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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 20 (October-2 2022) – 221 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dietary fats, and especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), have been blamed for being the culprit in the dramatic increase in obesity and its associated diseases. However multiple systematic reviews and recent meta-analyses do not support the association between SFA and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to test whether specific types and subtypes of dietary fats are associated with metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: Nutritional and demographic data of 1936 adults living in the south of Italy were examined. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were administered to assess the intake of total dietary fat and each specific class of dietary fat, such as SFA, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). View this paper
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Article
Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Physical Function in Patients with Sarcopenia during Hospitalized Rehabilitation
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204439 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and functional improvement in hospitalized patients with sarcopenia. In this retrospective cohort study, physical activity (light-intensity physical activity [LIPA]; moderate-to-physical activity [MVPA]) was measured using a triaxial accelerometer in patients with [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and functional improvement in hospitalized patients with sarcopenia. In this retrospective cohort study, physical activity (light-intensity physical activity [LIPA]; moderate-to-physical activity [MVPA]) was measured using a triaxial accelerometer in patients with sarcopenia undergoing rehabilitation on hospital admission. The primary outcome was physical function measured with the SPPB and activity of daily living (ADL) measured with the functional independence measure scores for motor function (FIM-M) at hospital discharge. Multiple regression analysis was per-formed to investigate the relationship between the objectively measured physical activity and functional outcomes. A total of 182 patients with sarcopenia (aged 81; interquartile range (IQR) 13 years) were included in this study. In the multiple regression analysis, LIPA was associated with the SPPB score at discharge (β = 0.180, p = 0.015) but not with FIM-M at discharge. MVPA was not associated with SPPB or FIM-M scores at discharge. In conclusion, LIPA on admission is independently associated with physical function, but not ADL, in patients with sarcopenia undergoing hospitalized rehabilitation. Full article
Article
Consumer Awareness of the Degree of Industrial Food Processing and the Association with Healthiness—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204438 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Consumption of ultraprocessed foods (UPFs) has been associated with lower diet quality, obesity, and adverse health effects. Not much is known about how consumers evaluate the degree of processing of a food product and how they relate this to healthiness. An online questionnaire [...] Read more.
Consumption of ultraprocessed foods (UPFs) has been associated with lower diet quality, obesity, and adverse health effects. Not much is known about how consumers evaluate the degree of processing of a food product and how they relate this to healthiness. An online questionnaire was completed by a total of 277 Dutch, 204 Italian, and 181 Brazilian consumers. Consumers were aged 18–65 year, mean 38 ± 13 year, 31% were males, and 71% were highly educated. Pictures of several common food products were evaluated on the degree of industrial processing and healthiness. Thirteen food categories were included, each including one minimally processed food (MPF), one High NS_UPF (Nutri-Score A or B), and one Low NS_UPF (Nutri-Score D or E). Lastly, knowledge and attitude about UPFs were assessed. Ultraprocessing was perceived as unhealthy by the majority of consumers (Dutch, Italian: 55%; Brazilian: 75%) and contributed to weight gain according to: 38% Dutch, 51% Italian, and 70% Brazilian consumers. Low NS_UPFs were correctly rated toward “processed” and “not healthy” in all countries. High NS_UPF were rated as processed but showed large variations in healthiness scores. In conclusion, consumers rated UPFs relatively low in healthiness compared with MPFs with similar Nutri-Scores within the same food category. These preliminary findings suggest that consumers incorporate, to some extent, the degree of industrial processing while assessing the healthiness of food products. Full article
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Article
Higher Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Improved Insulin Sensitivity and Selected Markers of Inflammation in Individuals Who Are Overweight and Obese without Diabetes
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204437 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Insulin resistance (IR) and chronic low-grade inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate two dietary indices: Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and their associations [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance (IR) and chronic low-grade inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate two dietary indices: Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and their associations with direct measures of glucose metabolism and adiposity, and biochemical measures including lipids, cytokines and adipokines in overweight/obese adults. This cross-sectional study included 65 participants (males = 63%; age 31.3 ± 8.5 years). Dietary intake via 3-day food diaries was used to measure adherence to MDS (0–45 points); higher scores indicating adherence. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated with higher scores indicating a pro-inflammatory diet. IR was assessed using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, insulin secretion by intravenous glucose tolerance test, adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and circulating cytokine and adipokine concentrations by multiplex assays. Higher MDS was associated with greater insulin sensitivity (β = 0.179; 95%CI: 0.39, 0.318) after adjusting for age, sex and % body fat, and lower NF-κB, higher adiponectin and adipsin in unadjusted and adjusted models. Higher E-DII score was associated with increased total cholesterol (β = 0.364; 95%CI: 0.066, 0.390) and LDL-cholesterol (β = 0.305; 95%CI: 0.019, 0.287) but not with adiposity, glucose metabolism, cytokines or adipokines. Greater MDS appears to be associated with decreased IR and inflammatory markers in overweight/obese adults. Full article
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Article
Higher Potassium Intake and Lower Sodium Intake May Help in Reducing CVD Risk by Lowering Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure in the Han Chinese Population
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204436 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Sodium (Na) reduction with a parallel supplemental potassium (K) intake can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The relationship of the urinary Na/K ratio and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) with CVDs is not clearly explained. We assumed that the SSBP mediates the relationship [...] Read more.
