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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 235 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Protein-Related Dietary Parameters and Frailty Status in Older Community-Dwellers across Different Frailty Instruments
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020508 (registering DOI) - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
The present study investigated the associations between frailty status and (a) daily protein intake, (b) daily body weight-adjusted protein intake, (c) branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) consumption, (d) evenness of protein distribution across main meals, (e) number of daily meals providing at least 30 [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the associations between frailty status and (a) daily protein intake, (b) daily body weight-adjusted protein intake, (c) branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) consumption, (d) evenness of protein distribution across main meals, (e) number of daily meals providing at least 30 g of protein, and (f) number of daily meals providing at least 0.4 g protein/kg of body weight in community-dwelling older adults. The relationship between frailty status and protein-related dietary parameters was explored across different frailty assessment tools. Two hundred older adults were enrolled in the study. Participant frailty status was determined according to a modified Fried’s frailty phenotype (mFP), the FRAIL scale, and the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) index. Diet was assessed by 24-h dietary recall, while diet composition was estimated using a nutritional software. A frailty instrument-dependent relationship was observed between frailty status and protein-related dietary parameters. Protein consumption was associated with frailty status only in participants identified as frail according to the mFP. In addition, protein and BCAA intake was found to be greater in robust and pre-frail participants relative to their frail counterparts. Our findings suggest that the association between frailty and protein-related dietary parameters is tool dependent. Specifically, protein and BCAA consumption appears to be lower only in older adults identified as frail by the mFP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterising a Weight Loss Intervention in Obese Asthmatic Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020507 (registering DOI) - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity in asthmatic children is high and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. We have previously reported that weight loss leads to improvements in lung function and asthma control in obese asthmatic children. The objectives of this secondary analysis were [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity in asthmatic children is high and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. We have previously reported that weight loss leads to improvements in lung function and asthma control in obese asthmatic children. The objectives of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) changes in diet quality and (2) associations between the baseline subject characteristics and the degree of weight loss following the intervention. Twenty-eight obese asthmatic children, aged 8–17 years, completed a 10-week diet-induced weight loss intervention. Dietary intake, nutritional biomarkers, anthropometry, lung function, asthma control, and clinical outcomes were analysed before and after the intervention. Following the intervention, the body mass index (BMI) z-score decreased (Δ = 0.18 ± 0.04; p < 0.001), %energy from protein increased (Δ = 4.3 ± 0.9%; p = 0.002), and sugar intake decreased (Δ = 23.2 ± 9.3 g; p= 0.025). Baseline lung function and physical activity level were inversely associated with Δ% fat mass. The ΔBMI z-score was negatively associated with physical activity duration at baseline. Dietary intervention is effective in achieving acute weight loss in obese asthmatic children, with significant improvements in diet quality and body composition. Lower lung function and physical engagement at baseline were associated with lesser weight loss, highlighting that subjects with these attributes may require greater support to achieve weight loss goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Disease and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Schemes Modify Maternal Plasma Cholesterol Levels Dependent to Women´s Weight: Possible Impact on Feto-Placental Vascular Function
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020506 (registering DOI) - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) associates with fetal endothelial dysfunction (ED), which occurs independently of adequate glycemic control. Scarce information exists about the impact of different GDM therapeutic schemes on maternal dyslipidemia and obesity and their contribution to the development of fetal-ED. The [...] Read more.
: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) associates with fetal endothelial dysfunction (ED), which occurs independently of adequate glycemic control. Scarce information exists about the impact of different GDM therapeutic schemes on maternal dyslipidemia and obesity and their contribution to the development of fetal-ED. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GDM-treatments on lipid levels in nonobese (N) and obese (O) pregnant women and the effect of maternal cholesterol levels in GDM-associated ED in the umbilical vein (UV). O-GDM women treated with diet showed decreased total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels with respect to N-GDM ones. Moreover, O-GDM women treated with diet in addition to insulin showed higher TC and LDL levels than N-GDM women. The maximum relaxation to calcitonin gene-related peptide of the UV rings was lower in the N-GDM group compared to the N one, and increased maternal levels of TC were associated with even lower dilation in the N-GDM group. We conclude that GDM-treatments modulate the TC and LDL levels depending on maternal weight. Additionally, increased TC levels worsen the GDM-associated ED of UV rings. This study suggests that it could be relevant to consider a specific GDM-treatment according to weight in order to prevent fetal-ED, as well as to consider the possible effects of maternal lipids during pregnancy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Delayed Morning and Earlier Evening Time-Restricted Feeding Protocol for Improving Glycemic Control and Dietary Adherence in Men with Overweight/Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020505 (registering DOI) - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
We determined the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8 h/d) versus extended feeding (EXF; 15 h/d) on 24-h and postprandial metabolism and subjective opinions of TRF in men with overweight/obesity. In a randomized crossover design, 11 sedentary males (age 38 ± 5 y; [...] Read more.
