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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 4 (February-2 2022) – 191 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Consumers today make their first contact with food through packaging. This has meant that, over time, packaging has been used to convey information about the product. In the last 30 years, a step forward has been made with the development of front-of-pack labels, which had been created as a tool of simplified communication to lead consumers toward conscious food choices, to reduce the prevalence of obesity and NCDs, and even to stimulate the industry to reformulate some products. To date, is it really possible to use FOPLs for this purpose? View this paper
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Article
Association between the Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Profile and Cognitive Function in the Overweight and Obese Population Aged from 45 to 75 Years Old
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040914 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Dietary fatty acid intake is closely related to the cognitive function of the overweight and obese population. However, few studies have specified the correlation between exact fatty acids and cognitive functions in different body mass index (BMI) groups. We aimed to explain these [...] Read more.
Dietary fatty acid intake is closely related to the cognitive function of the overweight and obese population. However, few studies have specified the correlation between exact fatty acids and cognitive functions in different body mass index (BMI) groups. We aimed to explain these relationships and reference guiding principles for the fatty acid intake of the overweight and obese population. Normal weight, overweight, and obese participants were recruited to receive a cognitive function assessment and dietary survey, dietary fatty acids intake was calculated, and the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile was tested by performing a gas chromatography analysis. The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in the obese group were higher, while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were lower than in the normal weight and overweight groups. In the erythrocyte membrane, the increase of n-3 PUFAs was accompanied by cognitive decline in the overweight group, which could be a protective factor for cognitive function in the obese group. High n-6 PUFAs intake could exacerbate the cognitive decline in the obese population. Dietary fatty acid intake had different effects on the cognitive function of overweight and obese people, especially the protective effect of n-3 PUFAs; more precise dietary advice is needed to prevent cognitive impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China National Nutrition Survey)
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Review
Nutritional and Metabolic Imbalance in Keratoconus
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040913 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal degeneration characterized by structural changes consisting of progressive thinning and steepening of the cornea. These alterations result in biomechanical weakening and, clinically, in vision loss. While the etiology of KC has been the object of study for [...] Read more.
Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal degeneration characterized by structural changes consisting of progressive thinning and steepening of the cornea. These alterations result in biomechanical weakening and, clinically, in vision loss. While the etiology of KC has been the object of study for over a century, no single agent has been found. Recent reviews suggest that KC is a multifactorial disease that is associated with a wide variety of genetic and environmental factors. While KC is typically considered a disease of the cornea, associations with systemic conditions have been well described over the years. In particular, nutritional and metabolic imbalance, such as the redox status, hormones, metabolites, and micronutrients (vitamins and metal ions), can deeply influence KC initiation and progression. In this paper, we comprehensively review the different nutritional (vitamins and minerals) and metabolic (hormones and metabolites) factors that are altered in KC, discussing their possible implication in the pathophysiology of the disease. Full article
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Article
Long Term Follow-Up of Sarcopenia and Malnutrition after Hospitalization for COVID-19 in Conventional or Intensive Care Units
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040912 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Background: The post-COVID-19 condition, defined as COVID-19-related signs and symptoms lasting at least 2 months and persisting more than 3 months after infection, appears now as a public health issue in terms of frequency and quality of life alterations. Nevertheless, few data are [...] Read more.
Background: The post-COVID-19 condition, defined as COVID-19-related signs and symptoms lasting at least 2 months and persisting more than 3 months after infection, appears now as a public health issue in terms of frequency and quality of life alterations. Nevertheless, few data are available concerning long term evolution of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which deserve further attention. Method: Sarcopenia was investigated prospectively, together with weight evolution, at admission and at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge in 139 COVID-19 patients, using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) criteria, associating both decreased muscle strength and muscle mass, assessed, respectively, with hand dynamometer and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Of the 139 patients, 22 presented with sarcopenia at 3 months; intensive care units (ICU) length of stay was the sole factor associated with sarcopenia after multivariate analysis. Although the entire group did not demonstrate significant weight change, weight decreased significantly in the sarcopenia group (Five and eight patients, showing, respectively, >5 or >10% weight decrease). Interestingly, at 6 months, 16 of the 22 patients recovered from sarcopenia and their weight returned toward baseline values. Conclusions: Sarcopenia and malnutrition are frequently observed in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, even 3 months after infection occurrence, but can largely be reversed at 6 months after discharge. Enhanced patient care is needed in sarcopenic patients, particularly during long stays in an ICU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Associations between Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12, Blood Lead, and Bone Mineral Density among Adults and Elderly Who Received a Health Examination
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040911 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
This study hypothesized that plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels modified the association between blood lead and cadmium and total urinary arsenic levels and bone loss. A total of 447 study subjects who received a physical examination at the Wanfang Hospital Medical [...] Read more.