Sodium (Na) reduction with a parallel supplemental potassium (K) intake can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The relationship of the urinary Na/K ratio and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) with CVDs is not clearly explained. We assumed that the SSBP mediates the relationship between the Na/K ratio and CVDs. In total, 2055 subjects who had 24 h urine collected and SSBP determined were included in this study. CVD risk was estimated using the China-PAR equation. MediationMultivariate logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the Na/K ratio or SSBP with CVD risk. Mediation analysis using a logistic regression model was performed. Both the urinary Na/K ratio and SSBP were related to the estimated CVD risk (p < 0.05). The mediation analysis found that SSBP mediated approximately 12% of the association between Na/K ratio and CVD risk. Our findings indicate that higher K intake and lower Na intake may help in preventing CVD risk by reducing SSBP risk in individuals with normotension or stage-one hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Health throughout the Life Cycle)
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Article
PROTEIN AI Advisor: A Knowledge-Based Recommendation Framework Using Expert-Validated Meals for Healthy Diets
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204435 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 817
Abstract
AI-based software applications for personalized nutrition have recently gained increasing attention to help users follow a healthy lifestyle. In this paper, we present a knowledge-based recommendation framework that exploits an explicit dataset of expert-validated meals to offer highly accurate diet plans spanning across [...] Read more.
AI-based software applications for personalized nutrition have recently gained increasing attention to help users follow a healthy lifestyle. In this paper, we present a knowledge-based recommendation framework that exploits an explicit dataset of expert-validated meals to offer highly accurate diet plans spanning across ten user groups of both healthy subjects and participants with health conditions. The proposed advisor is built on a novel architecture that includes (a) a qualitative layer for verifying ingredient appropriateness, and (b) a quantitative layer for synthesizing meal plans. The first layer is implemented as an expert system for fuzzy inference relying on an ontology of rules acquired by experts in Nutrition, while the second layer as an optimization method for generating daily meal plans based on target nutrient values and ranges. The system’s effectiveness is evaluated through extensive experiments for establishing meal and meal plan appropriateness, meal variety, as well as system capacity for recommending meal plans. Evaluations involved synthetic data, including the generation of 3000 virtual user profiles and their weekly meal plans. Results reveal a high precision and recall for recommending appropriate ingredients in most user categories, while the meal plan generator achieved a total recommendation accuracy of 92% for all nutrient recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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Article
Role of Inflammatory Factors in Mediating the Effect of Lipids on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Two-Step, Multivariable Mendelian Randomization Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204434 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Aims/hypothesis: 20–80% of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) have been observed to have dyslipidemia. Nevertheless, the probable mechanism of dyslipidemia’s effect on NAFLD remains unclear. Mendelian randomization (MR) was utilized to investigate the relationship between lipids, inflammatory factors, and NAFLD; and also, to [...] Read more.
Aims/hypothesis: 20–80% of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) have been observed to have dyslipidemia. Nevertheless, the probable mechanism of dyslipidemia’s effect on NAFLD remains unclear. Mendelian randomization (MR) was utilized to investigate the relationship between lipids, inflammatory factors, and NAFLD; and also, to determine the proportion mediated by interleukin-17(IL-17) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) for the effect between lipids and NAFLD. Methods: Summary statistics of traits were obtained from the latest and largest genome-wide association study (GWAS). The UK Biobank provided a summary of lipid statistics, which comprised up to 500,000 participants of European descent. And NAFLD GWAS summary statistics were obtained from the FinnGen Biobank which included a total sample size of 218,792 participants of European ancestry. In order to gain an overall picture of how lipids affect NAFLD, MR with two samples was carried out. Multivariable MR determined lipids direct effects on NAFLD after adjusting for inflammatory factors, namely IL-1β, interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-16(IL-16), IL-17, and interleukin-18(IL-18); those lipids comprise HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB). For the purpose of determining the MR impact, an inverse variance weighted (IVW) meta-analysis of each Wald Ratio was carried out, while other methods were also performed for sensitivity analysis. Results: We discovered a positive association between genetically predicted TGs levels and a 45.5% elevated risk of NAFLD, while genetically predicted IL-1β [(IVW: OR 1.315 (1.060–1.630), p = 0.012) and IL-17 [(IVW: OR 1.468 (1.035–2.082), p = 0.032] were positively associated with 31.5% and 46.8% increased risk of NAFLD, respectively. Moreover, TG was positively associated with 10.5% increased risk of IL-1β and 17.3% increased risk of IL-17. The proportion mediated by IL-17 and IL-1β respectively and both was 2.6%, 3.1%, 14.1%. Conclusion: Genetically predicted TGs, IL-1β, and IL-17 were positively associated with increased risk of NAFLD, with evidence that IL-1β and IL-17 mediated TGs effect upon NAFLD risk. It indicated that early diet management, weight management, lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory treatment should be carried out for patients with hyperlipidemia to prevent the NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Dietary Lipids on Inflammation)
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Article
Moderate-to-Severe Malnutrition Identified by the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) Score Is Significantly Associated with Treatment Failure of Periprosthetic Joint Infection
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204433 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
The prevalence and role of malnutrition in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remain unclear. This study aimed to use measurable nutritional screening tools to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in PJI patients during two-stage exchange arthroplasty and to explore the association between malnutrition and [...] Read more.
