Next Issue
Volume 12, March
Previous Issue
Volume 12, January

Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 318 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The increased risk for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is linked to Westernized dietary patterns, which are marked by fatty/processed meats, refined grains, salt, and sugar and limited fresh fruits and vegetables. In healthy diets, macro- and micronutrients and hydration are proportional to physiologic needs. Traditional regional dietary patterns (e.g., Mediterranean, Nordic, Chinese, Korean) and their derivatives (e.g., Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH], Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay [MIND]) offer alternatives by emphasizing plant-based foods and whole grains and replacing fatty/processed meats with healthier protein sources (e.g., fish, legumes). The available evidence suggests that these dietary patterns reduce the risk for NCDs such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
The Clustering of Low Diet Quality, Low Physical Fitness, and Unhealthy Sleep Pattern and Its Association with Changes in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020591 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
The clustering of diet quality, physical activity, and sleep and its association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors remains to be explored. We included 5315 children aged 6–13 years in the analysis. CMR score (CMRS) was computed by summing Z-scores of waist circumference, [...] Read more.
The clustering of diet quality, physical activity, and sleep and its association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors remains to be explored. We included 5315 children aged 6–13 years in the analysis. CMR score (CMRS) was computed by summing Z-scores of waist circumference, an average of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (multiplying by −1), and triglycerides. Low diet quality and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were more likely to be seen in a pair, but low diet quality was less likely to be clustered with unhealthy sleep patterns. Low diet quality, low CRF, and unhealthy sleep pattern was associated with a 0.63, 0.53, and 0.25 standard deviation (SD) higher increase in CMRS, respectively. Compared to children with no unhealthy factor (−0.79 SD), those with ≥1 unhealthy factor had a higher increase (−0.20 to 0.59 SD) in CMRS. A low diet quality-unhealthy sleep pattern resulted in the highest increase in CMRS, blood pressure, and triglycerides. A low diet quality–low CRF-unhealthy sleep pattern resulted in the highest increase in fatness and fasting glucose. Unhealthy factor cluster patterns are complex; however, their positive associations with changes in CMR factors are consistently significant in children. Some specific patterns are more harmful than others for cardiometabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle
The Association of Vitamin D Status with Lipid Profile and Inflammation Biomarkers in Healthy Adolescents
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020590 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Background: The association between vitamin D status and inflammatory biomarkers and lipid profile is not well known, especially in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to investigate the association of vitamin D status with serum lipids and inflammatory biomarkers, including [...] Read more.
Background: The association between vitamin D status and inflammatory biomarkers and lipid profile is not well known, especially in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to investigate the association of vitamin D status with serum lipids and inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-10, IL-6, hsCRP, and TNFR-2, in male adolescents. Methods and materials: A sample of seventy-one high school male students, aged 17 years old, from a high school in Tehran were enrolled in the study. They were divided into four groups including group with serum vitamin D below 25 (ng/mL) (SVD < 25; n = 36), 25 and above (ng/mL) (SVD ≥ 25; n = 35), negative-hsCRP (n = 48), and positive-hsCRP (n = 23). Weight, height, body mass index, dietary intake, serum lipids, and inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-10, IL-6, hsCRP, and TNFR-2, were measured. Results: In the (SVD < 25) group, the serum level of TNFR-2 was significantly higher compared to that in the (SVD ≥ 25) group. There was a significant negative association between serum TNFR-2 and vitamin D levels in the whole sample. We found significant lower levels of IL-10 in positive-hsCRP group compared to the negative-hsCRP group. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between the serum vitamin D level and hsCRP in both hsCRP groups. The HDL level was lower in the (SVD < 25) group compared to that in the (SVD ≥ 25) group. Finally, there was a negative correlation between the serum HDL and hsCRP levels in the positive-hsCRP subjects. Conclusion: Based on the findings it can be concluded that serum vitamin D affects HDL and inflammation status. Although serum levels of HDL and inflammation status are both predictors of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, further studies are needed to prove it, especially in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Supplementation of Mother’s Own Milk with Donor Milk in Infants with Gastroschisis or Intestinal Atresia: A Retrospective Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020589 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Background: Mother’s own milk (MOM) improves in-hospital outcomes for preterm infants. If unavailable, donor milk (DM) is often substituted. It is unclear if DM vs. formula to supplement MOM is associated with improved in-hospital outcomes in term/late preterm surgical infants with gastroschisis or [...] Read more.