This study hypothesized that plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels modified the association between blood lead and cadmium and total urinary arsenic levels and bone loss. A total of 447 study subjects who received a physical examination at the Wanfang Hospital Medical Center were recruited. Bone loss was defined as a calcaneus bone mineral density T-score less than −1. Blood cadmium and lead concentrations were measured by ICP-MS. Urinary arsenic species were determined using HPLC-HG-AAS. A SimulTRAC-SNB radioassay was used to measure plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels. Total urinary arsenic and blood lead concentration were positively correlated with the odds ratio (OR) for bone loss in a dose–response manner. The OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for bone loss in participants with blood lead concentrations > 56.14 versus ≤33.82 μg/dL were 1.82 and 1.10–3.01. No correlation between plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels alone and bone loss was observed. However, this study is the first observational study to find that blood lead concentrations tend to increase the OR of bone loss in a low plasma folate and plasma vitamin B12 group with multivariate ORs (95% CI) of 2.44 (0.85–6.96). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
Malnutrition in Hospitalized Old Patients: Screening and Diagnosis, Clinical Outcomes, and Management
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040910 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Malnutrition in hospitalized patients heavily affects several clinical outcomes. The prevalence of malnutrition increases with age, comorbidities, and intensity of care in up to 90% of old populations. However, malnutrition frequently remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in the hospital. Thus, an accurate screening to [...] Read more.
Malnutrition in hospitalized patients heavily affects several clinical outcomes. The prevalence of malnutrition increases with age, comorbidities, and intensity of care in up to 90% of old populations. However, malnutrition frequently remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in the hospital. Thus, an accurate screening to identify patients at risk of malnutrition or malnourishment is determinant to elaborate a personal nutritional intervention. Several definitions of malnutrition were proposed in the last years, affecting the real frequency of nutritional disorders and the timing of intervention. Diagnosis of malnutrition needs a complete nutritional assessment, which is often challenging to perform during a hospital stay. For this purpose, various screening tools were proposed, allowing patients to be stratified according to the risk of malnutrition. The present review aims to summarize the actual evidence in terms of diagnosis, association with clinical outcomes, and management of malnutrition in a hospital setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Populations in Low-Magnesium Areas Were Associated with Higher Risk of Infection in COVID-19’s Early Transmission: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study in the United States
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040909 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Many studies have confirmed the important roles of nutritional status and micronutrients in the COVID-19 pandemic. Magnesium is a vital essential trace element that is involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and many other immunological functions and has been shown to be associated with [...] Read more.
Many studies have confirmed the important roles of nutritional status and micronutrients in the COVID-19 pandemic. Magnesium is a vital essential trace element that is involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and many other immunological functions and has been shown to be associated with the outcome of COVID-19 infection. Here, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in the United States involving 1150 counties, 287,326,503 individuals, and 5,401,483 COVID-19 confirmed cases as of 30 September 2020 to reveal the infection risk of the populations distributed in low-magnesium areas in the early transmission of COVID-19. Our results indicate that the average county-level COVID-19 cumulative incidence in low-magnesium areas was significantly higher than in the control areas. Additionally, a significant negative nonlinear association was found between environmental magnesium concentration and the county-level COVID-19 cumulative incidence. Furthermore, the populations distributed in low environmental magnesium areas faced a higher COVID-19 infection risk (RR: 1.066; CI: 1.063–1.068), among which females (RR: 1.07; CI: 1.067–1.073), the 0–17 years subgroup (RR: 1.125; CI: 1.117–1.134), the 65+ years subgroup (RR: 1.093; CI: 1.087–1.098), black people (RR: 1.975; CI: 1.963–1.986), populations outside metro areas, and counties with a smaller population experienced higher risk of infection by COVID-19 than other subgroups. Considering that the magnesium intake of about half the population of the United States is below the daily required dose, our study will contribute to the creation of long-term public health strategies to help protect against COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Olive Oil Improves While Trans Fatty Acids Further Aggravate the Hypomethylation of LINE-1 Retrotransposon DNA in an Environmental Carcinogen Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040908 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that is crucial for mammalian development and genomic stability. Aberrant DNA methylation changes have been detected not only in malignant tumor tissues; the decrease of global DNA methylation levels is also characteristic for aging. The consumption of [...] Read more.
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that is crucial for mammalian development and genomic stability. Aberrant DNA methylation changes have been detected not only in malignant tumor tissues; the decrease of global DNA methylation levels is also characteristic for aging. The consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as part of a balanced diet shows preventive effects against age-related diseases and cancer. On the other hand, consuming trans fatty acids (TFA) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate the LINE-1 retrotransposon (L1-RTP) DNA methylation pattern in liver, kidney, and spleen of mice as a marker of genetic instability. For that, mice were fed with EVOO or TFA and were pretreated with environmental carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)—a harmful substance known to cause L1-RTP DNA hypomethylation. Our results show that DMBA and its combination with TFA caused significant L1-RTP DNA hypomethylation compared to the control group via inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. EVOO had the opposite effect by significantly decreasing DMBA and DMBA + TFA-induced hypomethylation, thereby counteracting their effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Triglycerides and Triglyceride Metabolism in Human Health)
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Article
A Study of United States Registered Dietitian Nutritionists during COVID-19: From Impact to Adaptation