The prevalence and role of malnutrition in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remain unclear. This study aimed to use measurable nutritional screening tools to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in PJI patients during two-stage exchange arthroplasty and to explore the association between malnutrition and treatment failure. Our study retrospectively included 183 PJI cases who underwent 1st stage exchange arthroplasty and had available nutritional parameters, of which 167 proceeded with 2nd stage reimplantation. The recently proposed Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) Outcome Reporting Tool was used to determine clinical outcomes. The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), and Naples Prognostic Score (NPS) were used to identify malnutrition at 1st and 2nd stage exchange, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between malnutrition and treatment failure. Restricted cubic spline models were further used to explore the dose–response association. Additionally, risk factors for moderate-to-severe malnutrition were evaluated. Malnourished patients identified by CONUT, NPS, and NRI accounted for 48.1% (88/183), 98.9% (181/183), and 55.7% (102/183) of patients at 1st stage, and 9.0% (15/167), 41.9% (70/167), and 43.1% (72/167) at 2nd stage, indicating a significant improvement in nutritional status. We found that poorer nutritional status was a predictor of treatment failure, with CONUT performing best as a predictive tool. Moderate-to-severe malnutrition at 1st stage identified by CONUT was significantly related to treatment failure directly caused by PJI (odds ratio [OR] = 5.86), while the OR was raised to 12.15 at 2nd stage (OR = 12.15). The linear dose–response associations between them were also confirmed (P for nonlinearity at both 1st and 2nd stage > 0.05). As for total treatment failure, moderate-to-severe malnutrition as determined by CONUT was associated with a 1.96-fold and 8.99-fold elevated risk at the 1st and 2nd stages, respectively. Age ≥ 68 years (OR = 5.35) and an increased number of previous surgeries (OR = 2.04) may be risk factors for moderate-to-severe malnutrition. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition in PJI patients is very high. Given the strong association between moderate-to-severe malnutrition identified by CONUT and PJI treatment failure, COUNT could be a promising tool to evaluate the nutritional status of PJI patients to optimize treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Mediating and Moderating Effects of Iron Homeostasis Alterations on Fetal Alcohol-Related Growth and Neurobehavioral Deficits
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204432 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
We have previously demonstrated prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)-related alterations in maternal and infant iron homeostasis. Given that early iron deficiency and PAE both lead to growth restriction and deficits in recognition memory and processing speed, we hypothesized that PAE-related iron homeostasis alterations may [...] Read more.
We have previously demonstrated prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)-related alterations in maternal and infant iron homeostasis. Given that early iron deficiency and PAE both lead to growth restriction and deficits in recognition memory and processing speed, we hypothesized that PAE-related iron homeostasis alterations may mediate and/or moderate effects of PAE on growth and neurobehavior. We examined this hypothesis in a prenatally recruited, prospective longitudinal birth cohort [87 mother-infant pairs with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (mean = 7.2 drinks/occasion on 1.4 days/week); 71 controls], with serial growth measures and infant neurobehavioral assessments. PAE was related to growth restriction at 2 weeks and 5 years, and, in infancy, poorer visual recognition memory, slower processing speed, lower complexity of symbolic play, and higher emotionality and shyness on a parental report temperament scale. Lower maternal hemoglobin-to-log(ferritin) ratio, which we have shown to be associated with PAE, appeared to exacerbate PAE-related 2-week head circumference reductions, and elevated maternal ferritin, which we have shown to be associated with PAE, appeared to exacerbate PAE-related visual recognition memory deficits. In causal inference analyses, PAE-related elevations in maternal ferritin and hemoglobin:log(ferritin) appeared to statistically mediate 22.6–82.3% of PAE-related growth restriction. These findings support potential mechanistic roles of iron homeostasis alterations in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Full article
Article
Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Over 170,000 Individuals from the UK Biobank Identifies Seven Loci Associated with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204431 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Diet is a modifiable risk factor for common chronic diseases and mental health disorders, and its effects are under partial genetic control. To estimate the impact of diet on individual health, most epidemiological and genetic studies have focused on individual aspects of dietary [...] Read more.
Diet is a modifiable risk factor for common chronic diseases and mental health disorders, and its effects are under partial genetic control. To estimate the impact of diet on individual health, most epidemiological and genetic studies have focused on individual aspects of dietary intake. However, analysing individual food groups in isolation does not capture the complexity of the whole diet pattern. Dietary indices enable a holistic estimation of diet and account for the intercorrelations between food and nutrients. In this study we performed the first ever genome-wide association study (GWA) including 173,701 individuals from the UK Biobank to identify genetic variants associated with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH was calculated using the 24 h-recall questionnaire collected by UK Biobank. The GWA was performed using a linear mixed model implemented in BOLT-LMM. We identified seven independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with DASH. Significant genetic correlations were observed between DASH and several educational traits with a significant enrichment for genes involved in the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation that controls the appetite by regulating the signalling in the hypothalamus. The colocalization analysis implicates genes involved in body mass index (BMI)/obesity and neuroticism (ARPP21, RP11-62H7.2, MFHAS1, RHEBL1). The Mendelian randomisation analysis suggested that increased DASH score, which reflect a healthy diet style, is causal of lower glucose, and insulin levels. These findings further our knowledge of the pathways underlying the relationship between diet and health outcomes. They may have significant implications for global public health and provide future dietary recommendations for the prevention of common chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Systematic Review
Do Nutrients and Nutraceuticals Play a Role in Diabetic Retinopathy? A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204430 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial neuro-microvascular disease, whose prevalence ranges from 25% to 60% of subjects affected by diabetes mellitus, representing the main cause of legal blindness in adults of industrialized countries. The treatment of advanced stage of DR is based on [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial neuro-microvascular disease, whose prevalence ranges from 25% to 60% of subjects affected by diabetes mellitus, representing the main cause of legal blindness in adults of industrialized countries. The treatment of advanced stage of DR is based on invasive and expensive therapies, while few strategies are available for the early stage or prevention. The mechanisms underlying DR involve a complex interplay between the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, providing several pathways potentially targeted by nutrients and nutraceuticals. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of observational and interventional studies, evaluating the effect of nutrients and/or nutraceuticals on the risk of DR and their potential use for the treatment of patients with DR. The analysis of the 41 included studies (27 observational and 14 interventional studies) suggests a promising preventive role of some nutrients, in particular for vitamins B (i.e., B1 and B12), D, and E. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify the potential clinical application of nutraceuticals in the prevention and treatment of DR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Association of Dietary Factors and Disease Risk)
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Article
Breastfeeding Practices and Associated Factors in Shanghai: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204429 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 745
Abstract
The status of breastfeeding practices remains unsatisfactory across China, but regional differences persist. However, disaggregated data for specific provinces are limited. This representative survey determined the status of breastfeeding and factors associated with breastfeeding practices in Shanghai. The questionnaire was designed in compliance [...] Read more.
