as those mending DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), are therefore of therapeutic interest. UNC3866 is a small molecule that targets CBX4, a [...] Read more.
The therapeutic targeting of DNA repair pathways is an emerging concept in cancer treatment. Compounds that target specific DNA repair processes, such as those mending DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), are therefore of therapeutic interest. UNC3866 is a small molecule that targets CBX4, a chromobox protein, and a SUMO E3 ligase. As a key modulator of DNA end resection—a prerequisite for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR)—CBX4 promotes the functions of the DNA resection factor CtIP. Here, we show that treatment with UNC3866 markedly sensitises HR-deficient, NHEJ-hyperactive cancer cells to ionising radiation (IR), while it is non-toxic in selected HR-proficient cells. Consistent with UNC3866 targeting CtIP functions, it inhibits end-resection-dependent DNA repair including HR, alternative end joining (alt-EJ), and single-strand annealing (SSA). These findings raise the possibility that the UNC3866-mediated inhibition of end resection processes we define highlights a distinct vulnerability for the selective killing of HR-ineffective cancers. Full article
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12 pages, 1734 KiB  
Article
Novel Transcriptional and DNA Methylation Abnormalities of SORT1 Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
by Amelia Acha-Sagredo, Cornelia M. Wilson, Naiara Garcia Bediaga, Helen Kalirai, Michael P. A. Davies, Sarah E. Coupland, John K. Field and Triantafillos Liloglou
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112154 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Sortilin is an important regulator with potential tumour-suppressor function by limiting EGFR signalling. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive expression analysis of sortilin transcript variants and the DNA methylation status of their corresponding promoters in human non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLCs). RNA/DNA was [...] Read more.
Sortilin is an important regulator with potential tumour-suppressor function by limiting EGFR signalling. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive expression analysis of sortilin transcript variants and the DNA methylation status of their corresponding promoters in human non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLCs). RNA/DNA was extracted from 81 NSCLC samples and paired normal tissue. mRNA expression was measured by qPCR and DNA methylation determined by pyrosequencing. BigDye-terminator sequencing was used to confirm exon-8 alternative splicing. Results demonstrated that both SORT1A and SORT1B variants were downregulated in lung tumours. The SORT1A/SORT1B expression ratio was higher in tumours compared to normal tissue. SORT1B promoter hypermethylation was detected in lung tumours compared to normal lung (median difference 14%, Mann–Whitney test p = 10−6). Interestingly, SORT1B is hypermethylated in white blood cells, but a small and very consistent drop in methylation (6%, p = 10−15) was observed in the lung cancer cases compared to control subjects. We demonstrate that the SORT1B exon-8 splice variation, reported in sequence databases, is also a feature of SORT1A. The significantly altered quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sortilin mRNA in NSCLC indicate a significant involvement in tumour pathogenesis and may have significant impact for its utility as a predictive marker in lung cancer management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer)
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19 pages, 11312 KiB  
Article
Cholesterol Dietary Intake and Tumor Cell Homeostasis Drive Early Epithelial Tumorigenesis: A Potential Modelization of Early Prostate Tumorigenesis
by Marine Vialat, Elissa Baabdaty, Amalia Trousson, Ayhan Kocer, Jean-Marc A. Lobaccaro, Silvère Baron, Laurent Morel and Cyrille de Joussineau
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112153 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Epidemiological studies point to cholesterol as a possible key factor for both prostate cancer incidence and progression. It could represent a targetable metabolite as the most aggressive tumors also appear to be sensitive to therapies designed to decrease hypercholesterolemia, such as statins. However, [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies point to cholesterol as a possible key factor for both prostate cancer incidence and progression. It could represent a targetable metabolite as the most aggressive tumors also appear to be sensitive to therapies designed to decrease hypercholesterolemia, such as statins. However, it remains unknown whether and how cholesterol, through its dietary uptake and its metabolism, could be important for early tumorigenesis. Oncogene clonal induction in the Drosophila melanogaster accessory gland allows us to reproduce tumorigenesis from initiation to early progression, where tumor cells undergo basal extrusion to form extra-epithelial tumors. Here we show that these tumors accumulate lipids, and especially esterified cholesterol, as in human late carcinogenesis. Interestingly, a high-cholesterol diet has a limited effect on accessory gland tumorigenesis. On the contrary, cell-specific downregulation of cholesterol uptake, intracellular transport, or metabolic response impairs the formation of such tumors. Furthermore, in this context, a high-cholesterol diet suppresses this impairment. Interestingly, expression data from primary prostate cancer tissues indicate an early signature of redirection from cholesterol de novo synthesis to uptake. Taken together, these results reveal that during early tumorigenesis, tumor cells strongly increase their uptake and use of dietary cholesterol to specifically promote the step of basal extrusion. Hence, these results suggest the mechanism by which a reduction in dietary cholesterol could lower the risk and slow down the progression of prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Human Cancer)
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18 pages, 632 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Parent–Child Communication and Health Outcomes in the Childhood Cancer Context: A Scoping Review
by Heeyeon Son and Nani Kim
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112152 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Family communication has been thought to be an important area to support children’s adjustment to a cancer diagnosis. However, the characteristics of therapeutic parent–child communication that contribute to better patient outcomes and the specific patient health outcomes have been less explored. This current [...] Read more.