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040907 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced an unprecedented health crisis, requiring many Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) to expand their duties and services, while other RDNs faced unemployment, reduced hours, and changes to their work environment. This study evaluated whether the pandemic impacted RDNs’ weight, eating [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced an unprecedented health crisis, requiring many Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) to expand their duties and services, while other RDNs faced unemployment, reduced hours, and changes to their work environment. This study evaluated whether the pandemic impacted RDNs’ weight, eating behaviors, and psychological factors, and whether professional training as an RDN was perceived as a protective factor in maintaining healthy habits. A 57-item, cross-sectional, online questionnaire including open-ended questions was distributed to RDNs residing in the United States. Over two months (January 2021 to February 2021), 477 RDNs completed the questionnaire. Among RDNs, 68.5% reported no weight change, 21.4% reported weight gain greater than 5 pounds, and 10.3% reported weight loss greater than 5 pounds. Approximately 75% (n = 360) reported their RDN professional training equipped them with the skills needed to maintain healthy eating behaviors. Reduced physical activity and mental health were the top qualitative themes that emerged regarding reasons for weight change. These findings suggest that RDN professional practice skills may have conferred some personal health benefits, as evidenced by smaller weight gains, the maintenance of healthy habits, and fewer reporting psychological effects relative to the general population and other health professionals, thereby limiting the impact of pandemic-induced work and life disruptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition within and beyond Corona Virus)
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Article
Natural Polysaccharide β-Glucan Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Suppressing Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040906 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Doxorubicin (DOXO) can be used to treat a variety of human tumors, but its clinical application is limited due to severe cardiotoxic side effect. Here, we explore the role of β-glucan in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and study its underlying mechanism. When [...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (DOXO) can be used to treat a variety of human tumors, but its clinical application is limited due to severe cardiotoxic side effect. Here, we explore the role of β-glucan in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and study its underlying mechanism. When co-administered with DOXO, β-glucan was observed to prevent left ventricular dilation and fibrosis. In fact, DOXO reduces the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex and enhances oxidative stress, which in turn impairs heart function. DOXO decreases the ATP production capacity of the heart and increases the ROS content, while β-glucan can restore the heart capacity and reduce oxidative stress. β-glucan also increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-PX and SOD, and reduces the level of MDA in the serum. In addition, the mRNAs of cardiac dysfunction marker genes ANP, BNP and Myh7 were significantly increased after DOXO induction, however, they did not increase when combined with β-glucan administration. In conclusion, our results indicate that β-glucan can improve the antioxidant capacity of the heart, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Full article
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Article
Antihypertensive Mechanism of Orally Administered Acetylcholine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040905 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Acetylcholine (ACh) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A small dose of eggplant powder rich in ACh (equivalent to 22 g fresh eggplant/d) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in individuals with higher BP. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the [...] Read more.
Acetylcholine (ACh) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A small dose of eggplant powder rich in ACh (equivalent to 22 g fresh eggplant/d) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in individuals with higher BP. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of low-dose orally administered ACh in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The effects of ACh on BP and sympathetic nervous activity (SNA), including lumbar SNA (LSNA) and renal SNA (RSNA), were evaluated by subjecting conscious SHRs to a telemetry method. Single oral administration of ACh decreased LSNA and lowered BP. Repeated oral administration of ACh for 30 d decreased RSNA and suppressed the elevated BP. Noradrenaline levels in the urine also decreased. However, vagotomy and co-administration of M3 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist reversed the BP-lowering effect; the dynamics of non-absorbable orally administered ACh was revealed using stable isotope-labeled ACh. In conclusion, ACh acts on the gastrointestinal M3 muscarinic ACh receptor to increase afferent vagal nerve activity, which decreases SNA by autonomic reflex, suppressing noradrenaline release and lowering BP. This study suggests the use of exogenous ACh as an antihypertensive food supplement for controlling the autonomic nervous system, without absorption into the blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Sciences in Functional Foods)
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Article
Dietary Behavior and Risk of Orthorexia in Women with Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040904 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Evidence points to a link between celiac disease and eating disorders. Although with the current limited knowledge, orthorexia cannot be formally recognized as an eating disorder, some features are similar. This study is the first to examine individuals with celiac disease in terms [...] Read more.
Evidence points to a link between celiac disease and eating disorders. Although with the current limited knowledge, orthorexia cannot be formally recognized as an eating disorder, some features are similar. This study is the first to examine individuals with celiac disease in terms of the prevalence of risk of orthorexia. Participants were 123 females diagnosed with celiac disease. The standardized ORTO-15 questionnaire was used to assess the risk of orthorexia. In this study, eating habits and physical activity were assessed. The effect of celiac disease on diet was self-assessed on a 5-point scale. Taking a score of 40 on the ORTO-15 test as the cut-off point, a risk of orthorexia was found in 71% of individuals with celiac disease, but only in 32% when the cut-off point was set at 35. There was a positive correlation between age and ORTO-15 test scores (rho = 0.30). In the group with orthorexia risk, meals were more often self-prepared (94%) compared to those without risk of orthorexia (78%) (p = 0.006). Individuals at risk for orthorexia were less likely to pay attention to the caloric content of food (46%) relative to those without risk of orthorexia (69%) (p = 0.001). For 64% of those at risk for orthorexia vs. 8% without risk had the thought of food that worried them (p = 0.001). Given the survey instrument for assessing the prevalence of orthorexia and the overlap between eating behaviors in celiac disease and orthorexia, the prevalence of orthorexia in celiac disease cannot be clearly established. Therefore, future research should focus on using other research tools to confirm the presence of orthorexia in celiac disease. Full article
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Article
The Association between Postpartum Practice and Chinese Postpartum Depression: Identification of a Postpartum Depression-Related Dietary Pattern
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040903 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
Conflicting results of Chinese traditional postpartum practices have aroused concerns over their health effects. The role of postpartum practices in postpartum depression (PPD) is still a matter of discussion, especially from a dietary practice point of view. The current study was designed to [...] Read more.