The status of breastfeeding practices remains unsatisfactory across China, but regional differences persist. However, disaggregated data for specific provinces are limited. This representative survey determined the status of breastfeeding and factors associated with breastfeeding practices in Shanghai. The questionnaire was designed in compliance with indicators for assessing infant and young child-feeding practices defined by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). A total of 2665 children aged two years and younger (0–730 days) were investigated, among whom 1677 were aged under six months. The early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) rate was 60.3%. Among children aged under six months, 43.4% were exclusively breastfed (EBF). The univariate regression analysis showed that the EBF rate was influenced by multiple factors, including individual, socioeconomic, workplace and employment, and health system. The subsequent multivariate analysis suggested that mothers with a higher rate of EBF shared the following characteristics: intention to breastfeed during pregnancy, breastfeeding knowledge, and higher satisfaction with support through the healthcare system after delivery. The rate of EBF in Shanghai is over 40%, and supporting breastfeeding requires measures at multiple levels, including individual attributes, women’s work and employment conditions, breastfeeding knowledge, and health services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Article
Dietary Pattern Influences Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the ProcriAr Cohort Study—São Paulo, Brazil
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204428 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study identified patterns of habitual dietary intake in 385 pregnant women in São Paulo and explored their associations with excessive weight gain (EGWG). Weight at [...] Read more.
The maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study identified patterns of habitual dietary intake in 385 pregnant women in São Paulo and explored their associations with excessive weight gain (EGWG). Weight at the first visit (<14 weeks) was used as a proxy for pre-pregnancy weight. Food consumption was assessed using the 24HR method, administered twice at each gestational trimester, and dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Three dietary patterns were identified: “Vegetables and Fruits,” “Western,” and “Brazilian Traditional.” Descriptive data analysis was performed using absolute and relative frequencies for each independent variable and multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used to analyze excessive gestational gain weight (EGWG) and dietary patterns (DP). The Brazilian Traditional dietary pattern showed a protective effect on EGWG (p = 0.04) and age > 35 years (p = 0.03), while subjects overweight at baseline had a higher probability of EGWG (p = 0.02), suggesting that the identification of dietary and weight inadequacies should be observed from the beginning of pregnancy, accompanied by nutritional intervention and weight monitoring throughout the gestational period to reduce risks to the mother and child’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet, Lifestyle on Maternal and Offspring Obesity)
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Article
Age-Specific Differences in Online Grocery Shopping Behaviors and Attitudes among Adults with Low Income in the United States in 2021
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204427 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Background: Online grocery shopping has surged in popularity, but we know little about online grocery shopping behaviors and attitudes of adults with low income, including differences by age. Methods: From October to November 2021, we used a survey research firm to recruit a [...] Read more.
Background: Online grocery shopping has surged in popularity, but we know little about online grocery shopping behaviors and attitudes of adults with low income, including differences by age. Methods: From October to November 2021, we used a survey research firm to recruit a convenience sample of adults who have ever received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits (n = 3526). Participants completed an online survey designed to assess diet and online food shopping behaviors. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between participant characteristics, including age, and the likelihood of online grocery shopping, and separately examined variation in the reasons for online grocery shopping by age. Results: About 54% of the participants reported shopping online for groceries in the previous 12 months. Odds of online shopping were higher for those aged 18–33 years (OR = 1.95 (95% CI: 1.52, 2.52; p < 0.001)) and 34–44 years (OR = 1.50 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.90; p < 0.001)) than for those aged ≥65 years. Odds were also higher for those who were food insecure and those with income below USD 20,000, higher educational attainment, and higher fruit and vegetable intake. Low prices were the most popular reason for online grocery shopping (57%). Adults aged 18–33 years old had higher odds of reporting low prices as a motivating factor than older adults (OR = 2.34 (95% CI: 1.78, 3.08; p < 0.001)) and lower odds of reporting being discouraged by lack of social interaction (OR = 0.34 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.45; p < 0.001)). Conclusion: Strategies for making online grocery shopping more affordable for adults with lower income may be promising, especially online produce. For older adults, additional support may be needed to make online shopping a suitable replacement for in-store shopping, such as education on technology and combining it with opportunities for social support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Healthy Aging)
Article
Toxicity Investigations of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate Glycerides In Vitro and in Male and Female Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204426 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 675
Abstract
TCN006, a formulation of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate glycerides, is a promising ingredient for enhancing ketone intake of humans. Ketones have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. To be used by humans, TCN006 must be determined safe in appropriately designed safety studies. The [...] Read more.
TCN006, a formulation of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate glycerides, is a promising ingredient for enhancing ketone intake of humans. Ketones have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. To be used by humans, TCN006 must be determined safe in appropriately designed safety studies. The results of a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro mammalian micronucleus study, and 14-and 90-day repeat dose toxicity studies in rats are reported herein. In the 14- and 90-day studies, male and female Wistar rats had free access to drinking water containing 0, 75,000, 125,000 or 200,000 ppm TCN006 for 92 and 93 days, respectively. TCN006 tested negative for genotoxicity and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for toxicity in the 14- and 90-day studies was 200,000 ppm, the highest dose administered. In the longer term study, the mean overall daily intake of TCN006 in the 200,000 ppm groups was 14,027.9 mg/kg bw/day for males and 20,507.0 mg/kg bw/day for females. At this concentration, palatability of water was likely affected, which led to a decrease in water consumption in both males and females compared to respective controls. This had no effect on the health of the animals. Although the rats were administered very high levels of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate glycerides, there were no signs of ketoacidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Haplotype of ESR1 and PPARD Genes Is Associated with Higher Anthropometric Changes in Han Chinese Obesity by Adjusting Dietary Factors—An 18-Month Follow-Up
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204425 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The obesity genetic effect may play a major role in obesogenic environment. A combined case–control and an 18-month follow-up were carried out, including a total of 311 controls and 118 obese cases. All participants were aged in the range of 20–55 y/o. The [...] Read more.
