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Nutrients, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2016)

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Open AccessReview
Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070444 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5221
Abstract
Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by [...] Read more.
Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potassium and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Diabetes-Specific Nutritional Formulas versus Oatmeal on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, GLP-1 and Postprandial Lipidemia
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070443 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 [...] Read more.
Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used as part of medical nutrition therapy for patients with diabetes. This study aims to evaluate postprandial (PP) effects of 2 DSNFs; Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC) versus oatmeal (OM) on glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG). After an overnight fast, 22 overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given 200 kcal of each of the three meals on three separate days in random order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose area under the curve (AUC0–240) after GL and UGC was lower than OM (p < 0.001 for both). Insulin positive AUC0–120 after UGC was higher than after OM (p = 0.02). GLP-1 AUC0–120 and AUC0–240 after GL and UGC was higher than after OM (p < 0.001 for both). FFA and TG levels were not different between meals. Intake of DSNFs improves PP glucose for 4 h in comparison to oatmeal of similar caloric level. This is achieved by either direct stimulation of insulin secretion or indirectly by stimulating GLP-1 secretion. The difference between their effects is probably related to their unique blends of amino acids, carbohydrates and fat. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Deficiency in Patients with Heart Failure
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070442 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
Heart failure (HF) is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Although evidence-based treatments have substantially improved outcomes, prognosis remains poor with high costs for health care systems. In patients with HF, poor dietary behaviors are associated with unsatisfactory quality [...] Read more.
Heart failure (HF) is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Although evidence-based treatments have substantially improved outcomes, prognosis remains poor with high costs for health care systems. In patients with HF, poor dietary behaviors are associated with unsatisfactory quality of life and adverse outcome. The HF guidelines have not recommended a specific nutritional strategy. Despite the role of micronutrient deficiency it has been extensively studied, data about the efficacy of supplementation therapy in HF are not supported by large randomized trials and there is limited evidence regarding the outcomes. The aim of the present review is to analyze the state-of-the-art of nutritional deficiencies in HF, focusing on the physiological role and the prognostic impact of micronutrient supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Older People)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070441 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5102
Abstract
This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either [...] Read more.
This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070437 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human [...] Read more.
Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
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Open AccessArticle
Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070440 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts [...] Read more.
It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH) level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070439 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs) which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE) and its bioactive compounds, including (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070436 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5211
Abstract
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and [...] Read more.
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. As a result, glycemic levels, body weight and colon cancer risk can be reduced. Based on these findings, most studies reviewed concluded that due to their functional properties, yacon roots may be effectively used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat chronic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070438 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
“Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity [...] Read more.
“Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070432 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
EGCG Suppresses ERK5 Activation to Reverse Tobacco Smoke-Triggered Gastric Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in BALB/c Mice
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070380 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process [...] Read more.
Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process remain elusive. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a promising chemopreventive agent for several types of cancers. In the present study we investigated the regulatory role of ERK5 in tobacco smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the stomach of mice and the preventive effect of EGCG. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks reduced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and CK5, while the expression of mesenchymal markers Snail-1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin were increased. Importantly, we demonstrated that ERK5 modulated tobacco smoke-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice stomach, as evidenced by the findings that tobacco smoke elevated ERK5 activation, and that tobacco smoke-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition was reversed by ERK5 inhibition. Treatment of EGCG (100 mg/kg BW) effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-triggered activation of ERK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition alterations in mice stomach. Collectively, these data suggested that ERK5 was required for tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that EGCG suppressed ERK5 activation to reverse tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BALB/c mice. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of tobacco smoke-associated gastric tumorigenesis and the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated gastric cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070435 - 19 Jul 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc) is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA), which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess [...] Read more.
Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc) is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA), which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
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Open AccessCommunication
Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070434 - 16 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and [...] Read more.
Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union’s free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fortification to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies)
Open AccessReview
Curcumin AntiCancer Studies in Pancreatic Cancer
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070433 - 16 Jul 2016
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the gold-standard therapy for patients with advanced PC; although this treatment is associated with a better overall survival compared to the old treatment, many side effects and poor results are still present. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for treatment of advanced PC. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has anticancer effects against different types of cancer, including PC, by modulating many molecular targets. Regarding PC, in vitro studies have shown potent cytotoxic effects of curcumin on different PC cell lines including MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3. In addition, in vivo studies on PC models have shown that the anti-proliferative effects of curcumin are caused by the inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis and are due to the induction of apoptosis. On the basis of these results, several researchers tested the anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials, trying to overcome the poor bioavailability of this agent by developing new bioavailable forms of curcumin. In this article, we review the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of curcumin in the treatment of PC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quercitrin from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. Attenuates Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Toxicity in HepG2 Cells and Mice through Induction of Antioxidant Machinery and Inhibition of Inflammation
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070431 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
Quercitrin is found in many kinds of vegetables and fruits, and possesses various bioactive properties. The aim of the present study was to elucidate hepatoprotective mechanisms of quercitrin isolated from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. (syn. Cedrela sinensis Juss.), using acetaminophen (APAP)-treated HepG2 cell [...] Read more.
Quercitrin is found in many kinds of vegetables and fruits, and possesses various bioactive properties. The aim of the present study was to elucidate hepatoprotective mechanisms of quercitrin isolated from Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. (syn. Cedrela sinensis Juss.), using acetaminophen (APAP)-treated HepG2 cell and animal models. In an in vitro study, quercitrin suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), activity of antioxidant response element (ARE)-reporter gene, and protein levels of NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) in APAP-treated HepG2 cells. In an in vivo study, Balb/c mice were orally administered with 10 or 50 mg/kg of quercitrin for 7 days and followed by the injection with single dose of 300 mg/kg APAP. Quercitrin decreased APAP-caused elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, liver necrosis, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2 and inerleukin-1β, and phosphorylation of kinases including c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Quercitrin restored protein levels of Nrf2, NQO1 and activities and expressions of CAT, GPx, SOD-2. The results suggested that quercitrin attenuates APAP-induced liver damage by the activation of defensive genes and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory genes via the suppressions of JNK and p38 signaling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Course of Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obese Subjects and the Impact of Weight Change
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070430 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Few studies have described the characteristics of metabolically healthy individuals with excess fat in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the natural course of metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MH-OW/OB) adults, and to assess the impact of weight change on developing metabolic [...] Read more.
Few studies have described the characteristics of metabolically healthy individuals with excess fat in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the natural course of metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MH-OW/OB) adults, and to assess the impact of weight change on developing metabolic abnormalities. During 2009–2010, 525 subjects without any metabolic abnormalities or other obesity-related diseases were evaluated and reevaluated after 5 years. The subjects were categorized into two groups of overweight/obese and normal weight based on the criteria of BMI by 24.0 at baseline. At follow-up, the MH-OW/OB subjects had a significantly increased risk of developing metabolically abnormalities compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight (MH-NW) individuals (risk ratio: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.17–1.49, p value < 0.001). In the groups of weight gain and weight maintenance, the MH-OW/OB subjects was associated with a larger increase in fasting glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparing with MH-NW subjects. In the weight loss group, no significant difference of changes of metabolic parameters was observed between MH-OW/OB and MH-NW adults. This study verifies that MH-OW/OB are different from MH-NW subjects. Weight management is needed for all individuals since weight change has a significant effect on metabolic health without considering the impact of weight change according to weight status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolically Healthy Obesity) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Celiac Disease Patients on a Long-Term Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070429 - 14 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3730
Abstract
Experience suggests that many celiac patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD). We investigated the prevalence and severity of these symptoms in patients with variable duration of GFD. Altogether, 856 patients were classified into untreated (n = 128), [...] Read more.
Experience suggests that many celiac patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD). We investigated the prevalence and severity of these symptoms in patients with variable duration of GFD. Altogether, 856 patients were classified into untreated (n = 128), short-term GFD (1–2 years, n = 93) and long-term GFD (≥3 years, n = 635) groups. Analyses were made of clinical and histological data and dietary adherence. Symptoms were evaluated by the validated GSRS questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty healthy subjects comprised the control group. Further, the severity of symptoms was compared with that in peptic ulcer, reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Altogether, 93% of the short-term and 94% of the long-term treated patients had a strict GFD and recovered mucosa. Untreated patients had more diarrhea, indigestion and abdominal pain than those on GFD and controls. There were no differences in symptoms between the short- and long-term GFD groups, but both yielded poorer GSRS total score than controls (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, patients treated 1–2 years had more diarrhea (p = 0.03) and those treated >10 years more reflux (p = 0.04) than controls. Long-term treated celiac patients showed relatively mild symptoms compared with other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on our results, good response to GFD sustained in long-term follow-up, but not all patients reach the level of healthy individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070428 - 14 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded [...] Read more.
