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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 21 (November-1 2022) – 267 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sarcopenia is a multifactorial disease that limits autonomy for the growing elderly population. An optimal amount of dietary protein has shown to be important to maintain muscle mass during aging. Yet, the optimal distribution of that dietary protein has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine whether an even, compared to a skewed, distribution of daily dietary protein leads to higher muscle protein synthesis and amino acid utilization. Twelve healthy males and twelve healthy females aged between 65 and 80 years were block randomized to either an even (EVEN, n = 12) or skewed (SKEWED, n = 12) dietary protein distribution for three daily main meals. View this paper
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Article
Self-Reported Purchasing Behaviour, Sociodemographic Predictors of Plant-Based Protein Purchasing and Knowledge about Protein in Scotland and England
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4706; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214706 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Plant-based diets are seen as a food-based strategy to address both the impact of dietary patterns on the environment, to reduce climate change impact, and also to reduce rates of diet-related disease. This study investigated self-reported consumer purchasing behaviour of plant-based alternative foods [...] Read more.
Plant-based diets are seen as a food-based strategy to address both the impact of dietary patterns on the environment, to reduce climate change impact, and also to reduce rates of diet-related disease. This study investigated self-reported consumer purchasing behaviour of plant-based alternative foods (PBAF) and wholefood plant protein foods (legumes) with a cross-sectional online survey. We identified the sociodemographic factors associated with purchasing behaviour and examined knowledge about protein and plant-based diets. We recruited and obtained consent from n = 1177 adults aged >18 from England and Scotland (mean age (± standard deviation (SD)) 44 (16.4) years), across different areas of social deprivation, based on postcode. Descriptive statistics were conducted, and sociodemographic factors were examined by computing covariate-adjusted models with binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 47.4% (n = 561) consumers purchased PBAF and 88.2% (n = 1038) wholefood plant-proteins. The most frequently purchased PBAF were plant-based burgers, sausages, and mince/meatballs. Individuals from low deprivation areas were significantly more likely than individuals from high deprivation areas to purchase wholefood plant-proteins (odds ratio (OR) 3.46, p = 0.001). People from low deprivation areas were also more likely to recognise lentils as good source of protein (OR 1.94, p = 0.003) and more likely to recognise plant-based diets as healthy (OR 1.79, p = 0.004) than those from high deprived areas. These results support current trends of increasing popularity of PBAF, which is positive for the environment, but also highlights these products as being ultra-processed, which may negatively impact on health. The study also re-enforces the link between deprivation, reduced purchasing of wholefood plant-proteins and knowledge of plant-based protein and diets. Further research is needed to examine healthfulness of PBAF and how sociodemographic factors, especially deprivation, affect both food choice and consumption of wholefood plant-proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Environmentally Sustainable Diets on Human Health)
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Article
The Arabic Version of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire among Saudi Population: Translation and Validation
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214705 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Inherited individual differences in eating behaviors known as “appetitive traits” can be measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). The AEBQ can be used to assess individuals that require intervention regarding their weight, eating habits, and for the identification of eating disorders. [...] Read more.
Inherited individual differences in eating behaviors known as “appetitive traits” can be measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). The AEBQ can be used to assess individuals that require intervention regarding their weight, eating habits, and for the identification of eating disorders. Arabic eating behavior assessment tools are few. This study, therefore, aimed to translate and validate the AEBQ in Arabic language (AEBQ-Ar) and to confirm the factor structure while assessing the internal consistency of all subscales. Participants completed the AEBQ-Ar and reported their sociodemographic data online. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α. Correlations between AEBQ-Ar subscales and body mass index (BMI) were done using Pearson’s correlation. A sample of 596 adults, mean age of 35.61 ± 12.85 years, was recruited from Saudi Arabia. The 6-factor structure was the best model, excluding emotional under- eating subscale and merging enjoyment of food and food responsiveness subscales. Internal consistency was acceptable for all subscales (Cronbach’s α = 0.89–0.66). Emotional over- eating was positively associated with BMI, and slowness in eating was negatively associated with BMI. The AEBQ-Ar with 6-subscales appears to be a valid and reliable psychometric questionnaire to assess appetitive traits in Arabic speakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from the KNOW-CKD Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214704 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
As the relation between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (nHDL) level and renal outcomes has never been investigated in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) yet, we here aimed to unveil the association of nHDL with CKD progression. A total of 2152 patients [...] Read more.
As the relation between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (nHDL) level and renal outcomes has never been investigated in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) yet, we here aimed to unveil the association of nHDL with CKD progression. A total of 2152 patients with non-dialysis CKD at stages 1 to 5 from the KNOW-CKD study were categorized into the tertile (i.e., 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), and 3rd (T3) tertiles) by nHDL, and were prospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was the composite renal event, defined as a composite of decline of kidney function or onset of end-stage renal disease. Kaplan–Meier survival curves analysis demonstrated that the cumulative incidence of the composite renal event was significantly increased in T1 and T3, compared to T2 (p = 0.028, by Log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that both T1 (adjusted hazard ratio 1.309, 95% confidence interval 1.074–1.595) and T3 (adjusted hazard ratio 1.272, 95% confidence interval 1.040–1.556) are associated with significantly increased risk of a composite renal event, compared to T2. The restricted cubic spline plot demonstrated a non-linear, U-shaped association between nHDL and the risk of a composite renal event. In conclusion, both low and high serum nHDL levels are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Article
Food Insecurity among a Cohort of Division I Student-Athletes
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214703 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Background: Though the vulnerability of college students to food insecurity is well established, there is a paucity of studies focusing on the prevalence of food insecurity among student-athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with collegiate athletes in the northwestern United States via [...] Read more.