Family communication has been thought to be an important area to support children’s adjustment to a cancer diagnosis. However, the characteristics of therapeutic parent–child communication that contribute to better patient outcomes and the specific patient health outcomes have been less explored. This current review explored the characteristics of therapeutic parent–child communication and its physical and psychological health outcomes. A total of 5034 articles were initially identified, and only 10 articles remained for inclusion in this review after application of the exclusion criteria. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and measured verbal communication characteristics and its psychological outcomes, but no physical outcomes. The characteristics of therapeutic verbal communication (openness, maternal validation, quality of information shared, etc.) and nonverbal communication (eye contact, close physical distance, and acknowledging behaviors) were identified. The psychological health outcomes included less distress, a lower level of PTSS, less internalizing and externalizing of symptoms, increased levels of social emotional competencies, better peer relationships, and more cooperation during the procedure at the individual level. Increased family cohesion and family adaptation were family-level outcomes. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify what qualities of communication predict better psychological outcomes so that interventions can be developed and tested. In addition, physical outcomes should be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric and Adolescent Psycho-Oncology)
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2 pages, 535 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Nam et al. Identification of Thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridine Derivatives as c-KIT Inhibitors for Overcoming Imatinib Resistance. Cancers 2023, 15, 143
by Yunju Nam, Chan Kim, Junghee Han, SeongShick Ryu, Hanna Cho, Chiman Song, Nam Doo Kim, Namkyoung Kim and Taebo Sim
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112151 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 191
Abstract
The authors would like to make a correction to the previous article [...] Full article
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24 pages, 4964 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Survival Determinants in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: The Role of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
by Katarzyna Gęca, Jakub Litwiński, Tomasz Ostrowski, Izabela Świetlicka, Wojciech P. Polkowski and Magdalena Skórzewska
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112150 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Background: Recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) significantly challenges gynecological oncology due to its poor outcomes. This study assesses the impact of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) on ROC survival rates. Materials and Methods: Conducted at the Medical University of Lublin [...] Read more.
Background: Recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) significantly challenges gynecological oncology due to its poor outcomes. This study assesses the impact of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) on ROC survival rates. Materials and Methods: Conducted at the Medical University of Lublin from April 2011 to November 2022, this retrospective observational study involved 71 patients with histologically confirmed ROC who underwent CRS and subsequent HIPEC. Results: The median overall survival (OS) was 41.1 months, with 3-year and 5-year survival rates post-treatment of 0.50 and 0.33, respectively. Patients undergoing radical surgery for primary ovarian cancer had a median OS of 61.9 months. The key survival-related factors included the Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) score, AGO score, platinum sensitivity, and ECOG status. Conclusions: The key factors enhancing ROC patients’ survival include radical surgery, optimal performance status, platinum sensitivity, a positive AGO score, and a lower PCI. This study highlights the predictive value of the platinum resistance and AGO score in patient outcomes, underlining their role in treatment planning. Further prospective research is needed to confirm these results and improve patient selection for this treatment approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Survivorship and Quality of Life)
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10 pages, 887 KiB  
Article
A Clinical Perspective on Plasma Cell Leukemia: A Single-Center Experience
by Andrew Y. Li, Farin Kamangar, Noa G. Holtzman, Aaron P. Rapoport, Mehmet H. Kocoglu, Djordje Atanackovic and Ashraf Z. Badros
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112149 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Circulating plasma cells (CPCs) are detected in most multiple myeloma (MM) patients, both at diagnosis and on relapse. A small subset, plasma cell leukemia (PCL), represents a different biology and has a poor prognosis. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated patients with primary [...] Read more.