The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070427 - 13 Jul 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12–18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-zeaxanthin Supplementation Associated with Macular Pigment Optical Density
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070426 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3712
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy subjects. Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy subjects. Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was searched through May 2016. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted weighted mean differences (WMD) for intervention-versus-placebo group about the change of MPOD between baseline and terminal point. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the changes in MPOD and blood xanthophyll carotenoids or baseline MPOD levels. Twenty RCTs involving 938 AMD patients and 826 healthy subjects were identified. Xanthophyll carotenoids supplementation was associated with significant increase in MPOD in AMD patients (WMD, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) and healthy subjects (WMD, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14). Stratified analysis showed a greater increase in MPOD among trials supplemented and combined with meso-zeaxanthin. Additionally, the changes in MPOD were related with baseline MPOD levels (rAMD = −0.43, p = 0.06; rhealthy subjects = −0.71, p < 0.001) and blood xanthophyll carotenoids concentration (rAMD = 0.40, p = 0.07; rhealthy subjects = 0.33, p = 0.05). This meta-analysis revealed that lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin supplementation improved MPOD both in AMD patients and healthy subjects with a dose-response relationship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Resveratrol Consumption Improves Neurovascular Coupling Capacity in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070425 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Background: Poor cerebral perfusion may contribute to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that resveratrol can enhance cerebral vasodilator function and thereby alleviate the cognitive deficits in T2DM. We have already [...] Read more.
Background: Poor cerebral perfusion may contribute to cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that resveratrol can enhance cerebral vasodilator function and thereby alleviate the cognitive deficits in T2DM. We have already reported that acute resveratrol consumption improved cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) to hypercapnia. We now report the effects of resveratrol on neurovascular coupling capacity (CVR to cognitive stimuli), cognitive performance and correlations with plasma resveratrol concentrations. Methods: Thirty-six T2DM adults aged 40–80 years were randomized to consume single doses of resveratrol (0, 75, 150 and 300 mg) at weekly intervals. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor changes in blood flow velocity (BFV) during a cognitive test battery. The battery consisted of dual-tasking (finger tapping with both Trail Making task and Serial Subtraction 3 task) and a computerized multi-tasking test that required attending to four tasks simultaneously. CVR to cognitive tasks was calculated as the per cent increase in BFV from pre-test basal to peak mean blood flow velocity and also as the area under the curve for BFV. Results: Compared to placebo, 75 mg resveratrol significantly improved neurovascular coupling capacity, which correlated with plasma total resveratrol levels. Enhanced performance on the multi-tasking test battery was also evident following 75 mg and 300 mg of resveratrol. Conclusion: a single 75 mg dose of resveratrol was able to improve neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in T2DM. Evaluation of benefits of chronic resveratrol supplementation is now warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Resveratrol Regional Meeting 2015)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Toenail Mercury and Metabolic Syndrome Is Modified by Selenium
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070424 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
Background: Although Asian populations consume relatively large amounts of fish and seafood and have a high prevalence of metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the association between chronic mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome and its effect modification by selenium. Methods: We analyzed baseline [...] Read more.
Background: Although Asian populations consume relatively large amounts of fish and seafood and have a high prevalence of metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the association between chronic mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome and its effect modification by selenium. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in the Yeungnam area. Participants included 232 men and 269 women, aged 35 years or older, who had complete data regarding demographic, lifestyle, diet, toenail mercury and selenium levels, and health. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were measured using instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The metabolic biomarker levels were obtained through biannual medical checkups. Results: Higher toenail mercury levels were associated with habitual consumption of whale and shark meats, older age, obesity, smoking, alcohol drinking, and higher household income. Multivariable analysis showed a positive association between toenail mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome. In addition, this association was significantly stronger at lower selenium levels and was weaker at higher selenium levels. Conclusion: The possible harmful effects of mercury on metabolic syndrome may be attenuated by high levels of selenium. Future studies are needed to suggest optimal dietary guidelines regarding fish and selenium intakes, particularly for Asians with high levels of fish intake. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Avenanthramides Prevent Osteoblast and Osteocyte Apoptosis and Induce Osteoclast Apoptosis in Vitro in an Nrf2-Independent Manner
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070423 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3128
Abstract
Oats contain unique bioactive compounds known as avenanthramides (AVAs) with antioxidant properties. AVAs might enhance the endogenous antioxidant cellular response by activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in many chronic and degenerative diseases, including [...] Read more.