We determined the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8 h/d) versus extended feeding (EXF; 15 h/d) on 24-h and postprandial metabolism and subjective opinions of TRF in men with overweight/obesity. In a randomized crossover design, 11 sedentary males (age 38 ± 5 y; BMI: 32.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed two isoenergetic diet protocols for 5 days, consuming meals at 1000, 1300 and 1700 h (TRF) or 0700, 1400 and 2100 h (EXF). On Day 5, participants remained in the laboratory for 24 h, and blood samples were collected at hourly (0700–2300 h) then 2-hourly (2300–0700 h) intervals for concentrations of glucose, insulin and appetite/incretin hormones. Structured qualitative interviews were conducted following completion of both dietary conditions and investigated thematically. Total 24-h area under the curve (AUCtotal) [glucose] tended to be lower for TRF versus EXF (−5.5 ± 9.0 mmol/L/h, P = 0.09). Nocturnal glucose AUC was lower in TRF (−4.2 ± 5.8 mmol/L/h, P = 0.04), with no difference in waking glucose AUC or AUCtotal for [insulin]. Attitudes towards TRF were positive with improved feelings of well-being. Barriers to TRF were work schedules, family commitments and social events. Compared to extended feeding, short-term TRF improved nocturnal glycemic control and was positively perceived in men with overweight/obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Potential Health Claims of Durum and Bread Wheat Flours as Functional Ingredients
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020504 (registering DOI) - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
Wheat is an important cereal with a key role in human nutrition. In this study, dietary fiber (DF) and arabinoxylans of different durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. Durum L.) and bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat flours were analyzed in order to point [...] Read more.
Wheat is an important cereal with a key role in human nutrition. In this study, dietary fiber (DF) and arabinoxylans of different durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. Durum L.) and bread (Triticum aestivum L.) wheat flours were analyzed in order to point out their potential nutritional and health claims allege according to the current European regulation (Regulation (EU) No 432/2012). Moreover, other bioactive compounds (phenolics and tocopherols) were quantified as a first approach to their phytochemical composition in the analyzed wheat varieties. DF was analyzed following AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods; arabinoxylans and total phenols were quantified by colorimetric methods; tocopherols were determined by HPLC; antioxidant activity was evaluated using three different in vitro assays. Insoluble DF was the prevailing fraction in all analyzed samples. Water extractable arabinoxylans were higher in durum wheat flours. Whole flours contained higher total phenolics compounds. Alpha-tocopherol was the major isoform. Whole flours showed higher antioxidant properties. According to the obtained results, it is possible to allege all approved health claims referred to wheat, since all analyzed samples, especially whole flour and bran fraction, showed potential health benefits, as functional ingredients or functional foods, related with their phytochemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds for Health Benefits and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Timing of Energy Intake and Insulin Sensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020503 (registering DOI) - 16 Feb 2020
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Abstract
In addition to the caloric and macronutrient composition of meals, timing of energy consumption may be important for optimal glucose metabolism. Our goal was to examine whether the habitual timing of energy intake was associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. Volunteers without [...] Read more.
In addition to the caloric and macronutrient composition of meals, timing of energy consumption may be important for optimal glucose metabolism. Our goal was to examine whether the habitual timing of energy intake was associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. Volunteers without diabetes aged 21–50 years completed a 3-day food diary and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin sensitivity (n = 44). From the food diary, we calculated the proportions of the total energy and macronutrients consumed in the morning and evening, and the clock time at which 25%, 50% and 75% of total energy was consumed. A greater proportion of energy intake in the morning was significantly associated with higher insulin sensitivity estimated by Matsuda Index (B = 2.8 per 10%; 95%CI: 0.3, 5.2). The time at which 25% of energy was consumed was associated with insulin sensitivity estimated by Matsuda Index (B = −1.6 per hour; 95%CI: −3.0, −0.3) and QUICKI (B = −1.4 per hour, 95%CI: −2.8, −0.1). The timing of carbohydrate consumption demonstrated similar associations. Greater energy intake earlier in the day was associated with higher insulin sensitivity in individuals without diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Open AccessEditorial
The Multifaceted Dimensions of Food Choice and Nutrition
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020502 (registering DOI) - 16 Feb 2020
Viewed by 160
Abstract
The Special Issue “Food Choice and Nutrition” deals with the relationship between the food choices of different population groups or consumer segments and its impact on the nutritional status, improvement of dietary quality, food and nutrition-related behaviour, food preferences, taste education, sensory characteristics [...] Read more.
The Special Issue “Food Choice and Nutrition” deals with the relationship between the food choices of different population groups or consumer segments and its impact on the nutritional status, improvement of dietary quality, food and nutrition-related behaviour, food preferences, taste education, sensory characteristics of foods and their role in consumer choice, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Modulation of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Inflammation, and Oxidative Markers by Curcumin Supplementation in a Physically Active Population: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020501 (registering DOI) - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Physical activity, particularly high-intensity eccentric muscle contractions, produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). The breakdown of muscle fibers and the consequent inflammatory responses derived from EIMD affect exercise performance. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric, has been shown to have mainly antioxidant and [...] Read more.
Physical activity, particularly high-intensity eccentric muscle contractions, produces exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). The breakdown of muscle fibers and the consequent inflammatory responses derived from EIMD affect exercise performance. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric, has been shown to have mainly antioxidant and also anti-inflammatory properties. This effect of curcumin could improve EIMD and exercise performance. The main objective of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the effectiveness of curcumin supplementation on EIMD and inflammatory and oxidative markers in a physically active population. A structured search was carried out following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the databases SCOPUS, Web of Science (WOS), and Medline (PubMed) from inception to October 2019. The search included original articles with randomized controlled crossover or parallel design in which the intake of curcumin administered before and/or after exercise was compared with an identical placebo situation. No filters were applied to the type of physical exercise performed, the sex or the age of the participants. Of the 301 articles identified in the search, 11 met the established criteria and were included in this systematic review. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. The use of curcumin reduces the subjective perception of the intensity of muscle pain; reduces muscle damage through the decrease of creatine kinase (CK); increases muscle performance; has an anti-inflammatory effect by modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8; and may have a slight antioxidant effect. In summary, the administration of curcumin at a dose between 150–1500 mg/day before and during exercise, and up until 72 h’ post-exercise, improved performance by reducing EIMD and modulating the inflammation caused by physical activity. In addition, humans appear to be able to tolerate high doses of curcumin without significant side-effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Athletic Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Narrative Review: Nutrient Deficiencies in Adults and Children with Treated and Untreated Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020500 (registering DOI) - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Nutrient deficiencies are well recognized as secondary consequences of celiac disease (CD) and closely related to the clinical presentation of affected patients. Despite their clinical significance, consensus is lacking on the pattern and frequency of nutrient deficiencies in CD, the usefulness of their [...] Read more.