Circulating plasma cells (CPCs) are detected in most multiple myeloma (MM) patients, both at diagnosis and on relapse. A small subset, plasma cell leukemia (PCL), represents a different biology and has a poor prognosis. In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated patients with primary (pPCL, n = 35) or secondary (sPCL, n = 49), with ≥5% CPCs and a smaller subset with lower CPCs of 1–4% (n = 20). The median age was 61 years; 45% were men and 54% were Black. High-risk cytogenetics were found in 87% and extramedullary disease in 47%. For the entire cohort, 75% received a proteasome inhibitor, 70% chemotherapy, 54% an immunomodulatory drug, 24% a daratumumab-based regimen and 26% an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). The treatments marginally improved the overall survival (OS) for pPCL vs. sPCL (13 vs. 3.5 months p = 0.002). However, the 5-year survival for the whole cohort was dismal at 11%. High-risk cytogenetics, low platelets, extramedullary disease and high LDH were independently associated with poor outcomes. Further research is urgently needed to expand the treatment options and improve the outcomes in PCL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Research of Cancer)
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12 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Spheno-Orbital Meningiomas: The Rationale behind the Decision-Making Process of Treatment Strategy
by Giuseppe Mariniello, Sergio Corvino, Giuseppe Corazzelli, Oreste de Divitiis, Giancarlo Fusco, Adriana Iuliano, Diego Strianese, Francesco Briganti and Andrea Elefante
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112148 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Surgery stands as the primary treatment for spheno-orbital meningiomas, following a symptoms-oriented approach. We discussed the decision-making process behind surgical strategies through a review of medical records from 80 patients who underwent surgical resection at the University of Naples Federico II. Different surgical [...] Read more.
Surgery stands as the primary treatment for spheno-orbital meningiomas, following a symptoms-oriented approach. We discussed the decision-making process behind surgical strategies through a review of medical records from 80 patients who underwent surgical resection at the University of Naples Federico II. Different surgical approaches were employed based on the tumor’s location relative to the optic nerve’s long axis, categorized into lateral (type I), medial (type II), and diffuse (type III). We examined clinical, neuroradiological, surgical, pathological, and outcome factors. Proptosis emerged as the most frequent symptom (97%), followed by visual impairment (59%) and ocular motility issues (35%). Type I represented 20%, type II 43%, and type III 17%. Growth primarily affected the optic canal (74%), superior orbital fissure (65%), anterior clinoid (60%), and orbital apex (59%). The resection outcomes varied, with Simpson grades I and II achieved in all type I cases, 67.5% of type II, and 18% of type III. Recurrence rates were highest in type II (41.8%) and type III (59%). Improvement was notable in proptosis (68%) and visual function (51%, predominantly type I). Surgery for spheno-orbital meningiomas should be tailored to each patient, considering individual characteristics and tumor features to improve quality of life by addressing primary symptoms like proptosis and visual deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Cancer Biology)
15 pages, 4734 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Significance of CD163+ and/or CD206+ Tumor-Associated Macrophages Is Linked to Their Spatial Distribution and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Breast Cancer
by Canbin Fang, Maisy Y. Cheung, Ronald C. Chan, Ivan K. Poon, Conrad Lee, Curtis C. To, Julia Y. Tsang, Joshua Li and Gary M. Tse
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112147 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is a key element in the breast tumor microenvironment. CD163 and CD206 have been utilized for TAM identification, but the clinical implications of TAMs identified by these markers have not been thoroughly explored. This study conducted a comparative analysis of [...] Read more.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is a key element in the breast tumor microenvironment. CD163 and CD206 have been utilized for TAM identification, but the clinical implications of TAMs identified by these markers have not been thoroughly explored. This study conducted a comparative analysis of CD163 and CD206 TAMs using digital image analysis, focusing on their spatial distribution and prognostic significance in relation to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Distinct clinico-pathological and prognostic characteristics were noted between the two types of TAMs. CD163 TAMs were linked to high-grade tumors (p = 0.006), whereas CD206 TAMs were associated with a higher incidence of nodal metastasis (p = 0.033). CD206 TAMs were predominantly found in the stroma, with more cases being stromal CD206-high (sCD206-high) than tumoral CD206-high (tCD206-high) (p = 0.024). Regarding prognostication, patients stratified according to stromal and tumoral densities of CD163 showed different disease-free survival (DFS) time. Specifically, those that were sCD163-low but tCD163-high exhibited the poorest DFS (chi-square = 10.853, p = 0.013). Furthermore, a high sCD163-to-stromal-TILs ratio was identified as an independent predictor of unfavorable survival outcomes (DFS: HR = 3.477, p = 0.018). The spatial distribution and interactions with TILs enhanced the prognostic value of CD163 TAMs, while CD206 TAMs appeared to have limited prognostic utility in breast cancer cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Microenvironment)
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10 pages, 1495 KiB  
