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Open AccessArticle

Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro

1
Department of Pediatrics, Justus Liebig University, Feulgenstrasse 12, Giessen D-35392, Germany
2
Institute of Nutritional Science, Justus Liebig University, Wilhelmstrasse 20, Giessen D-35392, Germany
3
Institute of Medical Microbiology, German Centre for Infection Research, DZIF Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstrasse 81, Giessen D-35392, Germany
4
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Justus Liebig University, Schubertstrasse 60, Giessen D-35392, Germany
5
Chair of Bioanalytical Sciences and Food Analysis, University of Bayreuth, Frankengut D-95703, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(7), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070411
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
The anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins (ACNs) on vascular functions are discussed controversially because of their low bioavailability. This study was performed to determine whether microorganism (MO)-fermented ACNs influence vascular inflammation in vitro. Therefore, MO growth media were supplemented with an ACN-rich grape/berry extract and growth responses of Escherichia coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei, as well as ACN fermentation were observed. MO supernatants were used for measuring the anti-inflammatory effect of MO-fermented ACNs in an epithelial-endothelial co-culture transwell system. After basolateral enrichment (240 min), endothelial cells were stimulated immediately or after 20 h with TNF-α. Afterwards, leukocyte adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and cytokine release were measured. Results indicate that E. coli, E. faecalis and H. alvei utilized ACNs differentially concomitant with different anti-inflammatory effects. Whereas E. coli utilized ACNs completely, no anti-inflammatory effects of fermented ACNs were observed on activated endothelial cells. In contrast, ACN metabolites generated by E. faecalis and H. alvei significantly attenuated low-grade stimulated leukocyte adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and IL-6), as well as NF-κB mRNA expression with a more pronounced effect of E. faecalis than H. alvei. Thus, MO-fermented ACNs have the potential to reduce inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: grapes and berries; anthocyanins; low-grade inflammation; fermentation; in vitro co-culture model grapes and berries; anthocyanins; low-grade inflammation; fermentation; in vitro co-culture model
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Kuntz, S.; Kunz, C.; Domann, E.; Würdemann, N.; Unger, F.; Römpp, A.; Rudloff, S. Inhibition of Low-Grade Inflammation by Anthocyanins after Microbial Fermentation in Vitro. Nutrients 2016, 8, 411.

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