Nutrient deficiencies are well recognized as secondary consequences of celiac disease (CD) and closely related to the clinical presentation of affected patients. Despite their clinical significance, consensus is lacking on the pattern and frequency of nutrient deficiencies in CD, the usefulness of their assessment at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up. This review aims to provide an overview of nutrient deficiencies among pediatric and adult CD patients at diagnosis and on a gluten-free diet (GFD), and their potential causes in CD. Secondly, we review their impact on CD management strategies including the potential of nutrient supplementation. A search of Medline, Pubmed and Embase until January 2019 was performed. Despite a high variability between the reported deficiencies, we noted that nutrient deficiencies occur frequently in children and adults with CD at diagnosis and during treatment with a GFD. Both inadequate dietary intake and/or diminished uptake due to intestinal dysfunction contribute to nutrient deficiencies. Most deficiencies can be restored with (long-term) treatment with a GFD and/or supplementation. However, some of them persist while others may become even more prominent during GFD. Our results indicate a lack of comprehensive evidence on the clinical efficacy of nutrient supplementation in CD management highlighting the need for further studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Impact of the Co-Administration of N-3 Fatty Acids and Olive Oil Components in Preclinical Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Models: A Mechanistic View
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020499 (registering DOI) - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 124
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in approximately 25% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, which can progress to steatohepatitis with different degrees of fibrosis, stages that lack approved pharmacological therapies and represent [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in approximately 25% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, which can progress to steatohepatitis with different degrees of fibrosis, stages that lack approved pharmacological therapies and represent an indication for liver transplantation with consistently increasing frequency. In view that hepatic steatosis is a reversible condition, effective strategies preventing disease progression were addressed using combinations of natural products in the preclinical high-fat diet (HFD) protocol (60% of fat for 12 weeks). Among them, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:5n-3, DHA), DHA and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), or EPA plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) attained 66% to 83% diminution in HFD-induced steatosis, with the concomitant inhibition of the proinflammatory state associated with steatosis. These supplementations trigger different molecular mechanisms that modify antioxidant, antisteatotic, and anti-inflammatory responses, and in the case of DHA and HT co-administration, prevent NAFLD. It is concluded that future studies in NAFLD patients using combined supplementations such as DHA plus HT are warranted to prevent liver steatosis, thus avoiding its progression into more unmanageable stages of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
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Open AccessArticle
Strain-Specific Probiotic Properties of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli for the Prevention of Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus in a Preclinical Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020498 (registering DOI) - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to [...] Read more.
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to test their comparative efficacy. Neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, or Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 from days 2–14 of life. On day five, animals received RV SA-11 orally. Fecal samples were collected daily, weighed, and scored for the calculation of severity and incidence of diarrhea. In addition, fecal pH and fecal viral shedding were measured. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and their blood was obtained for the quantification of RV-specific immunoglobulins. RV infection was induced in ~90% of the animals. All probiotics caused a reduction of several clinical variables of severity and incidence of diarrhea, except L. salivarius PS2. L. acidophilus NCFM, B. breve M-16V, and L. helveticus R0052 seemed to be very effective probiotic strains. In addition, all Lactobacillus strains reduced the viral elimination one day post-inoculation. No differences were detected in the specific anti-RV humoral response. The present study highlights the strain-specific effects of probiotics and identifies promising probiotics for use in ameliorating and preventing RV-induced diarrhea in children, for example by including them in infant formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
An Acute, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blind, Crossover, Dose-Response, Exploratory Study to Assess the Effects of New Zealand Pine Bark Extract (Enzogenol®) on Glycaemic Responses in Healthy Participants
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020497 (registering DOI) - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 154
Abstract
An acute, placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover, dose-response, exploratory study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic effects of New Zealand pine bark extract (Enzogenol®). Twenty-five healthy participants categorised into having a monophasic or complex (biphasic or triphasic) glucose curve shape at the control [...] Read more.
An acute, placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover, dose-response, exploratory study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic effects of New Zealand pine bark extract (Enzogenol®). Twenty-five healthy participants categorised into having a monophasic or complex (biphasic or triphasic) glucose curve shape at the control visit consumed a placebo and Enzogenol® (50 and 400 mg) on three separate occasions before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In the monophasic group, 50 and 400 mg of Enzogenol® significantly reduced the mean glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) compared to control 241.3 ± 20.2 vs. 335.4 ± 34.0 mmol/L·min, p = 0.034 and 249.3 ± 25.4 vs. 353.6 ± 31.5 mmol/L·min, p = 0.012, respectively. The 400 mg dose further reduced the percentage increment of postprandial glucose (%PG) 31.4% ± 7.9% vs. 47.5% ± 8.6%, p = 0.010, glucose peak 7.9 ± 0.3 vs. 8.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p = 0.025 and 2h-OGTT postprandial glucose (2hPG) 6.1 ± 0.3 vs. 6.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p = 0.027. Glucose iAUC was not significantly different in the complex group, except for reductions in %PG 28.7% ± 8.2% vs. 43.4% ± 5.9%, p = 0.012 after 50 mg dose and 27.7% ± 5.4% vs. 47.3% ± 7.2%, p = 0.025 after 400 mg dose. The results suggest that Enzogenol® may have hypoglycaemic effects in healthy participants, especially those exhibiting monophasic shapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
What Serum Sodium Concentration Is Suggestive for Underhydration in Geriatric Patients?