Article
Lung Cancer and Air Quality in a Large Urban County in the United States
by Hollis Hutchings, Qiong Zhang, Sue C. Grady, Jessica Cox, Andrew Popoff, Carl P. Wilson, Shangrui Zhu and Ikenna Okereke
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112146 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related killer in the United States. The incidence varies geographically and may be affected by environmental pollutants. Our goal was to determine associations within time series for specific air pollutants and lung cancer cases over a 33-year period [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the leading cancer-related killer in the United States. The incidence varies geographically and may be affected by environmental pollutants. Our goal was to determine associations within time series for specific air pollutants and lung cancer cases over a 33-year period in Wayne County, Michigan, controlling for population change. Lung cancer data for Wayne County were queried from the Michigan Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2018. Air pollutant data were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency from 1980 to 2018. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models were estimated to investigate time lags in years between specific air pollution levels and lung cancer development. A total of 58,866 cases of lung cancer were identified. The mean age was 67.8 years. Females accounted for 53 percent of all cases in 2018 compared to 44 percent in 1985. Three major clusters of lung cancer incidence were detected with the most intense clusters in downtown Detroit and the heavily industrialized downriver area. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) had the strongest statistically significant relationship with lung cancer, showing both short- and long-term effects (lag range, 1–15 years). Particulate matter (PM2.5) (lag range, 1–3 years) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (lag range, 2–4 years) had more immediate effects on lung cancer development compared to carbon monoxide (CO) (lag range, 5–6 years), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (lag range, 9 years) and lead (Pb) (lag range, 10–12 years), which had more long-term effects on lung cancer development. Areas with poor air quality may benefit from targeted interventions for lung cancer screening and reductions in environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Data and Statistics)
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8 pages, 720 KiB  
Article
Type Disparity in Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Incidences of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Propensity-Score-Matched Cohort Study
by Tsung-Kun Lin, Wei-Yao Wang, Tsung-Yuan Yang and Gwo-Ping Jong
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112145 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 259
Abstract
(1) Background: Recently, sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2Is) have been reported to significantly reduce renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. However, the effect between individual SGLT2Is on RCC incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or heart failure is unclear. We conducted an observational [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recently, sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2Is) have been reported to significantly reduce renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. However, the effect between individual SGLT2Is on RCC incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or heart failure is unclear. We conducted an observational analysis to explore type disparity in the prescription of SGLT2Is on RCC risk. (2) Methods: A nationwide retrospective cohort study using the Health and Welfare Data Science Center database (2016–2021) was conducted. Patients aged ≥40 years who took SGLT2Is were designated as the SGLT2I group, whereas propensity score 1:1-matched randomly selected patients without SGLT2Is were assigned to the non-SGLT2I group. The primary outcome was the risk of incident RCC between individual SGLT2Is. Multiple Cox regression modeling was conducted to analyze the association between individual SGLT2I use and RCC risk. (3) Results: After a 5.5-year follow-up, SGLT2I use was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident RCC (hazard: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–0.89). Compared with non-users and after adjusting for the index year, sex, age, comorbidities, concurrent medication, and the risk of developing RCC, the hazard ratios of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53–0.83), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.46–1.30), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56–0.90), respectively. (4) Conclusions: Our data show a type-based effect of SGLT2Is on RCC risk. The type-based effect of SGLT2Is should be further studied for better clinical management information and for reducing RCC incidence in patients with T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Survivorship and Quality of Life)
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20 pages, 14990 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimension Epithelial Segmentation in Optical Coherence Tomography of the Oral Cavity Using Deep Learning
by Chloe Hill, Jeanie Malone, Kelly Liu, Samson Pak-Yan Ng, Calum MacAulay, Catherine Poh and Pierre Lane
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112144 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 356
Abstract
This paper aims to simplify the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the examination of subsurface morphology in the oral cavity and reduce barriers towards the adoption of OCT as a biopsy guidance device. The aim of this work was to develop [...] Read more.