The obesity genetic effect may play a major role in obesogenic environment. A combined case–control and an 18-month follow-up were carried out, including a total of 311 controls and 118 obese cases. All participants were aged in the range of 20–55 y/o. The body mass index (BMI) of obese cases and normal controls was in the range of 27.0–34.9 and 18.5–23.9 kg/m2, respectively. The rs712221 on Estrogen receptor1 (ESR1) and rs2016520 on Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor delta (PPARD) showed significant associations with obesity. The TT (odds ratio (OR): 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46–4.01) and TT/TC (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.14–6.85) genotypes on rs712221 and rs2016520 had significantly higher obesity risks, respectively. Moreover, the synergic effect of these two risk SNPs (2-RGH) exhibited an almost geometrical increase in obesity risk (OR: 7.00; 95% CI: 2.23–21.99). Obese individuals with 2-RGH had apparently higher changes in BMI increase, body weight gain and dietary fiber intake but a lower total energy intake within the 18-month follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Article
Does Supplementary Information Add Value to Functional Food? Evidence from a Choice Experiment in China
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204424 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Establishing an effective choice architecture system enables people to improve their ability to make better food choices and encourage transformation of the food system into one that is more efficient, healthy, and sustainable. However, affecting consumer preferences by improving information supply is still [...] Read more.
Establishing an effective choice architecture system enables people to improve their ability to make better food choices and encourage transformation of the food system into one that is more efficient, healthy, and sustainable. However, affecting consumer preferences by improving information supply is still a crucial issue that has not been comprehensively explored in China and many developing countries. This study aimed to identify the most effective information treatment method for increasing the likelihood of purchase and willingness to pay (WTP) for nutritionally enhanced eggs. A survey with five information treatments and a choice experiment was completed by a random sample of 2379 Chinese consumers, and the mixed logit model was subsequently applied to interpret the results. It was found that when nutritional information (NI), health benefit information (HBI), and/or market status quo information (MSQ) was presented to consumers, their utility increased. Different schemes had different effects on participants’ WTP. The HBI from scientific research institution, provided in the form of leaflets, has the most significant effect on improving WTP, increasing the WTP of consumers by 31.65%. WTP for functional eggs increased similarly in response to NI and MSQ information. However, adding NI to HBI did not significantly increase the value of functional eggs, especially when the information was presented to the interviewees in the form of short videos. This research broadens the present knowledge and application of an information communication strategy by suggesting that the combination of information content, carriers, source influence consumer preference and WTP for nutritionally enhanced eggs. The results have implications for the communication practices of food enterprises to optimize their marketing strategies and improve product innovation to add more value to the functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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Review
Using a Very Low Energy Diet to Achieve Substantial Preconception Weight Loss in Women with Obesity: A Review of the Safety and Efficacy
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204423 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Obesity in women of reproductive age is common. Emerging evidence suggests that maternal obesity not only increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes but also has an enduring impact on the metabolic health of the offspring. Given this, management of obesity prior to [...] Read more.
Obesity in women of reproductive age is common. Emerging evidence suggests that maternal obesity not only increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes but also has an enduring impact on the metabolic health of the offspring. Given this, management of obesity prior to pregnancy is critically important. Almost all international guidelines suggest that women with obesity should aim to achieve weight loss prior to pregnancy. However, current pre-conception weight loss therapies are sub-optimal. Lifestyle modification typically results in modest weight loss. This may assist fertility but does not alter pregnancy outcomes. Bariatric surgery results in substantial weight loss, which improves pregnancy outcomes for the mother but may be harmful to the offspring. Alternative approaches to the management of obesity in women planning pregnancy are needed. Very low energy diets (VLEDs) have been proposed as a possible tool to assist women with obesity achieve weight loss prior to conception. While VLEDs can induce substantial and rapid weight loss, there are concerns about the impact of rapid weight loss on maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy and about inadvertent exposure of the early fetus to ketosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the safety and efficacy of a preconception VLED program as a tool to achieve substantial weight loss in women with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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Review
Nutritional Programming: History, Hypotheses, and the Role of Prenatal Factors in the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204422 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
Childhood obesity and the numerous lifestyle diseases associated with it are undoubtedly among the key problems in modern medicine and public health. However, this problem concerns not only the present or immediate future, but also the longer term. Adult health is fundamentally shaped [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity and the numerous lifestyle diseases associated with it are undoubtedly among the key problems in modern medicine and public health. However, this problem concerns not only the present or immediate future, but also the longer term. Adult health is fundamentally shaped in the first years of life and in the fetal period. The preconceptual period, which is responsible for the proper preparation of the internal environment for the life and development of the fetus during pregnancy, is also significant. A special role in describing the phenomenon of conditioning the metabolism of the new human being is now attributed to the theory of nutritional programming. Research in this area was pioneered by David Barker, who put forward the theory of the “stunted phenotype” and described the relationship between a child’s birth weight, which is largely a consequence of the mother’s feeding behaviour, and diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes (T2D), dyslipidemia, or high blood pressure. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the history, theory, and prenatal mechanisms involved in nutritional programming and its relationship to childhood obesity and other metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Nutritional Intervention in Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Anti-Gouty Arthritis and Anti-Hyperuricemia Properties of Sanghuangporus vaninii and Inonotus hispidus in Rodent Models
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204421 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Acute inflammation and hyperuricemia are associated with gouty arthritis. As an edible and therapeutic mushroom, Sanghuangporus vaninii (SV) has an inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis, and Inonotus hispidus (IH) exhibits anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. In this study, uric acid (UA) and xanthine oxidase [...] Read more.