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020496 (registering DOI) - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Dehydration is a concern among aging populations and can result in hospitalization and other adverse outcomes. There is a need to establish simple measures that can help in detecting low-intake dehydration (underhydration) in geriatric patients. The predictive performance of sodium, urea, glucose, and [...] Read more.
Dehydration is a concern among aging populations and can result in hospitalization and other adverse outcomes. There is a need to establish simple measures that can help in detecting low-intake dehydration (underhydration) in geriatric patients. The predictive performance of sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium to discriminate between patients with and without underhydration was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of data collected during the cross-sectional study of patients admitted to the geriatric ward. A total of 358 participants, for whom osmolarity could be calculated with the Khajuria and Krahn equation, were recruited to the study. Impending underhydration (osmolarity > 295 mmol/L) was diagnosed in 58.4% of cases. Serum sodium, urea, fasting glucose, and potassium (individual components of the equation) were significantly higher in dehydrated participants. The largest ROC area of 0.88 was obtained for sodium, and the value 140 mMol/L was found as the best cut-off value, with the highest sensitivity (0.80; 95% CI: 0.74–0.86) and specificity (0.83; 95% CI: 0.75–0.88) for prediction of underhydration. The ROC areas of urea, glucose, and potassium were significantly lower. Serum sodium equal to 140 mmol/L or higher appeared to be suggestive of impending underhydration in geriatric patients. This could be considered as the first-step screening procedure for detecting underhydration in older adults in general practice, especially when limited resources restrict the possibility of more in-depth biochemical assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Water Regulation and Nutrient Intake)
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Open AccessArticle
A Probiotic Preparation Hydrolyzes Gliadin and Protects Intestinal Cells from the Toxicity of Pro-Inflammatory Peptides
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020495 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by an intolerance to gluten proteins. It has been hypothesized that probiotic bacteria may exert beneficial effects by modulating inflammatory processes and by sustaining peptide hydrolysis at the intestinal level. This study aims at evaluating the capacity of a probiotic mixture (two different strains of lactobacilli and three of bifidobacteria) to hydrolyze gluten peptides following simulated gastrointestinal digestion of gliadin (PT-gliadin). The capacity of bacterial hydrolysates to counteract the toxic effects of gliadin-derived peptides in Caco-2 cells was also assessed. The protein and peptide mixtures, untreated or proteolyzed with the probiotic preparation, were analyzed before and after each proteolytic step with different techniques (SDS-PAGE, reverse phase HPLC, filtration on different molecular cut-off membranes). These experiments demonstrated that PT-gliadin can be further digested by bacteria into lower molecular weight peptides. PT-gliadin, untreated or digested with the probiotics, was then used to evaluate oxidative stress, IL-6 cytokine production and expression of tight junctions’ proteins—such as occludin and zonulin—in Caco-2 cells. PT-gliadin induced IL-6 production and modulation and redistribution of zonulin and occludin, while digestion with the probiotic strains reversed these effects. Our data indicate that this probiotic mixture may exert a protective role in CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
5-Caffeoylquinic Acid Ameliorates Cognitive Decline and Reduces Aβ Deposition by Modulating Aβ Clearance Pathways in APP/PS2 Transgenic Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020494 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 177
Abstract
The accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is a major pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that coffee polyphenols (CPP) prevent cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition in the brain of an APP/PS2 transgenic mouse AD [...] Read more.
The accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is a major pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that coffee polyphenols (CPP) prevent cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition in the brain of an APP/PS2 transgenic mouse AD model. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of the chronic administration of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the most abundant component of CPP, on cognitive dysfunction in APP/PS2 mice to identify the role of CPP in Aβ elimination. Relative to the untreated controls, the mice fed a 5-CQA-supplemented diet showed significant improvements in their cognitive function assessed by Y-maze and novel object recognition tests. Histochemical analysis revealed that 5-CQA substantially reduced Aβ plaque formation and neuronal loss in the hippocampi. Moreover, 5-CQA upregulated the gene encoding low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, an Aβ efflux receptor, and normalized the perivascular localization of aquaporin 4, which facilitates Aβ clearance along the paravascular pathway. These results suggest that 5-CQA reduces Aβ deposition in the brain by modulating the Aβ clearance pathways and ameliorating cognitive decline and neuronal loss in APP/PS2 mice. Thus, 5-CQA may be effective in preventing cognitive dysfunction in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Coffee Intake on Dyslipidemia Risk According to Genetic Variants in the ADORA Gene Family among Korean Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020493 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Current evidence on the effects of coffee intake on cardiovascular diseases is not consistent, in part contributed by the genetic variability of the study subjects. While adenosine receptors (ADORAs) are involved in caffeine signaling, it remains unknown how genetic variations at the ADORA [...] Read more.