Background: Though the vulnerability of college students to food insecurity is well established, there is a paucity of studies focusing on the prevalence of food insecurity among student-athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with collegiate athletes in the northwestern United States via an anonymous online survey. Food security status was assessed using the 10-item US Department of Agriculture Adult Food Security Survey. Results: Participating athletes (45/307, 14%) were primarily White, non-Hispanic (78%) females (73%) who lived and consumed meals off-campus (62% and 69%, respectively). Food insecurity was more prevalent among collegiate athletes than the general university population, 60% vs. 42%, respectively. Being a track or football athlete significantly predicted food security status (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, respectively). The risk for food insecurity was higher among collegiate football players (effect size, η2 = 0.86) compared with track athletes (effect size, η2 = 0.40). Conclusion: A statistically significant risk for food insecurity emerged among members of the football team. Factors contributing to disparate rates of food insecurity among college populations were explored and unique considerations for collegiate athletes discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Are Foods from the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown Low in Nutrients? An Analysis of Chinese Psychological Distress Effects
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214702 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Background: The city-wide COVID-19 lockdown has resulted in psychological anguish, which may have an impact on dietary consumption. This study’s dual goals are to show how Chinese food consumption was altered before and after the lockdown, and to examine the nutrient density for [...] Read more.
Background: The city-wide COVID-19 lockdown has resulted in psychological anguish, which may have an impact on dietary consumption. This study’s dual goals are to show how Chinese food consumption was altered before and after the lockdown, and to examine the nutrient density for the psychologically affected group. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 652 people from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Macao was conducted with the aid of a web-based questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, related environmental factors, nutrient consumption, food recommendations, and psychological distress were all measured. 516 trustworthy data revealed that two nutrient-poor foods were consumed less frequently during the lockdown than they were before to the COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., salty snacks and alcoholic beverages). People who endured high levels of psychological distress in particular tended to consume more. Particularly, those who experienced high levels of psychological distress had a tendency to consume far more alcohol than people who only experienced low levels of stress. Comparing the time before the COVID-19 to the present, there has statistically been an increase in the frequency of family members recommending diets. According to research, by food advice, individuals who experience psychological distress should consume more nutrient-dense foods (78.7%) than nutrient-poor ones (61.9%). Thus, food advice plays a role in mediating the relationship between psychological distress and dietary decisions for nutrient-rich (b = 0.186, p < 0.001) or nutrient-poor (b = 0.187, p < 0.001) food groups. This study provides insights for lowering psychological distress through dietary consumption, where the exact mechanisms underlying these connections have not been thoroughly elucidated. It encourages nutrition research by recommending practical nutrition education from family and environmental activities. Chronic psychological anguish may have a crucial relationship to secure access to food and a balanced diet. Along with nutrition instruction, it is critical to develop skills in interventions such as food procurement and culinary knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition within and beyond Corona Virus)
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Article
The Contribution of Diet Therapy and Probiotics in the Treatment of Sarcopenia Induced by Prolonged Immobilization Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214701 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The prolonged immobilization associated with COVID-19 infection and the restrictions imposed by the pandemic have determined major changes in physical activity and eating habits, with a negative impact on physical performance. This study monitored non-pharmacological interventions (diet therapy and probiotics) in managing sarcopenia [...] Read more.
The prolonged immobilization associated with COVID-19 infection and the restrictions imposed by the pandemic have determined major changes in physical activity and eating habits, with a negative impact on physical performance. This study monitored non-pharmacological interventions (diet therapy and probiotics) in managing sarcopenia for patients with recent SARS-CoV-2 history (14 days). A prospective study was performed on 200 patients (between December 2020–December 2021), with SPPB score < 9, randomly divided into: Group K—DP (93 patients) with dietary therapy (protein 1.2–1.5 g/kg) and probiotics for two months; and Group K—non-DP (107 patients) without diet therapy and probiotics. All patients were included in a specific physical training program (40 min), three sessions per week. Skeletal muscle index (SMI), serum albumin, and hemoglobin were determined. The SMI was initially low for both groups without significant statistical differences (6.5 ± 0.52 kg/m2 for Group K—non-DP vs. 6.7 ± 0.57 Kg/m2 for Group K—DP, p = 0.135). After two months, significant difference between initial and final SMI values was determined for Group K—DP (6.92 ± 0.50 kg/m2 vs. 6.77 ± 0.56 kg/m2, p = 0.048). In Group K—DP, at end of study, were more patients with normal SMI (n = 32 → N = 70) values (p < 0.001) and fewer sarcopenia patients (p < 0.001). The initial serum albumin means values in the two groups (Group K—non-DP, 4.17 ± 1.04 g/dL, and Group K—DP, 3.95 ± 0.98 g/dL) were not statistically significantly different (p = 0.122). The hemoglobin level improved significantly following a hyper protein diet enriched with pro-biotics (p = 0.003). Diet therapy, consisting of increased protein intake and specific probiotics and specific physical therapy, demonstrated superiority in improving the functional status of patients with recent COVID-19 infection. Full article
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Article
Potential Allergenicity Response to Moringa oleifera Leaf Proteins in BALB/c Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214700 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The reported association of Moringa oleifera seeds and allergic disease clinically resembling occupational asthma in cosmetic manufacturing workers has resultedin the need to identify such components in the manufacturing process. However, Moringa oleifera leaves from the same plant, an important food ingredient, have [...] Read more.