Acute inflammation and hyperuricemia are associated with gouty arthritis. As an edible and therapeutic mushroom, Sanghuangporus vaninii (SV) has an inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis, and Inonotus hispidus (IH) exhibits anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. In this study, uric acid (UA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) levels in hyperuricemic mice were examined to determine the regulatory effects of SV and IH. SV and IH reversed the pathogenic state of elevated UA levels in the serum and reduced levels of XOD in the serum and liver of mice with hyperuricemia. SV and IH affected the inflammatory response in rats with acute gouty arthritis. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, monosodium urate crystals (MSU) increased the swelling ratio of the right ankle joints. SV and IH administration significantly reduced swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration. SV reduced the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2), whereas IH reduced the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), CCL-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which were confirmed in articular soft tissues by immunohistochemistry. In summary, our data provide experimental evidence for the applicability of SV and IH in gouty arthritis and hyperuricemia treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
The Age-Accompanied and Diet-Associated Remodeling of the Phospholipid, Amino Acid, and SCFA Metabolism of Healthy Centenarians from a Chinese Longevous Region: A Window into Exceptional Longevity
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204420 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
As centenarians provide a paradigm of healthy aging, investigating the comprehensive metabolic profiles of healthy centenarians is of utmost importance for the pursuit of health and longevity. However, relevant reports, especially studies considering the dietary influence on metabolism, are still limited, mostly lacking [...] Read more.
As centenarians provide a paradigm of healthy aging, investigating the comprehensive metabolic profiles of healthy centenarians is of utmost importance for the pursuit of health and longevity. However, relevant reports, especially studies considering the dietary influence on metabolism, are still limited, mostly lacking the guidance of a model of healthy aging. Therefore, exploring the signatures of the integrative metabolic profiles of the healthy centenarians from a famous longevous region, Bama County, China, should be an effective way. The global metabolome in urine and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces of 30 healthy centenarians and 31 elderly people aged 60–70 from the longevous region were analyzed by non-targeted metabolomics combined with metabolic target analysis. The results showed that the characteristic metabolites related to longevity were mostly summarized into phosphatidylserine, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, bile acids, and amino acids (p < 0.05). Six metabolic pathways were found significant relevant to longevity. Furthermore, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and total SCFA were significantly increased in the centenarian group (p < 0.05) and were also positively associated with the dietary fiber intake (p < 0.01). It was age-accompanied and diet-associated remodeling of phospholipid, amino acid, and SCFA metabolism that expressed the unique metabolic signatures related to exceptional longevity. This metabolic remodeling is suggestive of cognitive benefits, better antioxidant capacity, the attenuation of local inflammation, and health-span-promoting processes, which play a critical and positive role in shaping healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Review
Fibre Intake in Chronic Kidney Disease: What Fibre Should We Recommend?
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204419 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global health problem that challenges all patients’ healthcare needs. Fibre consumption benefits kidney patients by acting preventively on associated risk factors, improving intestinal microbiota composition or reducing metabolic acidosis and inflammation. In this review, we focus [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global health problem that challenges all patients’ healthcare needs. Fibre consumption benefits kidney patients by acting preventively on associated risk factors, improving intestinal microbiota composition or reducing metabolic acidosis and inflammation. In this review, we focus on increasing fibre consumption and the quality of fibre to recommend, in addition to increasing the consumption of foods that naturally have it in their design, that can resort to fortified foods or fibre supplements. The Western nutritional practice, which is low in fibre and rich in animal proteins, saturated fats, sodium, and sugar, increases the risk of mortality in these patients. On the contrary, patterns with higher consumption of fibre and vegetable proteins, such as the Mediterranean, vegetarian, or Plant dominant low protein diet (PLADO), seem to have a preventive effect on the associated risk factors and influence CKD progression. Until now, the use of fibre supplements has not achieved an evident impact on clinical results. Fibre-rich foods contain other nutrients that reduce cardiovascular risk. Promoting diets richer in vegetables and guaranteeing adequate energy and protein intake is a challenge for the multidisciplinary teams involved in the standard of care for CKD. Full article
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Article
Impact of Eating Context on Dietary Choices of College Students: Evidence from the HEALTHY-UNICT Project
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204418 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
While personal characteristics have been evaluated as determinants of dietary choices over the years, only recently studies have looked at the impact of eating context. Examining eating context, however, can be challenging. Here, we propose the use of a web-app for the Ecological [...] Read more.
While personal characteristics have been evaluated as determinants of dietary choices over the years, only recently studies have looked at the impact of eating context. Examining eating context, however, can be challenging. Here, we propose the use of a web-app for the Ecological Momentary Assessment of dietary habits among 138 college students from Catania (Italy) and therefore for examining the impact of eating context on dietary choices. Eating away from home was associated with lower odds of consuming vegetables, fruits, and legumes and higher odds of consuming processed meat, salty snacks, and alcoholic drinks compared with eating at home. Eating in the company of other people was associated with higher odds of consuming vegetables, red meat, fish, legumes, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower odds of consuming nuts than eating alone. This study proposed a new way to capture and assess how eating environment might affect dietary habits. Based on our results, meal location and social context have significant effects on the dietary choices of college students, pointing to the need to incorporate these aspects into further epidemiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Development of a Caffeine Content Table for Foods, Drinks, Medications and Supplements Typically Consumed by the Brazilian Population
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4417; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204417 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Background: The lack of a national table informing the caffeine contents in foods, drinks, dietary supplements, and medications sold in Brazil added to the noncompulsory disclosure of caffeine contents on labels of food products makes it difficult to estimate caffeine consumption in the [...] Read more.