Current evidence on the effects of coffee intake on cardiovascular diseases is not consistent, in part contributed by the genetic variability of the study subjects. While adenosine receptors (ADORAs) are involved in caffeine signaling, it remains unknown how genetic variations at the ADORA loci correlate the coffee intake with cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the associations of coffee intake with dyslipidemia risk depending on genetic variants in the ADORA gene family. The study involved a population-based cohort of 4898 Korean subjects. Consumption of more than or equal to a cup of coffee per day was associated with lower dyslipidemia risk in females carrying the ADORA2B minor allele rs2779212 (OR: 0.645, 95% CI: 0.506–0.823), but not in those with the major allele. At the ADORA2A locus, male subjects with the minor allele of rs5760423 showed instead an increased risk of dyslipidemia when consuming more than or equal to a cup of coffee per day (OR: 1.352, 95% CI: 1.014–1.802). The effect of coffee intake on dyslipidemia risk differs depending on genetic variants at the ADORA loci in a sex-specific manner. Our study suggests that a dietary guideline for coffee intake in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia ought to consider ADORA-related biomarkers carefully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Food-Related Attentional Bias in Individuals with Normal Weight and Overweight: A Study with a Flicker Task
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020492 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate attentional biases for food-related stimuli in individuals with overweight and normal weight using a flicker paradigm. Specifically, it was tested whether attention allocation processes differ between individuals with overweight and normal weight using [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate attentional biases for food-related stimuli in individuals with overweight and normal weight using a flicker paradigm. Specifically, it was tested whether attention allocation processes differ between individuals with overweight and normal weight using transient changes of food-related and neutral pictures. Change detection latencies in objects of central interest (CI) or objects of marginal interest (MI) were measured as an index of attention allocation in a sample of fifty-three students with overweight/obesity and sixty students with normal weight during a flicker paradigm with neutral, hypercaloric and hypocaloric food pictures. Both groups of participants showed an attentional bias for food-related pictures as compared to neutral pictures. However, the bias was larger in individuals with overweight than in individuals with normal weight when changes were of marginal interest, suggesting a stronger avoidance of the food-related picture. This study showed that food-related stimuli influence attention allocation processes in both participants with overweight and normal weight. In particular, as compared to individuals with normal weight, those with overweight seem to be characterised by a stronger attentional avoidance of (or smaller attention maintenance on) food-related stimuli that could be considered as a voluntary strategy to resist food consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation During Pregnancy on Maternal, Birth, Child Health and Development Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020491 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Almost two billion people are deficient in key vitamins and minerals, mostly women and children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Deficiencies worsen during pregnancy due to increased energy and nutritional demands, causing adverse outcomes in mother and child, but could be mitigated [...] Read more.
Almost two billion people are deficient in key vitamins and minerals, mostly women and children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Deficiencies worsen during pregnancy due to increased energy and nutritional demands, causing adverse outcomes in mother and child, but could be mitigated by interventions like micronutrient supplementation. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that aimed to compile evidence from both efficacy and effectiveness trials, evaluating different supplementation interventions on maternal, birth, child health, and developmental outcomes. We evaluated randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies published since 1995 in peer-reviewed and grey literature that assessed the effects of calcium, vitamin A, iron, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation compared to placebo/no treatment; iron-folic (IFA) supplementation compared to folic acid only; multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation compared to IFA; and lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS) compared to MMN supplementation. Seventy-two studies, which collectively involved 314 papers (451,723 women), were included. Meta-analyses showed improvement in several key birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and low birthweight with MMN supplementation, compared to IFA. MMN also improved child outcomes, including diarrhea incidence and retinol concentration, which are findings not previously reported. Across all comparisons, micronutrient supplementation had little to no effect on mortality (maternal, neonatal, perinatal, and infant) outcomes, which is consistent with other systematic reviews. IFA supplementation showed notable improvement in maternal anemia and the reduction in low birthweight, whereas LNS supplementation had no apparent effect on outcomes; further research that compares LNS and MMN supplementation could help understand differences with these commodities. For single micronutrient supplementation, improvements were noted in only a few outcomes, mainly pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (calcium), maternal anemia (iron), preterm births (vitamin D), and maternal serum zinc concentration (zinc). These findings highlight that micronutrient-specific supplementation should be tailored to specific groups or needs for maximum benefit. In addition, they further contribute to the ongoing discourse of choosing antenatal MMN over IFA as the standard of care in LMICs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Body Image, Emotional Eating and Psychological Distress among Bariatric Surgery Candidates in Israel and the United States
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020490 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Background: The present study aimed to examine the relations between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and psychological distress variables among bariatric surgery candidates from two distinct cultures in Israel and in the United States. Methods: A sample of consecutive pre-surgical bariatric candidates was recruited [...] Read more.