This paper aims to simplify the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the examination of subsurface morphology in the oral cavity and reduce barriers towards the adoption of OCT as a biopsy guidance device. The aim of this work was to develop automated software tools for the simplified analysis of the large volume of data collected during OCT. Imaging and corresponding histopathology were acquired in-clinic using a wide-field endoscopic OCT system. An annotated dataset (n = 294 images) from 60 patients (34 male and 26 female) was assembled to train four unique neural networks. A deep learning pipeline was built using convolutional and modified u-net models to detect the imaging field of view (network 1), detect artifacts (network 2), identify the tissue surface (network 3), and identify the presence and location of the epithelial–stromal boundary (network 4). The area under the curve of the image and artifact detection networks was 1.00 and 0.94, respectively. The Dice similarity score for the surface and epithelial–stromal boundary segmentation networks was 0.98 and 0.83, respectively. Deep learning (DL) techniques can identify the location and variations in the epithelial surface and epithelial–stromal boundary in OCT images of the oral mucosa. Segmentation results can be synthesized into accessible en face maps to allow easier visualization of changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis and Machine Learning in Cancers)
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15 pages, 2281 KiB  
Article
Treatment Patterns and Outcomes by Age in Metastatic Urinary Tract Cancer: A Retrospective Tertiary Cancer Center Analysis
by Nishita Tripathi, Georges Gebrael, Beverly Chigarira, Kamal Kant Sahu, Ishwarya Balasubramanian, Constance Caparas, Vinay Mathew Thomas, Jessica N. Cohan, Kaitlyn Pelletier, Benjamin L. Maughan, Neeraj Agarwal, Umang Swami and Sumati Gupta
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112143 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Metastatic urinary tract cancer (mUTC) is challenging to treat in older adults due to comorbidities. We compared the clinical courses of younger and older (≥70 years) adults with mUTC receiving first-line (1L) systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer center. Baseline clinical characteristics, treatments [...] Read more.
Metastatic urinary tract cancer (mUTC) is challenging to treat in older adults due to comorbidities. We compared the clinical courses of younger and older (≥70 years) adults with mUTC receiving first-line (1L) systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer center. Baseline clinical characteristics, treatments received, tolerability, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Among 212 patients (103 older vs. 109 younger), the older patients had lower hemoglobin at baseline (84% vs. 71%, p = 0.03), the majority were cisplatin-ineligible (74% vs. 45%, p < 0.001), received more immunotherapy-based treatments in the 1L (52% vs. 36%, p = 0.01), received fewer subsequent lines of treatment (median 0 vs. 1, p = 0.003), and had lower clinical trial participation (30% vs. 18%, p = 0.05) compared to the younger patients. When treated with 1L chemotherapy, older patients required more dose adjustments (53.4% vs. 23%, p = 0.001) and received fewer cycles of chemotherapy (median 4 vs. 5, p= 0.01). Older patients had similar OS (11.2 months vs. 14 months, p = 0.06) and similar rates of treatment-related severe toxicity and healthcare visits, independent of the type of systemic treatment received, compared to younger patients. We conclude that select older adults with mUTC can be safely treated with immunotherapy and risk-adjusted regimens of chemotherapy with tangible survival benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidisciplinary Approaches in Bladder Cancer)
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10 pages, 3658 KiB  
Article
Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping by Retroperitoneal vNOTES for Uterus-Confined Malignancies: A Standardized 10-Step Approach
by Daniela Huber and Yannick Hurni
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112142 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
(1) Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping represents an accurate and feasible technique for the surgical staging of endometrial and cervical cancer. This is commonly performed by conventional laparoscopy or robotic-assisted laparoscopy, but in recent years, a new retroperitoneal transvaginal natural orifice transluminal [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping represents an accurate and feasible technique for the surgical staging of endometrial and cervical cancer. This is commonly performed by conventional laparoscopy or robotic-assisted laparoscopy, but in recent years, a new retroperitoneal transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) approach has been described and developed by Jan Baekelandt. This technique provides easy visualization of lymphatic afferent vessels and pelvic lymph nodes, early SLN assessment, and a coherent mapping methodology following the lymphatic flow from caudal to cranial. However, only a few publications have reported it. Following the IDEAL (Idea Development Exploration Assessment Long-term follow-up) framework, research concerning this technique is in Stage 2a, with only small case series as evidence of its feasibility. Its standardized description appears necessary to provide the surgical homogeneity required to move further. (2) Methods: Description of a standardized approach for retroperitoneal pelvic SLN mapping by vNOTES. (3) Results: We describe a 10-step approach to successfully perform retroperitoneal vNOTES SLN mapping, including pre-, intra-, and postoperative management. (4) Conclusions: This IDEAL Stage 2a study could help other surgeons approach this new technique, and it proposes a common methodology necessary for evolving through future IDEAL Stage 2b (multi-center studies) and Stage 3 (randomized controlled trials) studies. Full article
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13 pages, 428 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Cervical Cancer: Review and Potential Prognostic Applications
by Zohaib Iqbal, Kevin Albuquerque and Kimberly L. Chan
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112141 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
This review article investigates the utilization of MRS in the setting of cervical cancer. A variety of different techniques have been used in this space including single-voxel techniques such as point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) and stimulated echo acquisition mode spectroscopy (STEAM). Furthermore, the experimental [...] Read more.