The reported association of Moringa oleifera seeds and allergic disease clinically resembling occupational asthma in cosmetic manufacturing workers has resultedin the need to identify such components in the manufacturing process. However, Moringa oleifera leaves from the same plant, an important food ingredient, have limited immunotoxicity data. This study aimed to determine if Moringa oleifera leafproteins (MLP) can elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The BALB/c mice were sensitized twice and challenged 10 times to evaluate the potential allergenicityof MLP in vivo. The results showed increased levels of mast cells, total and specific IgE and IgG, severe signs of systemic anaphylaxis, and reduced body temperature compared with controls. The sensitized mice serum observed enhanced levels of histamine and Th-related cytokine release. Compared with the control group, increased levels of interleukins IL-4, IL-9, and IL-17A and enhanced expression and secretion of normal T cells were found in the culture supernatant of splenocytes treated with MLP.This study suggeststhat MLPcanelicit allergic responses; this providesmore comprehensive guidance for identifying new allergen candidates and developing hypoallergenic MLP products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Review
Direct Action of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides against a Leaky Gut
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214699 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The epithelial monolayer is the primary determinant of mucosal barrier function, and tight junction (TJ) complexes seal the paracellular space between the adjacent epithelial cells and represent the main “gate-keepers” of the paracellular route. Impaired TJ functionality results in increased permeation of the [...] Read more.
The epithelial monolayer is the primary determinant of mucosal barrier function, and tight junction (TJ) complexes seal the paracellular space between the adjacent epithelial cells and represent the main “gate-keepers” of the paracellular route. Impaired TJ functionality results in increased permeation of the “pro-inflammatory” luminal contents to the circulation that induces local and systemic inflammatory and immune responses, ultimately triggering and/or perpetuating (chronic) systemic inflammatory disorders. Increased gut leakiness is associated with intestinal and systemic disease states such as inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Modulation of TJ dynamics is an appealing strategy aiming at inflammatory conditions associated with compromised intestinal epithelial function. Recently there has been a growing interest in nutraceuticals, particularly in non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs). NDOs confer innumerable health benefits via microbiome-shaping and gut microbiota-related immune responses, including enhancement of epithelial barrier integrity. Emerging evidence supports that NDOs also exert health-beneficial effects on microbiota independently via direct interactions with intestinal epithelial and immune cells. Among these valuable features, NDOs promote barrier function by directly regulating TJs via AMPK-, PKC-, MAPK-, and TLR-associated pathways. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epithelial barrier-protective effects of different NDOs with a special focus on their microbiota-independent modulation of TJs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Article
A Town-Level Comprehensive Intervention Study to Reduce Salt Intake in China: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214698 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
We determined whether a town-level comprehensive intervention program could lower the salt intake of a population. The parallel, cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out between October 2018 and January 2020 in 48 towns from 12 counties across 6 provinces in China. All [...] Read more.
We determined whether a town-level comprehensive intervention program could lower the salt intake of a population. The parallel, cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out between October 2018 and January 2020 in 48 towns from 12 counties across 6 provinces in China. All participants were asked to complete the 24 h urine collections, anthropometric measurements and questionnaires at the baseline and one-year post-intervention survey. A total of 2693 participants aged 18 to 75 years were recruited at the baseline. A total of 1347 individuals in 24 towns were allocated to the intervention group and the others were allocated to the control group. Valid information from 2335 respondents was collected in the follow-up survey. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 189.7 mmol/24 h for the intervention group and 196.1 mmol/24 h for the control group at baseline. At a one-year follow-up, the mean effect of salt intake did not show a significant change (p = 0.31) in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, the mean result of potassium excretion in the intervention group increased by 2.18 mmol/24 h (85.03 mg/24 h) (p = 0.004) and systolic blood pressure decreased by 2.95 mmHg (p < 0.001). The salt-related knowledge and attitude toward salt reduction improved significantly in the intervention group (p < 0.05). A longer period of intervention and follow-up assessment might be needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the program on salt reduction. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Adherence to Mediterranean Diet between Spanish and German School-Children and Influence of Gender, Overweight, and Physical Activity
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214697 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Background: Poor dietary habits and low levels of physical activity (PA) have a strong tendency to track from childhood into adulthood. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is known to be extremely healthy, associated with lower BMI and a lower risk of obesity in children [...] Read more.
Background: Poor dietary habits and low levels of physical activity (PA) have a strong tendency to track from childhood into adulthood. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is known to be extremely healthy, associated with lower BMI and a lower risk of obesity in children and adolescents. Therefore, adherence to the MD was compared between Spanish (n = 182) and German (n = 152) children aged 10 to 13 years to examine a possible more “westernized” diet in Spain with a non-Mediterranean country, that traditionally prefers a “Western diet” and to determine the association between adherence to the MD and gender, body composition, and PA levels. Methods: In the German observational longitudinal cohort study and the Spanish cohort study, body composition and questionnaires (KIDMED, Diet Quality (IAES)) were obtained, and accelerometers (Actigraph) were applied to detect PA. Results: Girls had higher BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) than boys and Spanish girls were less active than boys. Differences were detected in MD habits, such as favorable fruit-, vegetables-, fish-intakes, and dairy products in Spanish children and unfavorable consumptions of fast food, processed bakery goods, candies, and sweet beverages in German children. Independently of country, girls, children with lower BMI-SDS and children with higher PA level were related with better diet quality. Conclusion: Spanish children showed higher adherence to MD and diet quality (IAES) compared to German children, but there was a trend toward a more “westernized” diet. Gender, body composition, and PA influenced nutrition regardless of country. Full article
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Review
Not Another Caffeine Effect on Sports Performance Study—Nothing New or More to Do?
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214696 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1698
Abstract
The performance-enhancing potential of acute caffeine consumption is firmly established with benefits for many aspects of physical performance and cognitive function summarised in a number of meta-analyses. Despite this, there remains near exponential growth in research articles examining the ergogenic effects of caffeine. [...] Read more.