Background: The present study aimed to examine the relations between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and psychological distress variables among bariatric surgery candidates from two distinct cultures in Israel and in the United States. Methods: A sample of consecutive pre-surgical bariatric candidates was recruited from a Bariatric Center in Israel (N = 114) and a Bariatric Center in the Unites States (N = 81). Body image dissatisfaction (BID-BSQ8), suicidal ideation (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), anxious symptoms (PHQ-7), and emotional eating behaviors (EES), were measured. Mediation models were assessed using path analysis. Results: BID was positively correlated with suicidality, depression, and anxiety in both samples. The relations between BID depression and anxiety were mediated by emotional eating in both cultures. However, the relation between BID and suicidality that was mediated by emotional eating in the Israeli sample, was reflected in a direct link between BID and suicidality in the US sample. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the adverse effect of BID on psychological distress among surgery candidates in both cultures, emphasizing the intercultural similarities related to emotional eating behavior. Physicians and other health professionals are encouraged to be more attentive to this specific behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgery and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Participatory Methods to Identify Perceived Healthy and Sustainable Traditional Culinary Preparations across Three Generations of Adults: Results from Chile’s Metropolitan Region and Region of La Araucanía
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020489 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Traditional diets reflect different cultures and geographical locations, and may provide healthy diet options. In Chile, it is unknown whether traditional culinary preparations are still remembered, let alone consumed. Therefore, we adapted methods to identify traditional culinary preparations for healthy and sustainable dietary [...] Read more.
Traditional diets reflect different cultures and geographical locations, and may provide healthy diet options. In Chile, it is unknown whether traditional culinary preparations are still remembered, let alone consumed. Therefore, we adapted methods to identify traditional culinary preparations for healthy and sustainable dietary interventions. In Chile’s Metropolitan Region and the Region of La Araucanía, we collected data on the variety of traditional diets through cultural domain analyses: direct participant observation (n = 5); free listing in community workshops (n = 10); and pile sort activities within semi-structured individual interviews (n = 40). Each method was stratified by age (25–45 year, 46–65 year and ≥ 65 year) and ethnic group (first nations or not). About 600 preparations and single-ingredient foods were identified that differed both in frequency and variety by region. The foods most consumed and liked (n = 24–27) were ranked in terms of sustainability for public nutrition purposes. Methods originally designed to collect information about plants of indigenous peoples can be extended to collect data on the variety of existing traditional culinary preparations, globally. Context, both geographical and cultural, matters for understanding food variety, and its subsequent use in the design of healthy and sustainable diet interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
Open AccessArticle
Sanggenol L Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest via Activation of p53 and Suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020488 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western countries. Recently, Asian countries are being affected by Western habits, which have had an important role in the rapid increase in cancer incidence. Sanggenol L (San L) is a natural flavonoid present in the [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western countries. Recently, Asian countries are being affected by Western habits, which have had an important role in the rapid increase in cancer incidence. Sanggenol L (San L) is a natural flavonoid present in the root barks of Morus alba, which induces anti-cancer activities in ovarian cancer cells. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the effects of sanggenol L on human prostate cancer cells have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether sanggenol L exerts anti-cancer activity in human prostate cancer cells via apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Sanggenol L induced caspase-dependent apoptosis (up-regulation of PARP and Bax or down-regulation of procaspase-3, -8, -9, Bid, and Bcl-2), induction of caspase-independent apoptosis (up-regulation of AIF and Endo G on cytosol), suppression of cell cycle (down-regulation of CDK1/2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A, and cyclin B1 or up-regulation of p53 and p21), and inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling (down-regulation of PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR) in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest the induction of apoptosis via suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and cell cycle arrest via activation of p53 in response to sanggenol L in prostate cancer cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Method Used to Select Gas Exchange Data for Estimating the Resting Metabolic Rate, as Supplied by Breath-by-Breath Metabolic Carts
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020487 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
The method used to select representative gas exchange data from large datasets influences the resting metabolic rate (RMR) returned. This study determines which of three methods yields the lowest RMR (as recommended for use in human energy balance studies), and in which method [...] Read more.
The method used to select representative gas exchange data from large datasets influences the resting metabolic rate (RMR) returned. This study determines which of three methods yields the lowest RMR (as recommended for use in human energy balance studies), and in which method the greatest variance in RMR is explained by classical determinants of this variable. A total of 107 young and 74 middle-aged adults underwent a 30 min RMR examination using a breath-by-breath metabolic cart. Three gas exchange data selection methods were used: (i) steady state (SSt) for 3, 4, 5, or 10 min, (ii) a pre-defined time interval (TI), i.e., 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, 21–25, 26–30, 6–25, or 6–30 min, and (iii) “filtering”, setting thresholds depending on the mean RMR value obtained. In both cohorts, the RMRs yielded by the SSt and filtering methods were significantly lower (p < 0.021) than those yielded by the TI method. No differences in RMR were seen under the different conditions of the SSt method, or of the filtering method. No differences were seen between the methods in terms of the variance in RMR explained by its classical determinants. In conclusion, the SSt and filtering methods return the lowest RMRs and intra-measurement coefficients of variation when using breath-by-breath metabolic carts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Micronutrient Blend Mimics Calorie Restriction Transcriptomics in Multiple Tissues of Mice and Increases Lifespan and Mobility in C. elegans
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020486 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Background: We previously described a novel micronutrient blend that behaves like a putative calorie restriction mimetic. The aim of this paper was to analyze the beneficial effects of our micronutrient blend in mice and C. elegans, and compare them with calorie restriction. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: We previously described a novel micronutrient blend that behaves like a putative calorie restriction mimetic. The aim of this paper was to analyze the beneficial effects of our micronutrient blend in mice and C. elegans, and compare them with calorie restriction. Methods: Whole transcriptomic analysis was performed in the brain cortex, skeletal muscle and heart in three groups of mice: old controls (30 months), old + calorie restriction and old + novel micronutrient blend. Longevity and vitality were tested in C. elegans. Results: The micronutrient blend elicited transcriptomic changes in a manner similar to those in the calorie-restricted group and different from those in the control group. Subgroup analysis revealed that nuclear hormone receptor, proteasome complex and angiotensinogen genes, all of which are known to be directly related to aging, were the most affected. Furthermore, a functional analysis in C. elegans was used. We found that feeding C. elegans the micronutrient blend increased longevity as well as vitality. Conclusions: We describe a micronutrient supplement that causes similar changes (transcriptomic and promoting longevity and vitality) as a calorie restriction in mice and C. elegans, respectively, but further studies are required to confirm these effects in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Restriction and Lifespan)
Open AccessArticle
Food Consumed by High School Students during the School Day
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020485 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
The development of healthy eating habits in adolescence is perceived as an effective strategy to avoid health problems in adulthood. The involvement of educational centres’ governing boards, as well as the Educational State and Regional Administrations’, may be necessary to create healthy food [...] Read more.