Conflicting results of Chinese traditional postpartum practices have aroused concerns over their health effects. The role of postpartum practices in postpartum depression (PPD) is still a matter of discussion, especially from a dietary practice point of view. The current study was designed to (1) explore the association between postpartum practices and PPD, (2) to identify the dietary pattern related to PPD, and (3) to identify the possible pathways among postpartum practices and PPD. This study is part of the YI Study, which was a cross-sectional study conducted in 10 cities in China. Data for 955 postpartum women were used in the current analysis. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-10) was used to evaluate PPD with a cutoff value of 9. Postpartum practice was based on the participants’ self-reported practices. Individual practices were recorded and categorized as dietary and non-dietary practices. The dietary pattern was identified based on the food intake frequencies of 25 food groups using the method of reduced rank regression. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the potential pathways between postpartum practices and PPD. The current study observed significant associations between postpartum practices and PPD (Adjusted OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.04–1.90). A similar trend was also found between dietary postpartum practices and PPD (Adjusted OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.03–1.88) but not for non-dietary practices and PPD (Adjusted OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.92–1.75). A PPD-related dietary pattern was identified with the characteristics of a high intake of meat and eggs and a lower intake of vegetables, mushrooms, and nuts. This dietary pattern was significantly associated with a higher chance of adhering to postpartum practice (Adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10–1.44). Based on the pathway analysis, this study also observed the association between postpartum practices and PPD, and the association between dietary practices and PPD were both mediated by sleep quality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a substantial proportion of women in modern China experience traditional postpartum Chinese practices and that either overall or dietary-related postpartum practices are associated with a higher risk of PPD. The current dietary practices in postpartum rituals may play an important role in developing PPD. A culturally embedded, science-based dietary guideline is required to help women to achieve both physical and psychological health in the postpartum period. Full article
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Review
The Use of Probiotics for Management and Improvement of Reproductive Eubiosis and Function
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040902 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 957
Abstract
Reproductive tract dysbiosis, due to the action of pathogens and/or unhealthy lifestyle, has been related to many reproductive diseases and disorders in mammalian species. Classically, such a problem has been confronted by the administration of antibiotics. Despite their effectiveness for controlling disease, treatments [...] Read more.
Reproductive tract dysbiosis, due to the action of pathogens and/or unhealthy lifestyle, has been related to many reproductive diseases and disorders in mammalian species. Classically, such a problem has been confronted by the administration of antibiotics. Despite their effectiveness for controlling disease, treatments with antibiotics may negatively affect the fertility of males and females and, mainly, may induce antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, safer alternatives for maintaining reproductive system eubiosis, such as probiotics, are required. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the biodiversity of the microbiota at the reproductive tract, possible changes in the case of dysbiosis, and their relationships with adequate reproductive health and functioning in both females and males. Afterwards, mechanisms of action and benefits of different probiotics are weighed since the biological activities of probiotics may provide a promising alternative to antibiotics for maintaining and restoring reproductive eubiosis and function. However, at present, it is still necessary for further research to focus on: (a) identifying mechanisms by which probiotics can affect reproductive processes; (b) the safety of probiotics to the host, specifically when consumed during sensitive reproductive windows such as pregnancy; and (c) the hazards instructions and regulatory rules required for marketing these biological-based therapies with sufficient safety. Thus, in this review, to draw a comprehensive overview with a relatively low number of clinical studies in this field, we showed the findings of studies performed either on human or animal models. This review strategy may help provide concrete facts on the eligible probiotic strains, probiotics colonization and transfer route, and prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of different probiotic strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Microbiome)
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Article
Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Sarcopenia in Crohn’s Disease Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040901 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Background: Chronic inflammation is a pathophysiological cause of sarcopenia in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. However, the potential impact of diet-related inflammation on sarcopenia has not yet been adequately investigated. We examined the associations between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and sarcopenia in CD patients. [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic inflammation is a pathophysiological cause of sarcopenia in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. However, the potential impact of diet-related inflammation on sarcopenia has not yet been adequately investigated. We examined the associations between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and sarcopenia in CD patients. Methods: A total of 140 CD patients from Ruijin Hospital in Shanghai were included in this cross-sectional study. DII scores were calculated from the dietary data collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Sarcopenia was determined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between DII and sarcopenia. Results: The mean DII score was 0.81 ± 2.13, ranging from −3.24 to 4.89. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 26.4%. The higher DII score significantly increased the risk of sarcopenia in CD patients (ORQuartile4vs1: 9.59, 95% CI: 1.69, 54.42, ptrend = 0.031) in the multivariable model after adjusting for more potential confounders. Moreover, CD patients with a lower DII had a significantly higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI, ORQuartile4vs1: 5.48, 95% CI: 1.51, 19.87, ptrend = 0.018) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, smoking status and drinking status model. Yet, there were no significant differences between DII and ASMI after adjusting for more potential confounders. Additionally, no significant association was observed between DII and handgrip strength in the multivariable-adjusted models. Conclusions: Pro-inflammatory diet was associated with increased risk of sarcopenia in CD patients. CD patients should have a proper intake of energy and protein. These patients could also benefit from supplementation with enteral nutrition due to its anti-inflammatory potential. Full article
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Article
A College Fast-Food Environment and Student Food and Beverage Choices: Developing an Integrated Database to Examine Food and Beverage Purchasing Choices among College Students
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040900 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Universities typically offer residential students a variety of fast-food dining options as part of the student meal plan. When residential students make fast-food purchases on campus there is a digital record of the transaction which can be used to study food purchasing behavior. [...] Read more.