Background: The lack of a national table informing the caffeine contents in foods, drinks, dietary supplements, and medications sold in Brazil added to the noncompulsory disclosure of caffeine contents on labels of food products makes it difficult to estimate caffeine consumption in the Brazilian population. Therefore, this study aimed to develop the Brazilian Caffeine Content Table (BraCaffT). Methods: A systematic search for caffeine levels in foods, drinks, recipes, supplements, and medications was performed through a literature review, afterward collecting data from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Data Central, information from manufacturers’ and websites, and the Brazilian official medication guide. Subsequently, data systematization was performed in a spreadsheet with standardized values presented in mg of caffeine per 100 g or 100 mL of food or drink and a capsule or pill for medications and some dietary supplements. Results: The BraCaffT presents 57 items, divided into 11 categories: coffees, teas and infusions, cocoa powder, chocolates, cocoa-based beverages, desserts, soft drinks, energy drinks, guaraná powder, dietary supplements, and medications. Conclusions: The BraCaffT emerges as an instrument of great relevance and wide applicability in clinical contexts, in academic research, and as a database for the Brazilian population to better understand the amounts of caffeine in foods, drinks, dietary supplements, and medications consumed daily favoring a safe intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
How Repeatable Is the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine? Limited Reproducibility of Acute Caffeine (3 mg.kg−1) Ingestion on Muscular Strength, Power, and Muscular Endurance
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204416 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 960
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effect of 3 mg.kg−1 acute caffeine ingestion on muscular strength, power and strength endurance and the repeatability of potential ergogenic effects across multiple trials. Twenty-two university standard male rugby union players (20 ± 2 years) completed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effect of 3 mg.kg−1 acute caffeine ingestion on muscular strength, power and strength endurance and the repeatability of potential ergogenic effects across multiple trials. Twenty-two university standard male rugby union players (20 ± 2 years) completed the study. Using a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced within-subject experimental design. Participants completed six experimental trials (three caffeine and three placebo) where force time characteristic of the Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull (IMTP), Countermovement Jump (CMJ) and Drop Jumps (DJ) were assessed followed by assessments of Chest Press (CP), Shoulder Press (SP), Squats (SQ), and Deadlifts (DL) Repetitions Until Failure (RTF at 70% 1 RM). ANOVA indicated that caffeine improved both the CMJ and DJ (p < 0.044) and increased RTF in all RTF assessments (p < 0.002). When individual caffeine trials were compared to corresponding placebo trials, effect sizes ranged from trivial-large favoring caffeine irrespective of a main effect of treatment being identified in the ANOVA. These results demonstrate for the first time that the performance enhancing effects of caffeine may not be repeatable between days, where our data uniquely indicates that this is in part attributable to between sessions variation in caffeine’s ergogenic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Health and Performance)
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Article
Biological Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and the Endothelial Glycocalyx in Patients with Sepsis-Induced ARDS
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4415; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204415 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
(1) Background: The disease-modifying mechanisms of high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) in sepsis induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is unclear. (2) Methods: We performed a post hoc study of plasma biomarkers from subjects enrolled in the randomized placebo-controlled trial CITRIS-ALI. We explored [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The disease-modifying mechanisms of high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) in sepsis induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is unclear. (2) Methods: We performed a post hoc study of plasma biomarkers from subjects enrolled in the randomized placebo-controlled trial CITRIS-ALI. We explored the effects of HDIVC on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and syndecan-1, surrogates for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, respectively. (3) Results: In 167 study subjects, baseline cfDNA levels in HDIVC (84 subjects) and placebo (83 subjects) were 2.18 ng/µL (SD 4.20 ng/µL) and 2.65 ng/µL (SD 3.87 ng/µL), respectively, p = 0.45. At 48-h, the cfDNA reduction was 1.02 ng/µL greater in HDIVC than placebo, p = 0.05. Mean baseline syndecan-1 levels in HDIVC and placebo were 9.49 ng/mL (SD 5.57 ng/mL) and 10.83 ng/mL (SD 5.95 ng/mL), respectively, p = 0.14. At 48 h, placebo subjects exhibited a 1.53 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.96 to 2.11) increase in syndecan-1 vs. 0.75 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.21 to 1.29, p = 0.05), in HDIVC subjects. (4) Conclusions: HDIVC infusion attenuated cell-free DNA and syndecan-1, biomarkers associated with sepsis-induced ARDS. Improvement of these biomarkers suggests amelioration of NETosis and shedding of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx, respectively. Full article
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Review
Targeting the Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor (PAF-R): Antithrombotic and Anti-Atherosclerotic Nutrients
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204414 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator that interacts with its receptor (PAF-R) to carry out cell signalling. However, under certain conditions the binding of PAF to PAF-R leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways that have been implicated in the [...] Read more.
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator that interacts with its receptor (PAF-R) to carry out cell signalling. However, under certain conditions the binding of PAF to PAF-R leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways that have been implicated in the onset and development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and inflammatory diseases. Over the past four decades, research has focused on the identification and development of PAF-R antagonists that target these inflammatory diseases. Research has also shown that dietary factors such as polar lipids, polyphenols, and other nutrient constituents may affect PAF metabolism and PAF-R function through various mechanisms. In this review we focus on the inhibition of PAF-R and how this may contribute to reducing cardiovascular disease risk. We conclude that further development of PAF-R inhibitors and human studies are required to investigate how modulation of the PAF-R may prevent the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. Full article
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Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Antidiabetic Properties and Mechanisms of Ficus tikoua Bur.
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204413 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
In folk medicine, Ficus tikoua (F. tikoua) has been used to treat diabetes for a long time, but there is a rare modern pharmacological investigation for its antidiabetic effect and mechanisms. Our study aimed to evaluate its hypoglycemic effect using in [...] Read more.