The development of healthy eating habits in adolescence is perceived as an effective strategy to avoid health problems in adulthood. The involvement of educational centres’ governing boards, as well as the Educational State and Regional Administrations’, may be necessary to create healthy food environments during the school day. The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between students’ eating habits during the school day and sociodemographic, family and physical activity variables, as well as the existence of a school cafeteria. For this, a cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 8068 students of Public Secondary Education High Schools of Andalusia (Spain) has been carried out. The results show that students who are 14 years old or older are more likely to skip breakfast at home (odds ratio (OR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55–2.12) than those under this age. Students whose mothers do not have a university education are more likely to consume incomplete breakfasts (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.26–2.65). Snacks with sweets (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.67–2.23), candy in general (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 2.38–3.19), and bagged crisps (OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 2.65–3.54) were more likely to be consumed in schools with a cafeteria. The factors that significantly influence the eating habits of secondary students in Andalusia include age, sex, parental level of education, physical activity and the existence of a cafeteria. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Snapshots of Urban and Rural Food Environments: EPOCH-Based Mapping in a High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Country from a Non-Communicable Disease Perspective
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020484 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
A changing food environment is implicated as a primary contributor to the increasing levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to generate snapshots of selected external food environments to inform intervention strategies for NCD prevention in three countries: Uganda (low income), South [...] Read more.
A changing food environment is implicated as a primary contributor to the increasing levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to generate snapshots of selected external food environments to inform intervention strategies for NCD prevention in three countries: Uganda (low income), South Africa (middle income) and Sweden (high income), with one matched pair of urban–rural sites per country. Fifty formal and informal food retail outlets were assessed, and descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed. We found that formal food retail outlets in these countries had both positive and negative traits, as they were the main source of basic food items but also made unhealthy food items readily available. The Ugandan setting had predominantly informal outlets, while the Swedish setting had primarily formal outlets and South Africa had both, which fits broadly into the traditional (Uganda), mixed (South Africa) and modern (Sweden) conceptualized food systems. The promotion of unhealthy food products was high in all settings. Uganda had the highest in-community advertising, followed by South Africa and Sweden with the lowest, perhaps related to differences in regulation and implementation. The findings speak to the need to address contextual differences in NCD-related health interventions by incorporating strategies that address the food environment, and for a critical look at regulations that tackle key environment-related factors of food on a larger scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Effects of Dark Chocolate for Episodic Memory in Healthy Young Adults: A Parallel-Groups Acute Intervention with a White Chocolate Control
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020483 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
There is good evidence that cocoa flavonoids can acutely improve cognitive function in humans, possibly via mechanisms such as increased cerebral blood flow. To date, much of the evidence is based on measures of executive function with extracts and cocoa-based interventions with a [...] Read more.
There is good evidence that cocoa flavonoids can acutely improve cognitive function in humans, possibly via mechanisms such as increased cerebral blood flow. To date, much of the evidence is based on measures of executive function with extracts and cocoa-based interventions with a high flavonoid content. The aim of the present study was to explore whether benefits to episodic verbal memory and mood are observed two hours post consumption of a commercially available dark chocolate (DC) bar relative to a 35 g white chocolate bar (WC). Ninety-eight healthy young adults (n = 57 females) aged 18–24 years consumed either a 35 g DC bar or a calorie-matched low flavonoid WC bar. Verbal episodic memory and mood were assessed pre consumption and 2 h post consumption. An ANOVA analysis showed that the DC was associated with better verbal memory performance for several outcome measures of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test relative to the WC, however, there were no effects on mood. These findings lend support to the notion that everyday available portions of dark chocolate can confer benefits to the brain in healthy consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of an 8 Week Prescribed Exercise and Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Individuals: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020482 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Background: Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets are an effective method for treating obesity and reducing cardiometabolic risk. However, exposure to LC diets is associated with reductions in muscle mass and increased osteoporosis risk in obese individuals. The combination of exercise with a LC diet appears [...] Read more.