Universities typically offer residential students a variety of fast-food dining options as part of the student meal plan. When residential students make fast-food purchases on campus there is a digital record of the transaction which can be used to study food purchasing behavior. This study examines the association between student demographic, economic, and behavioral factors and the healthfulness of student fast-food purchases. The 3781 fast-food items sold at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte from fall 2016 to spring 2019 were given a Fast-Food Health Score. Each student participating in the university meal plan was given a Student Average Fast-Food Health Score; calculated by averaging the Fast-Food Health Scores associated with each food and beverage item the student purchased at a fast-food vendor, concession stand, or convenience store over a semester. This analysis included 14,367 students who generated 1,593,235 transactions valued at $10,757,110. Multivariate analyses were used to examine demographic, economic, and behavioral factors associated with Student Average Fast-Food Health Scores. Being of a low income, spending more money on fast-food items, and having a lower GPA were associated with lower Student Average Fast-Food Health Scores. Future research utilizing institutional food transaction data to study healthy food choices is warranted. Full article
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Editorial
Substantial Vitamin D Supplementation Is Required during the Prenatal Period to Improve Birth Outcomes
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040899 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been studied since the early 1980′s and, while many clinical trials have been performed, we remain at a crossroads in our conclusions about vitamin D’s effects during pregnancy and the optimal dose and timing of supplementation [...] [...] Read more.
Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been studied since the early 1980′s and, while many clinical trials have been performed, we remain at a crossroads in our conclusions about vitamin D’s effects during pregnancy and the optimal dose and timing of supplementation [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Review
Why and How the Indo-Mediterranean Diet May Be Superior to Other Diets: The Role of Antioxidants in the Diet
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040898 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The Seven Countries Study showed that traditional Japanese and Mediterranean diets are protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The Japanese diet is considered the healthiest because it provides Japanese populations with the highest longevity and health. DASH and Mediterranean-style diets are also considered healthy [...] Read more.
The Seven Countries Study showed that traditional Japanese and Mediterranean diets are protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The Japanese diet is considered the healthiest because it provides Japanese populations with the highest longevity and health. DASH and Mediterranean-style diets are also considered healthy diets, although the Indo-Mediterranean-style diet may provide better protective effects among patients with CVDs compared to other diets. The concept of the Indo-Mediterranean type of diet was developed after examining its role in the prevention of CVDs in India, the value of which was confirmed by a landmark study from France: the Lyon Heart Study. These workers found that consuming an alpha-linolenic acid-rich Mediterranean-style diet can cause a significant decline in CVDs and all-cause mortality. Later in 2018, the PREDIMED study from Spain also reported that a modified Mediterranean-style diet can cause a significant decline in CVDs, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cancer. The Indo-Mediterranean diet may be superior to DASH and Mediterranean diets because it contains millets, porridge, and beans, as well as spices such as turmeric, cumin, fenugreek, and coriander, which may have better anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. These foods are rich sources of nutrients, flavonoids, calcium, and iron, as well as proteins, which are useful in the prevention of under- and overnutrition and related diseases. It is known that DASH and Mediterranean-style diets have a similar influence on CVDs. However, the Indo-Mediterranean-style diet may be as good as the Japanese diet due to improved food diversity and the high content of antioxidants. Full article
Review
Iodine Status of 6–12-Year-Old Children in Russia over the Past 10 Years: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040897 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Iodine is an essential element for growth and development of children. Ensuring adequate iodine intake and monitoring iodine intake are important public health concerns. According to the World Health Organization, a population-based assessment of iodine status is often done by measuring urine iodine [...] Read more.
Iodine is an essential element for growth and development of children. Ensuring adequate iodine intake and monitoring iodine intake are important public health concerns. According to the World Health Organization, a population-based assessment of iodine status is often done by measuring urine iodine concentration (UIC) in children aged 6–12 years. National data for large countries may hide regional differences in the UIC. Currently, there is limited data on the iodine status of children in Russia. We summarized the evidence on the iodine status of children in Russia using both international and local literature in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 2164 studies were identified, 12 of which met the selection criteria and covered 10 of 85 federal subjects. For most of the Russian regions there was no information on UIC. A range of methodologies were used to determine UIC. The median UIC ranged from 46 μg/L in the mountainous areas in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, which corresponds to a moderate iodine deficiency (ID), to 719 μg/L in the town of Turinsk (Sverdlovsk region) indicating excessive of iodine intake. Nationwide monitoring should be implemented in Russia and public health measures should be adjusted to regional and local conditions to ensure adequate iodine nutrition for all citizens. Full article
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Article
Diet Quality Scores and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Mexican Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040896 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
There is limited evidence for the effects of diet on cardiometabolic profiles during the pubertal transition. We collected repeated measures of diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors among Mexican youth. This analysis included 574 offspring of the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to [...] Read more.