This review article investigates the utilization of MRS in the setting of cervical cancer. A variety of different techniques have been used in this space including single-voxel techniques such as point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) and stimulated echo acquisition mode spectroscopy (STEAM). Furthermore, the experimental parameters for these acquisitions including field strength, repetition times (TR), and echo times (TE) vary greatly. This study critically examines eleven MRS studies that focus on cervical cancer. Out of the eleven studies, ten studies utilized PRESS acquisition, while the remaining study used STEAM acquisition. These studies generally showed that the choline signal is altered in cervical cancer (4/11 studies), the lipid signal is generally increased in cervical cancer or the lipid distribution is changed (5/11 studies), and that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can quantitatively detect lower apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in cervical cancer (2/11 studies). Two studies also investigated the role of MRS for monitoring treatment response and demonstrated mixed results regarding choline signal, and one of these studies showed increased lipid signal for non-responders. There are several new MRS technologies that have yet to be implemented for cervical cancer including advanced spectroscopic imaging and artificial intelligence, and those technologies are also discussed in the article. Full article
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16 pages, 4086 KiB  
Article
The Comprehensive Characterization of B7-H3 Expression in the Tumor Microenvironment of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study
by Ayaka Asakawa, Ryoto Yoshimoto, Maki Kobayashi, Nanae Izumi, Takanori Maejima, Tsuneo Deguchi, Kazuishi Kubota, Hisashi Takahashi, Miyuki Yamada, Sachiko Ishibashi, Iichiroh Onishi, Yuko Kinowaki, Morito Kurata, Masashi Kobayashi, Hironori Ishibashi, Kenichi Okubo, Kenichi Ohashi, Masanobu Kitagawa and Kouhei Yamamoto
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112140 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is refractory to various therapies for non-small cell cancer; therefore, new therapeutic approaches are required to improve the prognosis of LSCC. Although immunotherapies targeting B7 family molecules were explored as treatments for several cancer types, the expression and [...] Read more.
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is refractory to various therapies for non-small cell cancer; therefore, new therapeutic approaches are required to improve the prognosis of LSCC. Although immunotherapies targeting B7 family molecules were explored as treatments for several cancer types, the expression and significance of B7-H3 in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its relationship with other immune checkpoint molecules have not yet been investigated in detail. We used high-throughput quantitative multiplex immunohistochemistry to examine B7-H3 expression in the TME. We investigated the relationship between B7-H3 expression and prognosis as well as changes in the TME with B7-H3 expression using 110 surgically resected pathological specimens retrospectively. We examined the correlation between B7-H3 and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in single cells. High B7-H3 expression in tumor cells was associated with a better prognosis and a significant increase in the number of CD163+PD-L1+ macrophages. Quantitative analysis revealed that there is a positive correlation between B7-H3 and PD-L1 expression in tumor and stromal cells, as well as in intratumoral tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-associated macrophages in the same cells. CD68+, CD163+, and CK+ cells with PD-L1+ phenotypes had higher B7-H3 expression compared to PD-L1 cells. Our findings demonstrate a correlation between B7-H3 and PD-L1 expression in the same cells, indicating that therapies targeting B7-H3 could provide additional efficacy in patients refractory to PD-L1-targeting therapies. Full article
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17 pages, 4230 KiB  
Article
Functional Investigation of IGF1R Mutations in Multiple Myeloma
by Sofia Catalina Heredia-Guerrero, Marietheres Evers, Sarah Keppler, Marlene Schwarzfischer, Viktoria Fuhr, Hilka Rauert-Wunderlich, Anne Krügl, Theodora Nedeva, Tina Grieb, Julia Pickert, Hanna Koch, Torsten Steinbrunn, Otto-Jonas Bayrhof, Ralf Christian Bargou, Andreas Rosenwald, Thorsten Stühmer and Ellen Leich
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112139 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 332
Abstract
High expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and RTK mutations are associated with high-risk/worse prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM). Combining the pIGF1R/pINSR inhibitor linsitinib with the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib seemed promising in a clinical [...] Read more.
High expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and RTK mutations are associated with high-risk/worse prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM). Combining the pIGF1R/pINSR inhibitor linsitinib with the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib seemed promising in a clinical trial, but IGF1R expression was not associated with therapy response. Because the oncogenic impact of IGF1R mutations is so far unknown, we investigated the functional impact of IGF1R mutations on survival signaling, viability/proliferation and survival response to therapy. We transfected four human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) with IGF1RWT, IGF1RD1146N and IGF1RN1129S (Sleeping Beauty), generated CRISPR-Cas9 IGF1R knockouts in the HMCLs U-266 (IGF1RWT) and L-363 (IGF1RD1146N) and tested the anti-MM activity of linsitinib alone and in combination with the second-generation PI carfilzomib in seven HMCLs. IGF1R knockout entailed reduced proliferation. Upon IGF1R overexpression, survival signaling was moderately increased in all HCMLs and slightly affected by IGF1RN1129S in one HMCL, whereby the viability remained unaffected. Expression of IGF1RD1146N reduced pIGF1R-Y1135, especially under serum reduction, but did not impact downstream signaling. Linsitinib and carfilzomib showed enhanced anti-myeloma activity in six out of seven HMCL irrespective of the IGF1R mutation status. In conclusion, IGF1R mutations can impact IGF1R activation and/or downstream signaling, and a combination of linsitinib with carfilzomib might be a suitable therapeutic approach for MM patients potentially responsive to IGF1R blockade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Cancer Biology)
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28 pages, 963 KiB  
Review
Transfer Learning in Cancer Genetics, Mutation Detection, Gene Expression Analysis, and Syndrome Recognition
by Hamidreza Ashayeri, Navid Sobhi, Paweł Pławiak, Siamak Pedrammehr, Roohallah Alizadehsani and Ali Jafarizadeh
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112138 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI), encompassing machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), has revolutionized medical research, facilitating advancements in drug discovery and cancer diagnosis. ML identifies patterns in data, while DL employs neural networks for intricate processing. Predictive modeling challenges, such as data labeling, [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI), encompassing machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL), has revolutionized medical research, facilitating advancements in drug discovery and cancer diagnosis. ML identifies patterns in data, while DL employs neural networks for intricate processing. Predictive modeling challenges, such as data labeling, are addressed by transfer learning (TL), leveraging pre-existing models for faster training. TL shows potential in genetic research, improving tasks like gene expression analysis, mutation detection, genetic syndrome recognition, and genotype–phenotype association. This review explores the role of TL in overcoming challenges in mutation detection, genetic syndrome detection, gene expression, or phenotype–genotype association. TL has shown effectiveness in various aspects of genetic research. TL enhances the accuracy and efficiency of mutation detection, aiding in the identification of genetic abnormalities. TL can improve the diagnostic accuracy of syndrome-related genetic patterns. Moreover, TL plays a crucial role in gene expression analysis in order to accurately predict gene expression levels and their interactions. Additionally, TL enhances phenotype–genotype association studies by leveraging pre-trained models. In conclusion, TL enhances AI efficiency by improving mutation prediction, gene expression analysis, and genetic syndrome detection. Future studies should focus on increasing domain similarities, expanding databases, and incorporating clinical data for better predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Pathology and Prognosis)
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14 pages, 1473 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Impact and Clinical Implications of Adverse Tumor Grade in Very Favorable Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Experience of a Single Tertiary Referral Center
by Antonio Benito Porcaro, Alberto Bianchi, Sebastian Gallina, Andrea Panunzio, Alessandro Tafuri, Emanuele Serafin, Rossella Orlando, Giovanni Mazzucato, Paola Irene Ornaghi, Francesco Cianflone, Francesca Montanaro, Francesco Artoni, Alberto Baielli, Francesco Ditonno, Filippo Migliorini, Matteo Brunelli, Salvatore Siracusano, Maria Angela Cerruto and Alessandro Antonelli
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112137 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Objectives: To assess the prognostic impact and predictors of adverse tumor grade in very favorable low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: Data of low- and intermediate PCa risk-class patients were retrieved from a prospectively maintained [...] Read more.