The performance-enhancing potential of acute caffeine consumption is firmly established with benefits for many aspects of physical performance and cognitive function summarised in a number of meta-analyses. Despite this, there remains near exponential growth in research articles examining the ergogenic effects of caffeine. Many such studies are confirmatory of well-established ideas, and with a wealth of convincing evidence available, the value of further investigation may be questioned. However, several important knowledge gaps remain. As such, the purpose of this review is to summarise key knowledge gaps regarding the current understanding of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine and justify their value for future investigation. The review will provide a particular focus on ten research priorities that will aid in the translation of caffeine’s ergogenic potential to real-world sporting scenarios. The discussion presented here is therefore essential in guiding the design of future work that will aid in progressing the current understanding of the effects of caffeine as a performance enhancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Health and Performance)
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Review
Indolepropionic Acid, a Gut Bacteria-Produced Tryptophan Metabolite and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214695 - 06 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
An intricate relationship between gut microbiota, diet, and the human body has recently been extensively investigated. Gut microbiota and gut-derived metabolites, especially, tryptophan derivatives, modulate metabolic and immune functions in health and disease. One of the tryptophan derivatives, indolepropionic acid (IPA), is increasingly [...] Read more.
An intricate relationship between gut microbiota, diet, and the human body has recently been extensively investigated. Gut microbiota and gut-derived metabolites, especially, tryptophan derivatives, modulate metabolic and immune functions in health and disease. One of the tryptophan derivatives, indolepropionic acid (IPA), is increasingly being studied as a marker for the onset and development of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The IPA levels heavily depend on the diet, particularly dietary fiber, and show huge variations among individuals. We suggest that these variations could partially be explained using genetic variants known to be associated with specific diseases such as T2D. In this narrative review, we elaborate on the beneficial effects of IPA in the mitigation of T2D and NAFLD, and further study the putative interactions between IPA and well-known genetic variants (TCF7L2, FTO, and PPARG), known to be associated with the risk of T2D. We have investigated the long-term preventive value of IPA in the development of T2D in the Finnish prediabetic population and the correlation of IPA with phytosterols in obese individuals from an ongoing Kuopio obesity surgery study. The diversity in IPA-linked mechanisms affecting glucose metabolism and liver fibrosis makes it a unique small metabolite and a promising candidate for the reversal or management of metabolic disorders, mainly T2D and NAFLD. Full article
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Article
Vitamin A Nutritional Status Is a Key Determinant of Bone Mass in Children
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214694 - 06 Nov 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
The bone mass increases that occur during the period of childhood are of great significance for maximizing the peak bone mass in adults and preventing for osteoporosis. Studies have reported that VA can improve the bone health in adults. Moreover, limited studies have [...] Read more.
The bone mass increases that occur during the period of childhood are of great significance for maximizing the peak bone mass in adults and preventing for osteoporosis. Studies have reported that VA can improve the bone health in adults. Moreover, limited studies have assessed such associations in children. In this cross-sectional study including 426 children, we assessed the children’s plasma retinol concentration by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and the dietary intake of VA and carotenoids using a structured Food Frequency Questionnaire. Their bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After adjusting for potential confounders, the restricted cubic spline revealed an inverted U-shaped association between plasma retinol concentration and BMD; the estimated effects on the TBLH BMD per μmol/L increase in the plasma retinol concentration were 1.79 × 10−2 g/cm2 below 1.24 μmol/L and −5.78 × 10−3 g/cm2 above this point (p for non-linearity = 0.046). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed a positive association between the plasma retinol concentration and the TBLH BMC (β = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.64 × 10−1–3.62, p = 0.032). In conclusion, an appropriate plasma retinol concentration and greater intakes of dietary VA and β-carotene may enhance the bone mineral status of children who are aged 6–9 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Role in Bone and Muscle Health)
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Review
“Ferrocrinology”—Iron Is an Important Factor Involved in Gluco- and Lipocrinology
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214693 - 06 Nov 2022
Viewed by 955
Abstract
“Ferrocrinology” is the term used to describe the study of iron effects on the functioning of adipose tissue, which together with muscle tissue makes the largest endocrine organ in the human body. By impairing exercise capacity, reducing AMP-activated kinase activity, and enhancing insulin [...] Read more.
“Ferrocrinology” is the term used to describe the study of iron effects on the functioning of adipose tissue, which together with muscle tissue makes the largest endocrine organ in the human body. By impairing exercise capacity, reducing AMP-activated kinase activity, and enhancing insulin resistance, iron deficiency can lead to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to impaired browning of white adipose tissue and reduced mitochondrial iron content in adipocytes, iron deficiency (ID) can cause dysfunction of brown adipose tissue. By reducing ketogenesis, aconitase activity, and total mitochondrial capacity, ID impairs muscle performance. Another important aspect is the effect of ID on the impairment of thermogenesis due to reduced binding of thyroid hormones to their nuclear receptors, with subsequently impaired utilization of norepinephrine in tissues, and impaired synthesis and distribution of cortisol, which all make the body’s reactivity to stress in ID more pronounced. Iron deficiency can lead to the development of the most common endocrinopathy, autoimmune thyroid disease. In this paper, we have discussed the role of iron in the cross-talk between glucocrinology, lipocrinology and myocrinology, with thyroid hormones acting as an active bystander. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Review
The Effect of Healthy Lifestyle Strategies on the Management of Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents with Obesity: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214692 - 06 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Childhood obesity is characterized by an increased risk of several metabolic derangements including insulin resistance (IR). The strongest recommendations to prevent obesity and related complications are a balanced and adequate diet and practicing physical activity from early childhood. In this review, we propose [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is characterized by an increased risk of several metabolic derangements including insulin resistance (IR). The strongest recommendations to prevent obesity and related complications are a balanced and adequate diet and practicing physical activity from early childhood. In this review, we propose to present the effects of healthy lifestyle strategies, including physical exercise and dietary approaches, on the management of IR and related metabolic derangements. All types of exercise (aerobic, resistance and combined training) effectively reduce IR in pediatric patients with obesity; it seems that aerobic and combined training stimulate greater improvements in IR compared to resistance training. Balanced normocaloric or hypocaloric dietary approaches are also valid strategies to address IR; it is not possible to assess the long-term impact of varying macronutrients on cardiometabolic risk. The glycemic index/load evaluation is a useful dietary approach to glucose metabolism control. Similarly, they should adopt the principle of the Mediterranean diet. Randomized studies with longer monitoring are needed to define the benefits of nutritional supplementation on IR. Considering that healthy style acquisition could track to later ages, programs of healthy lifestyle starting with children offer a better preventive strategy to preserve metabolic control and children’s health. Full article
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Review
Impact of Total Parenteral Nutrition on Gut Microbiota in Pediatric Population Suffering Intestinal Disorders
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214691 - 06 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-saving therapy providing nutritional support in patients with digestive tract complications, particularly in preterm neonates due to their gut immaturity during the first postnatal weeks. Despite this, PN can also result in several gastrointestinal complications that are the [...] Read more.