Oats contain unique bioactive compounds known as avenanthramides (AVAs) with antioxidant properties. AVAs might enhance the endogenous antioxidant cellular response by activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in many chronic and degenerative diseases, including osteoporosis. In this disease, there is an imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, which is accompanied by increased osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoclast apoptosis. We investigated the ability of the synthethic AVAs 2c, 2f and 2p, to 1-regulate gene expression in bone cells, 2-affect the viability of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, and the generation of osteoclasts from their precursors, and 3-examine the potential involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in these actions. All doses of AVA 2c and 1 and 5 µM dose of 2p up-regulated collagen 1A expression. Lower doses of AVAs up-regulated OPG (osteoprotegerin) in OB-6 osteoblastic cells, whereas 100 μM dose of 2f and all concentrations of 2c down-regulated RANKL gene expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells. AVAs did not affect apoptosis of OB-6 osteoblastic cells or MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells; however, they prevented apoptosis induced by the DNA topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and hydrogen peroxide. AVAs prevented apoptosis of both wild type (WT) and Nrf2 Knockout (KO) osteoblasts, demonstrating that AVAs-induced survival does not require Nrf2 expression. Further, KO osteoclast precursors produced more mature osteoclasts than WT; and KO cultures exhibited less apoptotic osteoclasts than WT cultures. Although AVAs did not affect WT osteoclasts, AVA 2p reversed the low apoptosis of KO osteoclasts. These in vitro results demonstrate that AVAs regulate, in part, the function of osteoblasts and osteocytes and prevent osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and increase osteoclast apoptosis; further, these regulatory actions are independent of Nrf2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070422 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2918
Abstract
Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of [...] Read more.
Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant-based foods could lead to unintended dietary outcomes without simultaneous changes in the types and amounts of plant foods currently consumed. Increasing dairy foods, which are currently under-consumed, could assist in improving the intakes of many nutrients of concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070421 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats [...] Read more.
Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070420 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to [...] Read more.
Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070419 - 09 Jul 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men [...] Read more.
Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070418 - 08 Jul 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2966
Abstract
The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic [...] Read more.
The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-1 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070417 - 08 Jul 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC) and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm [...] Read more.
Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC) and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI) and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI) for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm) increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm) increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks) to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks) and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Do Consumers Want More Nutritional and Health Information on Wine Labels? Insights from the EU and USA
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070416 - 07 Jul 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
The global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol launched in 2010 by the World Health Organization includes, amongst several areas of recommended actions, providing consumer information about, and labelling, alcoholic beverages to indicate alcohol-related harm. Labelling requirements worldwide for alcoholic drinks [...] Read more.
The global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol launched in 2010 by the World Health Organization includes, amongst several areas of recommended actions, providing consumer information about, and labelling, alcoholic beverages to indicate alcohol-related harm. Labelling requirements worldwide for alcoholic drinks are currently quite diverse and somewhat limited compared to labelling on food products and on tobacco. In this context, the current paper contributes to the academic and political debate on the inclusion of nutritional and health information on wine labelling, providing some insights into consumer interest in, and preferences for, such information in four core wine-producing and -consuming countries: Italy, France, Spain, and the United States of America. A rating-based conjoint analysis was performed in order to ascertain consumer preferences for different formats of additional information on wine labels, and a segmentation of the sample was performed to determine the existence of homogeneous groups of consumers in relation to the degrees of usefulness attached to the nutritional and health information on wine labels. Our results highlight the interest expressed by European and United States consumers for introducing nutrition and health information on wine labels. However, the results of conjoint analysis show some significant differences among stated preferences of the information delivery modes in different countries. In addition, segmentation analysis reveal the existence of significant differences between consumer groups with respect to their interest in receiving additional information on wine labels. These differences are not only linked to the geographic origin of the consumers, or to socio-demographic variables, but are also related to wine consumption habits, attitudes towards nutritional information, and the degree of involvement with wine. This heterogeneity of consumer preferences indicates a need for a careful consideration of wine labelling regulations and merits further investigation in order to identify labelling guidelines in terms of the message content and presentation method to be used. Full article
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