In folk medicine, Ficus tikoua (F. tikoua) has been used to treat diabetes for a long time, but there is a rare modern pharmacological investigation for its antidiabetic effect and mechanisms. Our study aimed to evaluate its hypoglycemic effect using in vitro and in vivo experimental models and then explore the possible mechanisms. In the ethanol extracts and fractions of F. tikoua, n-butanol fraction (NBF) exhibited the most potent effect on inhibiting α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 0.89 ± 0.04 μg/mL) and promoting glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Further animal experiments showed that NBF could play an antidiabetic role by ameliorating random blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, HbA1c level, and islets damage in diabetic mice. Then, the activities of the five subfractions of NBF (NBF1-NBF5) were further evaluated; NBF2 showed stronger α-glucosidase inhibition activities (IC50 = 0.32 ± 0.05 μg/mL) than NBF. Moreover, NBF2 also possessed the ability to promote glucose uptake, which was mediated via P13K/AKT and AMPK pathways. This study demonstrated that F. tikoua possesses antidiabetic efficacy in vitro and in vivo and provided a scientific basis for its folk medicinal use. NBF2 might be potential natural candidate drugs to treat diabetes mellitus. It is the first time the antidiabetic activity and the potential mechanisms of NBF2 were reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Review
An Overview of Nutritional Aspects in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204412 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 710
Abstract
There is evidence that nutritional impairment can complicate juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is also recognized that the JIA drug treatment may affect the nutritional aspects of patients. It is crucial to understand the impacts that nutritional aspects can have on a patient’s [...] Read more.
There is evidence that nutritional impairment can complicate juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is also recognized that the JIA drug treatment may affect the nutritional aspects of patients. It is crucial to understand the impacts that nutritional aspects can have on a patient’s treatment, health, and life. Therefore, this review explores how nutrition influences juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Dietary aspects play essential roles in JIA patients’ growth, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), inflammation, and recovery. Suboptimal nutrition seems to adversely affect the long-term outcome of JIA patients. Nutritional deficiency potentially affects JIA patients’ general wellbeing and disease control and contributes to growth, inflammation, BMI, and BMD disturbances. It was also possible to verify that the correct status of nutrients helps the body recover and reduce inflammation in JIA patients, since nutritional status and nutrients play an important role in regulating immune function. Studies are diverse, and most analyze the effects of a single nutrient on JIA. Moreover, the diet and nutrition impacts are difficult to interpret in the pediatric population due to family influence, dietary regulation, and data collection in children/adolescents. Despite the lack of standardization among studies, the potential benefits of a healthy diet on short- and long-term health and wellbeing in JIA patients are noteworthy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Systematic Review
The Association between Circulating Branched Chain Amino Acids and the Temporal Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204411 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Introduction: Recent studies have concluded that elevated circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. However, the development of this association over time and the quantification of the strength of this association [...] Read more.
Introduction: Recent studies have concluded that elevated circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. However, the development of this association over time and the quantification of the strength of this association for individual BCAAs prior to T2DM diagnosis remains unexplored. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using the Healthcare Databases Advance Search (HDAS) via the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) website. The data sources included EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed for all papers from inception until November 2021. Nine studies were identified in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Stratification was based on follow-up times (0–6, 6–12 and 12 or more years) and controlling of body mass index (BMI) through the specific assessment of overweight cohorts was also undertaken. Results: The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant positive association between BCAA concentrations and the development of T2DM, with valine OR = 2.08 (95% CI = 2.04–2.12, p < 0.00001), leucine OR = 2.25 (95% CI = 1.76–2.87, p < 0.00001) and isoleucine OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 2.00–2.25, p < 0.00001. In addition, we demonstrated a positive consistent temporal association between circulating BCAA levels and the risk of developing T2DM with differentials in the respective follow-up times of 0–6 years, 6–12 years and ≥12 years follow-up for valine (OR = 2.08, 1.86 and 2.14, p < 0.05 each), leucine (OR = 2.10, 2.25 and 2.16, p < 0.05 each) and isoleucine (OR = 2.12, 1.90 and 2.16, p < 0.05 each) demonstrated. Conclusion: Plasma BCAA concentrations are associated with T2DM incidence across all temporal subgroups. We suggest the potential utility of BCAAs as an early biomarker for T2DM irrespective of follow-up time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
The Structural Characterization and Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus abieticola Fruiting Bodies
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204410 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Polysaccharides obtained from mushrooms have been reported to possess immunomodulatory properties. In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus abieticola, entitled PAPS1. After its composition and structural analysis, the immunomodulatory activity was investigated in immunosuppressed mice [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides obtained from mushrooms have been reported to possess immunomodulatory properties. In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus abieticola, entitled PAPS1. After its composition and structural analysis, the immunomodulatory activity was investigated in immunosuppressed mice induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) at a dosage of 70 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for 7 days. After 28 days of intragastric administration, PAPS1 alleviated cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced histopathological damage and increased the expressions of splenic CD4, CD8, CD56 and IgM in the serums of immunosuppressed mice. PAPS1 suppressed the oxidative stress indicated by preventing the increases in ROS and MDA levels. According to the intestinal microflora analysis, PAPS1 regulated 11 bacteria at the gene level, including Helicobacter and Paraprevotella, which are related to immunity and oxidative capacity. Compared with CTX-treated mice, significant increases in immune-related cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-12 in the serums of mice treated with PAPS1, were observed. Finally, PAPS1 can strongly increase the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream proteins. In conclusion, PAPS1-boosted immunity may be related to its suppression on oxidative stress via enhancing the activity of Nrf2 signaling. Thus, PAPS1 can be investigated as a candidate for immunomodulatory therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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