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a life-saving therapy providing nutritional support in patients with digestive tract complications, particularly in preterm neonates due to their gut immaturity during the first postnatal weeks. Despite this, PN can also result in several gastrointestinal complications that are the cause or consequence of gut mucosal atrophy and gut microbiota dysbiosis, which may further aggravate gastrointestinal disorders. Consequently, the use of PN presents many unique challenges, notably in terms of the potential role of the gut microbiota on the functional and clinical outcomes associated with the long-term use of PN. In this review, we synthesize the current evidence on the effects of PN on gut microbiome in infants and children suffering from diverse gastrointestinal diseases, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and subsequent intestinal failure, liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, we discuss the potential use of pre-, pro- and/or synbiotics as promising therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of severe gastrointestinal disorders and mortality. The findings discussed here highlight the need for more well-designed studies, and harmonize the methods and its interpretation, which are critical to better understand the role of the gut microbiota in PN-related diseases and the development of efficient and personalized approaches based on pro- and/or prebiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intravenous Feeding in Infants and Children)
Article
Dietary Diversity, Micronutrient Adequacy and Bone Status during Pregnancy: A Study in Urban China from 2019 to 2020
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214690 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Diet quality during reproduction is crucial to maternal and infant health. However, the association between dietary diversity and bone health of pregnant women remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the dietary quality of Chinese urban gravidas using the dietary diversity score (DDS), and [...] Read more.
Diet quality during reproduction is crucial to maternal and infant health. However, the association between dietary diversity and bone health of pregnant women remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the dietary quality of Chinese urban gravidas using the dietary diversity score (DDS), and to explore the relationship of the DDS with micronutrient adequacy and bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 775 pregnant women aged 18 years or older in urban China. Dietary diversity was assessed using the Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) indicator. A 24-h dietary recall was used to collect diet data and to calculate the MDD-W and the nutrient intake. Bone health was measured using quantitative ultrasound and assessed by the speed of sound (SOS). Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the DDS and the nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) were calculated. A multivariable linear regression model was used to estimate the effect size of the DDS on the SOS. The mean DDS was 6.61 ± 1.53 points and 91.0% of participants reported the consumption of five or more food groups. Women in the diverse diet subgroup (DDS ≥ 7 points) were more likely to consume all kinds of food except starchy staples and had higher NARs. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the DDS and the NAR ranged from 0.161 to 0.484. For participants in the second trimester, those with a diverse diet had a higher SOS. A multivariable linear regression analysis showed that the DDS was positively and significantly associated with the SOS (β = 17.18, 95% CI = 5.97–28.39, p = 0.003), but this was not the case for women in the first and third trimesters. Urban Chinese women had good dietary diversity during pregnancy. A higher dietary diversity was associated with a higher NAR. From the point of view of bone, a diverse diet was positively correlated with better bone status, suggesting the importance of improving diet diversity for pregnant women, especially from mid-pregnancy. Full article
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Brief Report
Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Influence on Postprandial Glycemia—Results of a Short, CGM-Based, Interventional Study in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214689 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) focuses on maintaining optimal blood glucose levels, achieved with intensive insulin treatment, proper nutrition, and physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic changes under low (30%) and standard (50%) carbohydrate diets in [...] Read more.
Therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) focuses on maintaining optimal blood glucose levels, achieved with intensive insulin treatment, proper nutrition, and physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic changes under low (30%) and standard (50%) carbohydrate diets in adolescents with T1DM. A single-center cross-over nutritional study was conducted, during which 26 adolescent patients provided 220 continuous glucose-monitored (CGM) meals data from the two consecutive 3-day nutritional plans. Overall, the 50% carbohydrate diet was associated with higher postprandial glucose variability in the small meals (afternoon snacks, second breakfast) and greater postprandial peaks for other meals (breakfast, dinner, supper). Nevertheless, after the adjustment of a patient’s individual clinical variables (age, Tanner classification, glucose disposal rate), we observed that mean postprandial glucose was higher for afternoon snacks and lower for suppers in the 30% carbohydrate diet. Although a 30% carbohydrate diet seems to offer better postprandial glycemia, it requires additional attention from the physician and patient when it comes to modifying daily carbohydrate intake. Increased fat/protein content and size of the main meal lead to a prolonged postprandial glycemic response, which may affect the insulin treatment and result in suboptimal glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Nutritional Intervention in Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Exploration of the Gut–Brain Axis through Metabolomics Identifies Serum Propionic Acid Associated with Higher Cognitive Decline in Older Persons
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214688 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
The gut microbiome is involved in nutrient metabolism and produces metabolites that, via the gut–brain axis, signal to the brain and influence cognition. Human studies have so far had limited success in identifying early metabolic alterations linked to cognitive aging, likely due to [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome is involved in nutrient metabolism and produces metabolites that, via the gut–brain axis, signal to the brain and influence cognition. Human studies have so far had limited success in identifying early metabolic alterations linked to cognitive aging, likely due to limitations in metabolite coverage or follow-ups. Older persons from the Three-City population-based cohort who had not been diagnosed with dementia at the time of blood sampling were included, and repeated measures of cognition over 12 subsequent years were collected. Using a targeted metabolomics platform, we identified 72 circulating gut-derived metabolites in a case–control study on cognitive decline, nested within the cohort (discovery n = 418; validation n = 420). Higher serum levels of propionic acid, a short-chain fatty acid, were associated with increased odds of cognitive decline (OR for 1 SD = 1.40 (95% CI 1.11, 1.75) for discovery and 1.26 (1.02, 1.55) for validation). Additional analyses suggested mediation by hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. Propionic acid strongly correlated with blood glucose (r = 0.79) and with intakes of meat and cheese (r > 0.15), but not fiber (r = 0.04), suggesting a minor role of prebiotic foods per se, but a possible link to processed foods, in which propionic acid is a common preservative. The adverse impact of propionic acid on metabolism and cognition deserves further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Article
The Impact of Antenatal Balanced Plate Nutrition Education for Pregnant Women on Birth Weight: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214687 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Low birth weight (LBW) is a global public health problem with the highest prevalence in South Asia. It is strongly associated with maternal undernutrition. In South Asia, intra-household food distribution is inequitable, with lower dietary adequacy in women. Evidence that nutrition education improves [...] Read more.
Low birth weight (LBW) is a global public health problem with the highest prevalence in South Asia. It is strongly associated with maternal undernutrition. In South Asia, intra-household food distribution is inequitable, with lower dietary adequacy in women. Evidence that nutrition education improves diet during pregnancy and reduces LBW is weak. We assessed the impact of nutrition education for pregnant women on birth weight in rural Bangladesh. We conducted a parallel, two-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial, with 36 clusters allocated equally to intervention (n = 445) or standard care (n = 448). From their first trimester until delivery, intervention participants received education about eating balanced meals to meet daily dietary requirements with diverse food groups. The primary outcome of mean birth weight was 127.5 g higher in the intervention compared to control women, and the intervention reduced the risk of LBW by 57%. Post hoc analyses showed a significantly higher birth weight and a greater reduction in LBW amongst adolescent mothers. The mean number of food groups consumed was significantly higher in the intervention from the third month of pregnancy than in the control. A community-based balanced plate nutrition education intervention effectively increased mean birth weight and reduced LBW, and improved dietary diversity in rural Bangladeshi women. Full article
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Article
Prevalence and Sociodemographic Profiles of Grand Multipara in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214686 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
The literature shows that grand multipara mothers are major contributors to poor maternal and perinatal health compared to multipara mothers. Data regarding parity profiles are essential, especially in rapidly transforming countries such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
The literature shows that grand multipara mothers are major contributors to poor maternal and perinatal health compared to multipara mothers. Data regarding parity profiles are essential, especially in rapidly transforming countries such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with multipara mothers compared to multipara mothers in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The data were collected from seven health care centers located in Abu Dhabi.From1818 enrolled mothers, the prevalence of grand multipara was 135(7.4%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 7.2, 7.6). In logistic regression analysis, factors associated positively with grand multipara were a higher maternal age (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.34), Arab mothers (AOR = 5.66, 95% CI 2.81, 11.40), overweight pre-pregnancy (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.26, 3.21), and limited family support for breastfeeding (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.50). The prevalence of grand multipara was low compared to previous researching the UAE. Sociodemographic factors were more prominent and associated with grand multipara mothers compared to obstetrical ones. Therefore, more programs (nutritional, physical activities, and psychosocial) are needed to improve maternal and perinatal health to support grand multipara mothers. Further, research is required to explore the difference in parity based on nationalities, especially from a sociocultural point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Review
Assessment of Changes in Physiological Markers in Different Body Fluids at Rest and after Exercise
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214685 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 711
Abstract
Physiological and biological markers in different body fluids are used to measure the body’s physiological or pathological status. In the field of sports and exercise medicine, the use of these markers has recently become more popular for monitoring an athlete’s training response and [...] Read more.
Physiological and biological markers in different body fluids are used to measure the body’s physiological or pathological status. In the field of sports and exercise medicine, the use of these markers has recently become more popular for monitoring an athlete’s training response and assessing the immediate or long-term effects of exercise. Although the effect of exercise on different physiological markers using various body fluids is well substantiated, no article has undertaken a review across multiple body fluids such as blood, saliva, urine and sweat. This narrative review aims to assess various physiological markers in blood, urine and saliva, at rest and after exercise and examines physiological marker levels obtained across similar studies, with a focus on the population and study methodology used. Literature searches were conducted using PRISMA guidelines for keywords such as exercise, physical activity, serum, sweat, urine, and biomarkers, resulting in an analysis of 15 studies for this review paper. When comparing the effects of exercise on physiological markers across different body fluids (blood, urine, and saliva), the changes detected were generally in the same direction. However, the extent of the change varied, potentially as a result of the type and duration of exercise, the sample population and subject numbers, fitness levels, and/or dietary intake. In addition, none of the studies used solely female participants; instead, including males only or both male and female subjects together. The results of some physiological markers are sex-dependent. Therefore, to better understand how the levels of these biomarkers change in relation to exercise and performance, the sex of the participants should also be taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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Article
Association between the Intake of Different Protein Sources and Obesity Coexisting with Low Handgrip Strength in Persons near Retirement Age
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214684 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Nutrition is important for preventing and treating sarcopenic obesity/SO, proteins play a fundamental role. This study aimed at (1) identifying the association between different protein sources, other factors, and obesity coexisting with low handgrip strength and (2) evaluating differences in protein intake between [...] Read more.