There is limited evidence for the effects of diet on cardiometabolic profiles during the pubertal transition. We collected repeated measures of diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors among Mexican youth. This analysis included 574 offspring of the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort followed up to three time points. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMedDiet), and Children’s Dietary Inflammatory Index (C-DIITM) scores were computed from food frequency questionnaires. Higher DASH and aMedDiet scores reflect a higher diet quality, and lower C-DII scores reflect an anti-inflammatory diet. Cardiometabolic risk factors were lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, and waist circumference. Linear mixed models were used between quartiles of each diet score and outcomes. Compared to the first quartile, the fourth DASH quartile was inversely associated with log serum insulin (μIU/mL) [β = −0.19, p = 0.0034] and log-Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [β = −0.25, p = 0.0008]. Additionally, log serum triglycerides (mg/dL) was linearly associated with aMedDiet score [β = −0.03, p = 0.0022]. Boys in the highest aMedDiet quartile had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL) [β = 4.13, p = 0.0034] compared to the reference quartile. Higher diet quality was associated with a better cardiometabolic profile among Mexican youth. Full article
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Article
Impact of Ready-Meal Consumption during Pregnancy on Birth Outcomes: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040895 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Ready-meal consumption is increasing worldwide; however, its impact on human health remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between processed food and beverage consumption during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant women were recruited for the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), a [...] Read more.
Ready-meal consumption is increasing worldwide; however, its impact on human health remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between processed food and beverage consumption during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant women were recruited for the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), a nationwide, large-scale, prospective cohort study. This study included 104,102 registered children (including fetuses or embryos) and collected questionnaire-based data during the first and second/third trimester of pregnancy. Participants’ medical records were transcribed at pregnancy registration, immediately after delivery, and 1 month after delivery. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between processed food consumption and pregnancy outcomes. The incidence of stillbirth was higher in the group that consumed moderate (1–2 times per week) and high (≥3–7 times per week) amounts of ready-meals (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.054, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.442–2.926, q = 0.002; aOR = 2.632, 95% CI: 1.507–4.597, q = 0.007, respectively) or frozen meals (aOR = 2.225, 95% CI: 1.679–2.949, q < 0.001; aOR = 2.170, 95% CI: 1.418–3.322, q = 0.005, respectively) than in the group that rarely consumed such foods. Processed food consumption during pregnancy should be carefully considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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Article
Effect of a Four-Week Vegan Diet on Performance, Training Efficiency and Blood Biochemical Indices in CrossFit-Trained Participants
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040894 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
This interventional study examined the effect of a four-week vegan diet (VegD) during a four-week high-intensity functional training (HIFT) on performance, training results and blood biochemical indices in female (n = 12) and male (n = 8) moderate-trained CrossFit [...] Read more.
This interventional study examined the effect of a four-week vegan diet (VegD) during a four-week high-intensity functional training (HIFT) on performance, training results and blood biochemical indices in female (n = 12) and male (n = 8) moderate-trained CrossFit participants. The whole study group performed the maximum number of repetitions with a load of 70% one repetition-maximum (1RM) and a modified Fight Gone Bad (FGBMod) test before and after a dietary intervention (the group was divided to follow a VegD or a traditional mixed diet (MixD)) in a randomised and parallel design. Pre-exercise resting blood samples were also analysed. There was a significant improvement in the number of repetitions performed at a load corresponding to 70% of 1RM in the classic squat in the MixD group (p < 0.001), and in the classic deadlift in the VegD group (p = 0.014). Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in the results of the FGBMod performance test after a MixD. Moreover, an improvement in some exercises in the modified FGBMod test (Wall Ball after the VegD and the MixD, and rowing after the MixD) was also observed. However, differences between the MixD and the VegD groups were not clinically relevant. In conclusion, the short-term study conducted here indicated that a VegD in HIFT training positively affects strength endurance in the classic deadlift but is unlikely to be more beneficial in improving performance than a MixD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance Nutrition in Diverse Populations)
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Article
Paraxanthine Supplementation Increases Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance in Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040893 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Paraxanthine is a natural dietary ingredient and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. Compared to caffeine, paraxanthine exhibits lower toxicity, lesser anxiogenic properties, stronger locomotor activating effects, greater wake promoting properties, and stronger dopaminergic effects. The purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
Paraxanthine is a natural dietary ingredient and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. Compared to caffeine, paraxanthine exhibits lower toxicity, lesser anxiogenic properties, stronger locomotor activating effects, greater wake promoting properties, and stronger dopaminergic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of paraxanthine supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and endurance performance in comparison to the control and other ingredients commonly used by athletes: L-theanine, alpha-GPC, and taurine. Male Swiss Albino mice from five groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered paraxanthine (20.5 mg/kg/day, human equivalence dose (HED) 100 mg), L-theanine (10.28 mg/kg/day, HED 50 mg), alpha-GPC (41.09 mg/kg/day, HED 200 mg), taurine (102.75 mg/kg/day, HED 500 mg), or control (carboxy methyl cellulose) for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and treadmill endurance exercise. All animals were subject to treadmill training for 60 min 5 days per week. Blood draws were utilized to analyze lipid profile, liver health, renal function, and nitric oxide levels. Paraxanthine significantly increased forelimb grip strength by 17% (p < 0.001), treadmill exercise performance by 39% (p < 0.001), gastrocnemius and soleus muscle mass by 14% and 41% respectively (both p < 0.001), and nitric oxide levels by 100% compared to control (p < 0.001), while reducing triglyceride (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL (p < 0.05), and increasing HDL (p < 0.001) compared to control, and compared to L-theanine, alpha-GPC, and taurine. Results from this initial investigation indicate that, when compared to the control, L-theanine, alpha-GPC, and taurine, paraxanthine is an effective ingredient for various aspects of sports performance and may enhance cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Health and Performance)
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Review
The Use of Portion Control Plates to Promote Healthy Eating and Diet-Related Outcomes: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040892 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1121
Abstract
The role of portion control plates in achieving healthy diets is unclear. The aim of this scoping review was to systematically map findings from peer reviewed and grey literature to provide evidence for the use of portion control plates to promote healthy eating [...] Read more.