Objectives: To assess the prognostic impact and predictors of adverse tumor grade in very favorable low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: Data of low- and intermediate PCa risk-class patients were retrieved from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Adverse tumor grade was defined as pathology ISUP grade group > 2. Disease progression was defined as a biochemical recurrence event and/or local recurrence and/or distant metastases. Associations were assessed by Cox’s proportional hazards and logistic regression model. Results: Between January 2013 and October 2020, the study evaluated a population of 289 patients, including 178 low-risk cases (61.1%) and 111 intermediate-risk subjects (38.4%); unfavorable tumor grade was detected in 82 cases (28.4%). PCa progression, which occurred in 29 patients (10%), was independently predicted by adverse tumor grade and biopsy ISUP grade group 2, with the former showing stronger associations (hazard ratio, HR = 4.478; 95% CI: 1.840–10.895; p = 0.001) than the latter (HR = 2.336; 95% CI: 1.057–5.164; p = 0.036). Older age and biopsy ISUP grade group 2 were independent clinical predictors of adverse tumor grade, associated with larger tumors that eventually presented non-organ-confined disease. Conclusions: In a very favorable PCa patient population, adverse tumor grade was an unfavorable prognostic factor for disease progression. Active surveillance in very favorable intermediate-risk patients is still a hazard, so molecular and genetic testing of biopsy specimens is needed. Full article
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19 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Site-Specific Response and Resistance Patterns in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with First-Line Systemic Therapy
by Lauren Julia Brown, Julie Ahn, Bo Gao, Harriet Gee, Adnan Nagrial, Eric Hau and Inês Pires da Silva
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112136 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Patients with advanced NSCLC have heterogenous responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with or without chemotherapy. In NSCLC, the impact of the distribution of metastatic sites and the response to systemic therapy combinations remain poorly understood. In a retrospective cohort study of patients [...] Read more.
Patients with advanced NSCLC have heterogenous responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with or without chemotherapy. In NSCLC, the impact of the distribution of metastatic sites and the response to systemic therapy combinations remain poorly understood. In a retrospective cohort study of patients with unresectable stage III/IV NSCLC who received first-line systemic therapy, we sought to assess the association between the site of metastases with patterns of response and progression. Data regarding demographics, tumour characteristics (including site, size, and volume of metastases), treatment, and outcomes were examined at two cancer care centres. The endpoints included organ site-specific response rate, objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Two-hundred and eighty-five patients were included in the analysis. In a multivariate analysis, patients with bone metastases had a reduced ORR, PFS, and OS. Primary resistance was also more likely in patients with bone metastases. Patients with bone or liver metastases had a shorter OS when receiving ICIs with or without chemotherapy, but not with chemotherapy alone, suggesting an immunological basis for therapeutic resistance. A directed assessment of the tumour microenvironment in these locations and a deeper understanding of the drivers of organ-specific resistance to immunotherapy are critical to optimise novel combination therapies and sequencing in these patients. Full article
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17 pages, 320 KiB  
Review
Topical and Intralesional Immunotherapy for the Management of Basal Cell Carcinoma
by Aurora Fernández-Galván, Pedro Rodríguez-Jiménez, Beatriz González-Sixto, María Teresa Abalde-Pintos and Beatriz Butrón-Bris
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112135 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of cancer among the white population. Individuals with fair skin have an average lifetime risk of around 30% for developing BCC, and there is a noticeable upward trend in its incidence rate. The principal [...] Read more.
Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of cancer among the white population. Individuals with fair skin have an average lifetime risk of around 30% for developing BCC, and there is a noticeable upward trend in its incidence rate. The principal treatment objectives for BCC involve achieving the total excision of the tumor while maximizing the preservation of function and cosmesis. Surgery is considered the treatment of choice for BCC for two main reasons: it allows for the highest cure rates and facilitates histological control of resection margins. However, in the subgroup of patients with low-risk recurrence or medical contraindications for surgery, new non-surgical treatment alternatives can provide an excellent oncological and cosmetic outcome. An evident and justified instance of these local therapies occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, a period when surgical interventions carried out in hospital settings were not a viable option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topical and Intralesional Immunotherapy for Skin Cancer)
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24 pages, 566 KiB  
Review
Prevention of Brain Metastases: A New Frontier
by Alessia Pellerino, Tara Marie Davidson, Shreyas S. Bellur, Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Hussein Tawbi, Roberta Rudà and Riccardo Soffietti
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16112134 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
This review discusses the topic of prevention of brain metastases from the most frequent solid tumor types, i.e., lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. Within each tumor type, the risk of brain metastasis is related to disease status and molecular subtype (i.e., EGFR-mutant [...] Read more.
This review discusses the topic of prevention of brain metastases from the most frequent solid tumor types, i.e., lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. Within each tumor type, the risk of brain metastasis is related to disease status and molecular subtype (i.e., EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer, HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer, BRAF and NRAF-mutant melanoma). Prophylactic cranial irradiation is the standard of care in patients in small cell lung cancer responsive to chemotherapy but at the price of late neurocognitive decline. More recently, several molecular agents with the capability to target molecular alterations driving tumor growth have proven as effective in the prevention of secondary relapse into the brain in clinical trials. This is the case for EGFR-mutant or ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer inhibitors, tucatinib and trastuzumab–deruxtecan for HER2-positive breast cancer and BRAF inhibitors for melanoma. The need for screening with an MRI in asymptomatic patients at risk of brain metastases is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Metastasis)
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