Nutrition is important for preventing and treating sarcopenic obesity/SO, proteins play a fundamental role. This study aimed at (1) identifying the association between different protein sources, other factors, and obesity coexisting with low handgrip strength and (2) evaluating differences in protein intake between persons with coexistence of obesity with low handgrip strength, obesity alone, low handgrip strength alone and persons neither obese nor having low handgrip strength. This study is a secondary data analysis of SHARE-data among 5362 persons near retirement age. We used descriptive statistics, statistical tests and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Prevalence of obesity coexisting with low handgrip strength was 4.8%. Participants with low handgrip strength had the significantly lowest intake of all protein groups, followed by participants with obesity and low handgrip strength (p < 0.001). Daily intake of meat/fish (0.56, CI 0.40–0.79), age (1.07, CI 1.03–1.11), two or more chronic diseases (2.22, CI 1.69–2.93), one or more limitations concerning instrumental activities of daily living (2.23, CI 1.60–3.11), and moderate activity more than once a week (0.44, CI 0.33–0.57) were significantly related factors regarding obesity coexisting with low handgrip strength. Findings suggest that a daily intake of meat/fish is associated with lower odds of suffering from obesity with low handgrip strength in retirement-aged persons. Further studies are needed for specific recommendations regarding different protein sources for obese persons with low muscle mass and/or strength. Full article
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Article
Bioconverted Fruit Extract of Akebia Quinata Exhibits Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214683 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Akebia quinata, commonly called chocolate vine, has various bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-obesity properties. However, the anti-obesity effects of bioconverted extracts of A. quinate have not been examined. In this study, A. quinata fruit extracts was bioconverted using the enzyme isolated from [...] Read more.
Akebia quinata, commonly called chocolate vine, has various bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-obesity properties. However, the anti-obesity effects of bioconverted extracts of A. quinate have not been examined. In this study, A. quinata fruit extracts was bioconverted using the enzyme isolated from the soybean paste fungi Aspergillus kawachii. To determine whether the bioconversion process could influence the anti-obesity effects of A. quinata fruit extracts, we employed 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats. We observed that the bioconverted fruit extract of A. quinata (BFE) afforded anti-obesity effects, which were stronger than that for the non-bioconverted fruit extract (FE) of A. quinata. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, treatment with BFE at concentrations of 20 and 40 μg reduced intracellular lipids by 74.8 (p < 0.05) and 54.9% (p < 0.01), respectively, without inducing cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. Moreover, the oral administration of BFE at the concentration of 300 mg/kg/day significantly reduced body and adipose tissue weights (p < 0.01) in HFD-induced obese rats. Plasma cholesterol values were reduced, whereas HDL was increased in BFE receiving rats. Although FE could exert anti-obesity effects, BFE supplementation induced more robust effects than FE. These results could be attributed to the bioconversion-induced alteration of bioactive compound content within the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Review
Iron: Not Just a Passive Bystander in AITD
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214682 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease all over the world and the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in areas of iodine sufficiency. The pathogenesis of AITD is multifactorial and depends on complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, with [...] Read more.
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease all over the world and the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in areas of iodine sufficiency. The pathogenesis of AITD is multifactorial and depends on complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, with epigenetics being the crucial link. Iron deficiency (ID) can reduce the activities of thyroid peroxidase and 5′-deiodinase, inhibit binding of triiodothyronine to its nuclear receptor, and cause slower utilization of T3 from the serum pool. Moreover, ID can disturb the functioning of the immune system, increasing the risk of autoimmune disorders. ID can be responsible for residual symptoms that may persist in patients with AITD, even if their thyrometabolic status has been controlled. The human lifestyle in the 21st century is inevitably associated with exposure to chemical compounds, pathogens, and stress, which implies an increased risk of autoimmune disorders and thyroid dysfunction. To summarize, in our paper we discuss how iron deficiency can impair the functions of the immune system, cause epigenetic changes in human DNA, and potentiate tissue damage by chemicals acting as thyroid disruptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Review
The Role of Catechins in Regulating Diabetes: An Update Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214681 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Catechins are key functional components in tea and have many health benefits, including relieving diabetes. Glucose is necessary for maintaining life. However, when the glucose in the serum exceeds the threshold, it will lead to hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is mainly caused by insufficient insulin [...] Read more.