The role of portion control plates in achieving healthy diets is unclear. The aim of this scoping review was to systematically map findings from peer reviewed and grey literature to provide evidence for the use of portion control plates to promote healthy eating and nutrition-related knowledge in children and adults. A secondary aim was to review the design characteristics of portion control plates. The search was conducted in four databases, including Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycInfo, and grey literature sources following the PRISMA scoping review guidelines. A total of 22 articles comprising 23 intervention studies and 8 from grey literature were included. It was found that the various two-dimensional and three-dimensional portion control plates examined were effective tools for better portion size selection in healthy children and adults. Most portion control plates dedicated half the plate to vegetables, a quarter to protein, and a quarter to carbohydrates. The use of portion control plates in nutrition interventions appears to promote weight loss among those with overweight and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes. However, portion control plates were mostly used as part of multicomponent interventions and the effectiveness of the portion control plate as a stand-alone educational resource or portion control tool alone was uncertain. Further interventional research is indicated to investigate portion plates as tools to improve dietary behaviours and food consumption at the population level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Food Environments, Food Choice and Public Health)
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Article
Association between Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and the Risk of Preterm Birth in Central Sudan: A Case–Control Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040891 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 665
Abstract
There are few published studies on the association between vitamin D concentrations and preterm birth (PB) in sub-Saharan Africa. The current study aimed to assess the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH)] D) levels and PB. A matched case–control study (60 women in each [...] Read more.
There are few published studies on the association between vitamin D concentrations and preterm birth (PB) in sub-Saharan Africa. The current study aimed to assess the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH)] D) levels and PB. A matched case–control study (60 women in each arm) was conducted in Medani maternity hospital in central Sudan. The cases were women with spontaneous PB, and healthy women with term deliveries were the controls. The clinical/medical and obstetric history was gathered using a questionnaire. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum 25(OH)D levels. Women with PB had significantly lower median (interquartile range) 25(OH)D concentrations compared with the controls (18.4 (7.3) ng/mL vs. 20.2 (16.5) ng/mL, p = 0.001). Forty-two (70.0%) women with PB and 29 (48.3%) women in the control group had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D level ≤ 20 ng/mL). The results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that the 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with PB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87–0.97). Vitamin D-deficient pregnant women were at a higher risk of PB (aOR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.17–6.23). Low 25(OH)D concentrations were found at the time the variable was determined in women with spontaneous PB and were an independent risk factor for PB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Article
The Association between Online Learning and Food Consumption and Lifestyle Behaviors and Quality of Life in Terms of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students during COVID-19 Restrictions
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040890 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic caused the abrupt replacement of traditional face-to-face classes into online classes. Several studies showed that online teaching and learning produced adverse mental health for students. However, no research has been conducted so far analyzing the association between the duration of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused the abrupt replacement of traditional face-to-face classes into online classes. Several studies showed that online teaching and learning produced adverse mental health for students. However, no research has been conducted so far analyzing the association between the duration of online and food consumption and lifestyle behaviors and quality of life in terms of mental health of undergraduate students. This study aimed to determine the association between the duration of online learning and food consumption behaviors, lifestyles, and quality of life in terms of mental health among Thai undergraduate students during COVID-19 restrictions. A cross-sectional online survey of 464 undergraduate students was conducted at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, between March and May 2021. The majority of undergraduate students stated that they spent 3–6 h per day on online learning (76.1%) and used their digital devices such as computers, tablets, or smartphones more than 6 h per day (76.9%). In addition, they had 75.4% of skipping breakfast (≥3 times/week) and 63.8% of sleep duration (6–8 h/day). A higher proportion of students who drank tea or coffee with milk and sugar while online learning was observed. The results found that the increased duration of online learning was significantly associated with skipping breakfast and the frequency of sugary beverage consumption. On the other hand, the increased computer, tablet, and smartphone usage for online learning was correlated with lower sleep duration and a poor quality of life in terms of mental health. The findings from this study contribute to a report of the association between online learning and food consumption and lifestyle behaviors and quality of life of undergraduate students, emphasizing the necessity for intervention strategies to promote healthy behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
Healthy Aging and Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040889 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
A number of factors contribute to the complex process of aging, which finally define whether someone will or not develop age-associated chronic diseases in late life. These determinants comprise genetic susceptibility as well as various behavioral, environmental, and dietary factors, all of which [...] Read more.