Background: Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets are an effective method for treating obesity and reducing cardiometabolic risk. However, exposure to LC diets is associated with reductions in muscle mass and increased osteoporosis risk in obese individuals. The combination of exercise with a LC diet appears to attenuate muscle mass loss induced by LC diets alone, and to further improve cardiometabolic profile. However, evidence to date in obese individuals is limited. We assessed the effect of LC diet in combination with supervised exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese individuals. Methods: Male and female participants in the experimental (EX-LC; structured supervised exercise program + low-carbohydrate meals; n = 33; 35.3 years) and control (EX-CO; structured supervised exercise program + standard dietary advice; n = 31; 34.2 years) conditions underwent measurements of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), body fat, lean muscle mass (LMM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers before and after an 8 week intervention. Results: Participants in the EX-LC condition demonstrated greater improvements in VO2peak (p = 0.002) and fat mass index (FMI, p = 0.001) compared to the EX-CO condition. Achieving a ketogenic state (β-hydroxybutyrate, βHB ≥0.3 mmol/L) was associated with greater reductions in total body fat (p = 0.011), visceral adipose tissue (p = 0.025), FMI (p = 0.002) and C-reactive protein (CRP, p = 0.041) but also with greater reductions in LMM (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Short-term LC diet combined with prescribed exercise enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness and the cardiometabolic profile of obese individuals but was also associated with greater muscle mass loss compared to similar exercise training and standard dietary advice. The long-term effects of the LC diet should be further explored in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Adaptations to Diet and Physical Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Calanus Oil Supplementation and 16 Week Exercise Program on Selected Fitness Parameters in Older Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020481 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
We investigated changes in functional fitness after an exercise program in combination with Calanus oil supplementation, a novel source of bioactive lipids rich in wax esters with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA). Fifty-five healthy sedentary women aged 65–80 (mean age 70.9 ± [...] Read more.
We investigated changes in functional fitness after an exercise program in combination with Calanus oil supplementation, a novel source of bioactive lipids rich in wax esters with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA). Fifty-five healthy sedentary women aged 65–80 (mean age 70.9 ± 3.9 years, BMI 27.24 ± 3.9 kg m−2, VO2peak 19.46 ± 3.7 ml kg−1 min−1) were enrolled in the study. The participants were divided into two groups: exercise training plus Calanus Oil supplementation (n = 28) or exercise plus placebo (sunflower oil) supplementation (n = 27). The exercise intervention program was completed by 53 participants and contained functional circuit training (twice a week, 45 min plus 15 min of stretching and balance training) and Nordic walking (once a week, 60 min) for 16 weeks. Senior fitness test, exercise stress test on bicycle ergometer, hand-grip, and body composition were evaluated before and after the program. Our results show that functional fitness and body composition improved following the interventional exercise program, but for most of the parameters there was no synergic effect of supplementing n-3 PUFA-rich Calanus oil. In comparison to the placebo group, the group with Calanus supplementation experienced significantly higher improvement of functional strength of lower body which was evaluated by the chair stand test. Supplementation with Calanus may have a synergic effect with exercise on functional strength of the lower body in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Healthy Ageing)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Platycodon grandiflorus Attenuates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in High-Fat-Diet Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020480 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The root of Platycodon grandiflorus (PG), with hepatoprotective and anti-oxidation effects, has a long history of being used as food and herbal medicine in Asia. However, the mechanism of PG against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not clear. The aim of [...] Read more.
The root of Platycodon grandiflorus (PG), with hepatoprotective and anti-oxidation effects, has a long history of being used as food and herbal medicine in Asia. However, the mechanism of PG against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of PG suppressing the development of NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with either a standard chow diet or a HFD, either supplemented with or without PG, for 16 weeks. Serum lipids, liver steatosis, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity were determined. Expressions or activities of hepatic enzymes in the related pathways were analyzed to investigate the mechanisms. PG significantly reduced HFD-induced hepatic injury and hyperlipidemia, as well as hepatic steatosis via regulating phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC) and expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS). In addition, PG ameliorated oxidative stress by restoring glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant activities, and improved insulin sensitivity by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. Our data showed that dietary PG have profound effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress, two key factors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, demonstrating the potential of PG as a therapeutic strategy for NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methylglyoxal, Glycated Albumin, PAF, and TNF-α: Possible Inflammatory and Metabolic Biomarkers for Management of Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020479 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Background: In gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pancreatic β-cell breakdown can result from a proinflammatory imbalance created by a sustained level of cytokines. In this study, we investigated the role of specific cytokines, such as B-cell activating factor (BAFF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), [...] Read more.
Background: In gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pancreatic β-cell breakdown can result from a proinflammatory imbalance created by a sustained level of cytokines. In this study, we investigated the role of specific cytokines, such as B-cell activating factor (BAFF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and platelet-activating factor (PAF), together with methylglyoxal (MGO) and glycated albumin (GA) in pregnant women affected by GDM. Methods: We enrolled 30 women whose inflammation and metabolic markers were measured at recruitment and after 12 weeks of strict dietetic therapy. We compared these data to the data obtained from 53 randomly selected healthy nonpregnant subjects without diabetes, hyperglycemia, or any condition that can affect glycemic metabolism. Results: In pregnant women affected by GDM, PAF levels increased from 26.3 (17.4–47.5) ng/mL to 40.1 (30.5–80.5) ng/mL (p < 0.001). Their TNF-α levels increased from 3.0 (2.8–3.5) pg/mL to 3.4 (3.1–5.8) pg/mL (p < 0.001). The levels of methylglyoxal were significantly higher in the women with GDM (p < 0.001), both at diagnosis and after 12 weeks (0.64 (0.46–0.90) μg/mL; 0.71 (0.47–0.93) μg/mL, respectively) compared to general population (0.25 (0.19–0.28) μg/mL). Levels of glycated albumin were significantly higher in women with GDM (p < 0.001) only after 12 weeks from diagnosis (1.51 (0.88–2.03) nmol/mL) compared to general population (0.95 (0.63–1.4) nmol/mL). Conclusion: These findings support the involvement of new inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in the mechanisms related to GDM complications and prompt deeper exploration into the vicious cycle connecting inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Gestational Diabetes)
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