Catechins are key functional components in tea and have many health benefits, including relieving diabetes. Glucose is necessary for maintaining life. However, when the glucose in the serum exceeds the threshold, it will lead to hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is mainly caused by insufficient insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Persistent hyperglycemia can cause various disorders, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In this paper, we summarize the research on the underlying mechanisms of catechins in regulating diabetes and elaborate on the mechanisms of catechins in alleviating hyperglycemia by improving insulin resistance, alleviating oxidative stress, regulating mitochondrial function, alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress, producing anti-inflammatory effects, reducing blood sugar source, and regulating intestinal function. This review will provide scientific direction for future research on catechin alleviating diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
An In Silico Framework to Mine Bioactive Peptides from Annotated Proteomes: A Case Study on Pancreatic Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Peptides from Algae and Cyanobacteria
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214680 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Bioactive peptides may exert beneficial activities in living organisms such as the regulation of glucose metabolism through the inhibition of alpha amylases. Algae and cyanobacteria are gaining a growing interest for their health-promoting properties, and possible effects on glucose metabolism have been described, [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides may exert beneficial activities in living organisms such as the regulation of glucose metabolism through the inhibition of alpha amylases. Algae and cyanobacteria are gaining a growing interest for their health-promoting properties, and possible effects on glucose metabolism have been described, although the underlying mechanisms need clarification. This study proposes a computer-driven workflow for a proteome-wide mining of alpha amylase inhibitory peptides from the proteome of Chlorella vulgaris, Auxenochlorella protothecoides and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Overall, this work presents an innovative and versatile approach to support the identification of bioactive peptides in annotated proteomes. The study: (i) highlighted the presence of alpha amylase inhibitory peptides within the proteomes under investigation (including ELS, which is among the most potent inhibitory tripeptides identified so far); (ii) mechanistically investigated the possible mechanisms of action; and (iii) prioritized further dedicated investigation on the proteome of C. vulgaris and A. flos-aquae, and on CSSL and PGG sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Peptides: Challenges and Opportunities)
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Article
Effect of Black Corn Anthocyanin-Rich Extract (Zea mays L.) on Cecal Microbial Populations In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214679 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Black corn has been attracting attention to investigate its biological properties due to its anthocyanin composition, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside. Our study evaluated the effects of black corn extract (BCE) on intestinal morphology, gene expression, and the cecal microbiome. The BCE intra-amniotic administration was evaluated [...] Read more.
Black corn has been attracting attention to investigate its biological properties due to its anthocyanin composition, mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside. Our study evaluated the effects of black corn extract (BCE) on intestinal morphology, gene expression, and the cecal microbiome. The BCE intra-amniotic administration was evaluated by an animal model in Gallus gallus. The eggs (n = 8 per group) were divided into: (1) no injection; (2) 18 MΩ H2O; (3) 5% black corn extract (BCE); and (4) 0.38% cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G). A total of 1 mL of each component was injected intra-amniotic on day 17 of incubation. On day 21, the animals were euthanized after hatching, and the duodenum and cecum content were collected. The cecal microbiome changes were attributed to BCE administration, increasing the population of Bifidobacterium and Clostridium, and decreasing E. coli. The BCE did not change the gene expression of intestinal inflammation and functionality. The BCE administration maintained the villi height, Paneth cell number, and goblet cell diameter (in the villi and crypt), similar to the H2O injection but smaller than the C3G. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, E. coli, and villi GC diameter. The BCE promoted positive changes in the cecum microbiome and maintained intestinal morphology and functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Dietary Bioactives in Health and Disease)
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Article
Neuroprotective Effects of Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1067 in MPTP-Induced Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214678 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
There is mounting evidence that the microbiota–gut–brain axis (MGBA) is critical in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD), suggesting that probiotic therapy restoring gut microecology may slow down disease progression. In this study, we examined the disease-alleviating effects of Bifidobacterium breve [...] Read more.
There is mounting evidence that the microbiota–gut–brain axis (MGBA) is critical in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD), suggesting that probiotic therapy restoring gut microecology may slow down disease progression. In this study, we examined the disease-alleviating effects of Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1067, orally administered for 5 weeks in a PD mouse model. Our study shows that supplementation with the probiotic B. breve CCFM1067 protected dopaminergic neurons and suppressed glial cell hyperactivation and neuroinflammation in PD mice. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the central nervous system was enhanced and oxidative stress was alleviated. Moreover, B. breve CCFM1067 protected the blood–brain and intestinal barriers from damage in the MPTP-induced mouse model. The results of fecal microbiota analysis showed that B. breve CCFM1067 intervention could act on the MPTP-induced microecological imbalance in the intestinal microbiota, suppressing the number of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella) while increasing the number of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia) in PD mice. In addition, the increase in short chain fatty acids (acetic and butyric acids) may explain the anti-inflammatory action of B. breve CCFM1067 in the gut or brain of the MPTP-induced PD mouse model. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the probiotic B. breve CCFM1067, which can prevent or treat PD by modulating the gut–brain axis, can be utilized as a possible new oral supplement for PD therapy. Full article
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Article
Is Responsive Feeding Difficult? A Case Study in Teso South Sub-County, Kenya
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214677 - 04 Nov 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Responsive infant and young child feeding as a reciprocal relationship between the child and his or her caregiver is recommended by the WHO but has received less attention than dietary diversity or meal frequency up to now. The current study assessed common (non)responsive [...] Read more.
Responsive infant and young child feeding as a reciprocal relationship between the child and his or her caregiver is recommended by the WHO but has received less attention than dietary diversity or meal frequency up to now. The current study assessed common (non)responsive child feeding practices and factors that facilitate or hinder caregivers to improve feeding practices in rural Teso South Sub-County, Western Kenya. The qualitative study used focus group discussion (n = 93) and Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) (n = 48) to identify challenges and opportunities in household food distribution and feeding practices. Overall, the implementation of responsive feeding practices was feasible for the caregivers. Parents reported mainly positive experiences in terms of the child’s feeding behavior and effects on child health. Traditional beliefs, practices, and cultural norms hindered some households to change intrahousehold food distribution. Households who manage to implement responsive feeding even in food insecure regions should be consulted to (a) improve existing nutrition education messages that acknowledge these cultural norms, (b) to include more responsive feeding information in nutrition education material, and (c) to address gender norms to create awareness of the importance of responsive feeding practices and the need for adequate time allocation for infant and young child feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Environment and Children’s Eating Behavior and Health)
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