A number of factors contribute to the complex process of aging, which finally define whether someone will or not develop age-associated chronic diseases in late life. These determinants comprise genetic susceptibility as well as various behavioral, environmental, and dietary factors, all of which have been shown to influence specific pathways regulating the aging process and the extension of life, which makes longevity a multidimensional phenomenon. Although a “miraculous elixir” or a “nutrition pill” are not plausible, researchers agree on the notion that nutritional factors have major impact on the risk of age-associated chronic non-communicable diseases and mortality. In recent years nutrition research in relation to health outcomes has considerably changed from focusing exclusively on single nutrients to considering combinations of foods rather than nutrients in isolation. Although research on specific nutrients is scientifically valid providing crucial evidence on the mechanisms by which nutrition impacts health, the recent switch targeting the multifaceted synergistic interplay among nutrients, other dietary constituents, and whole foods, has promoted emerging interest on the actions of total dietary patterns. This narrative review aims to describe some specific dietary patterns with evidence of associations with reduction in the incidence of chronic diseases allowing older adults to live a long-lasting and healthier life, and confirming the powerful impact nutrition can exert on healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
Editorial
Nutrition and Diet in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040888 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are chronic systemic immune/inflammatory conditions characterized by the interaction between gene predisposition, autoimmunity and environmental factors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Article
Effect of Dietary Glycemic Index on β-Cell Function in Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040887 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1720
Abstract
The glycemic index (GI) reflects the relative ability of carbohydrates to raise blood glucose. We utilized a controlled feeding study to assess the impact of the dietary GI on β-cell function in adults with prediabetes (17F/18M, mean ± SEM: BMI 32.44 ± 0.94 [...] Read more.
The glycemic index (GI) reflects the relative ability of carbohydrates to raise blood glucose. We utilized a controlled feeding study to assess the impact of the dietary GI on β-cell function in adults with prediabetes (17F/18M, mean ± SEM: BMI 32.44 ± 0.94 kg/m2, age 54.2 ± 1.57 years). Following a 2 week Control diet (GI = 55–58), participants were randomized to either a 4 week low GI (LGI: GI < 35, n = 17) or high GI (HGI: GI > 70, n = 18) diet (55% of energy from carbohydrate/30% fat/15% protein). The data from 4 h meal tolerance tests (MTTs) underwent mathematical modeling to assess insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function. Glucose concentrations during the MTT decreased on the LGI diet (p < 0.001) and trended to increase on the HGI diet (p = 0.14; LGI vs. HGI p < 0.001), with parallel changes in insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Total insulin secretion, adjusted for glucose and insulin sensitivity, increased on the LGI diet (p = 0.002), and trended lower on the HGI diet (p = 0.10; LGI vs. HGI p = 0.001). There was no significant diet effect on insulin sensitivity or other measures of β-cell function. Total insulin clearance increased on the LGI diet (p = 0.01; LGI vs. HGI p < 0.001). We conclude that short-term consumption of an LGI diet reduced glucose exposure and insulin secretion but had no impact on measures of β-cell function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
Dietary Patterns and Their Association with Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors in Filipino Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040886 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 963
Abstract
Recent studies have investigated dietary patterns to assess the overall dietary habits of specific populations. However, limited epidemiological research has been conducted to explore the unique dietary intakes in low and middle-income countries. This study aims to examine the dietary patterns of Filipino [...] Read more.
Recent studies have investigated dietary patterns to assess the overall dietary habits of specific populations. However, limited epidemiological research has been conducted to explore the unique dietary intakes in low and middle-income countries. This study aims to examine the dietary patterns of Filipino adults and their association with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. A total of 10,025 adults (≥20 years old) who participated in the 2013 Philippine National Nutrition Survey were included in the analysis. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis of 18 food groups from the dietary survey component. Six dietary patterns were identified, namely (1) rice; (2) cereal, milk, sugar, and oil; (3) fruits and miscellaneous food; (4) fish; (5) vegetables and corn; and (6) meat and beverage. Generalized ordered logistic regression analysis indicated that the dietary patterns were associated with different factors, specifically sex, age, educational attainment, marital status, employment status, household size, wealth quintile, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Our findings showed distinct dietary patterns among Filipino adults that were influenced by various sociodemographic and lifestyle parameters. The results of this study have valuable public health implications and the dietary patterns generated can further be used to analyze the link between diet and health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Automated Detection of Caffeinated Coffee-Induced Short-Term Effects on ECG Signals Using EMD, DWT, and WPD
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040885 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 708
Abstract
The effect of coffee (caffeinated) on electro-cardiac activity is not yet sufficiently researched. In the current study, the occurrence of coffee-induced short-term changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals was examined. Further, a machine learning model that can efficiently detect coffee-induced alterations in cardiac activity [...] Read more.
The effect of coffee (caffeinated) on electro-cardiac activity is not yet sufficiently researched. In the current study, the occurrence of coffee-induced short-term changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals was examined. Further, a machine learning model that can efficiently detect coffee-induced alterations in cardiac activity is proposed. The ECG signals were decomposed using three different joint time–frequency decomposition methods: empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transforms, and wavelet packet decomposition with varying decomposition parameters. Various statistical and entropy-based features were computed from the decomposed coefficients. The statistical significance of these features was computed using Wilcoxon’s signed-rank (WSR) test for significance testing. The results of the WSR tests infer a significant change in many of these parameters after the consumption of coffee (caffeinated). Further, the analysis of the frequency bands of the decomposed coefficients reveals that most of the significant change was localized in the lower frequency band (<22.5 Hz). Herein, the performance of nine machine learning models is compared and a gradient-boosted tree classifier is proposed as the best model. The results suggest that the gradient-boosted tree (GBT) model that was developed using a db2 mother wavelet at level 2 decomposition shows the highest mean classification accuracy of 78%. The outcome of the current study will open up new possibilities in detecting the effects of drugs, various food products, and alcohol on cardiac functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Health and Performance)
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