Background: Mother’s own milk (MOM) improves in-hospital outcomes for preterm infants. If unavailable, donor milk (DM) is often substituted. It is unclear if DM vs. formula to supplement MOM is associated with improved in-hospital outcomes in term/late preterm surgical infants with gastroschisis or intestinal atresia. Methods: This retrospective study included infants born ≥33 weeks gestational age (GA) with a birth weight of >1500 g who were admitted to a quaternary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Using Chi square and Mann-Whitney u testing, we compared hospital outcomes (length of stay, parenteral nutrition and central line days) before and after a clinical practice change to offer DM instead of formula in this surgical population. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between eras for the 140 infants (median GA 37 weeks). Fewer infants in DM era were receiving formula at discharge (50.0% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.03). In sub-analyses including only small bowel atresia and gastroschisis infants, the median length of stay (35 vs. 25, p < 0.01) and the central line days (28 vs. 20, p < 0.01) were lower in the DM era. Conclusion: In this retrospective study, offering DM instead of formula was associated with less formula feeding at discharge, and in infants with gastroschisis or small bowel atresia, shorter length of stay and central line days. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Positive Association of Dietary Inflammatory Index with Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: Findings from a Korean Population-Based Prospective Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020588 - 24 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Recently, diets with higher inflammatory potentials based on the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) have been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between the DII and CVD [...] Read more.
Recently, diets with higher inflammatory potentials based on the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) have been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between the DII and CVD risk in the large Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_Health Examination (KoGES_HEXA) cohort comprised of 162,773 participants (men 55,070; women 107,703). A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) was used to calculate the DII score. Statistical analyses were performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. During the mean follow-up of 7.4 years, 1111 cases of CVD were diagnosed. Higher DII score was associated with increased risk of CVD in men (hazard ratio [HR]Quintile 5 vs. 1 1.43; 95% CI 1.04–1.96) and in women (HRQuintile 5 vs. 1 1.19; 95% CI 0.85–1.67), although not significant for women. The risk of CVD was significantly higher in physically inactive men (HRQuintile 5 vs. 1 1.80; 95% CI 1.03–3.12), obese men (HRQuintile 5 vs. 1 1.77; 95% CI 1.13–2.76) and men who smoked (HRQuintile 5 vs. 1 1.60; 95% CI 1.10–2.33), respectively. The risk of developing stroke was significantly higher for men (HRQuintile 5 vs. 1 2.06; 95% CI 1.07–3.98; p = 0.003), but not for women. A pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII scores, was associated with increased risk of CVD and stroke among men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Smartphone-Based Maternal Education for the Complementary Feeding of Undernourished Children Under 3 Years of Age in Food-Secure Communities: Randomised Controlled Trial in Urmia, Iran
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020587 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The mothers’ nutritional literacy is an important determinant of child malnourishment. We assessed the effect of a smartphone-based maternal nutritional education programme for the complementary feeding of undernourished children under 3 years of age in a food-secure middle-income community. The study used a [...] Read more.
The mothers’ nutritional literacy is an important determinant of child malnourishment. We assessed the effect of a smartphone-based maternal nutritional education programme for the complementary feeding of undernourished children under 3 years of age in a food-secure middle-income community. The study used a randomised controlled trial design with one intervention arm and one control arm (n = 110; 1:1 ratio) and was performed at one well-child clinic in Urmia, Iran. An educational smartphone application was delivered to the intervention group for a 6-month period while the control group received treatment-as-usual (TAU) with regular check-ups of the child’s development at the well-child centre and the provision of standard nutritional information. The primary outcome measure was change in the indicator of acute undernourishment (i.e., wasting) which is the weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Children in the smartphone group showed greater wasting status improvement (WHZ +0.65 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) ± 0.16)) than children in the TAU group (WHZ +0.31 (95% CI ± 0.21); p = 0.011) and greater reduction (89.6% vs. 51.5%; p = 0.016) of wasting caseness (i.e., WHZ < −2; yes/no). We conclude that smartphone-based maternal nutritional education in complementary feeding is more effective than TAU for reducing undernourishment among children under 3 years of age in food-secure communities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure A1

Open AccessComment
Vitamin C for Cardiac Surgery Patients: Several Errors in a Published Meta-Analysis. Comment on “Effects of Vitamin C on Organ Function in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2103”
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020586 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
We recently published a meta-analysis on vitamin C and the length of intensive care unit [ICU] stay [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Open AccessEditorial
Current Evidence of Natural Agents in Oral and Periodontal Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020585 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Oral and periodontal diseases, chewing disorders, and many destructive inflammatory diseases of the supporting tissues of the teeth are usually caused by an imbalance between host defense and environmental factors like smoking, poor nutrition, and a high percentage of periodontopathogenic bacteria. For these [...] Read more.
Oral and periodontal diseases, chewing disorders, and many destructive inflammatory diseases of the supporting tissues of the teeth are usually caused by an imbalance between host defense and environmental factors like smoking, poor nutrition, and a high percentage of periodontopathogenic bacteria. For these reasons, it is important also to focus attention on plaque control and also on improving host resistance through smoking and stress reduction, and a healthy diet. During the last decades, the importance of micronutrients has been extensively reviewed, and it was concluded that the prevention and treatment of periodontitis should include correct daily nutrition and a correct balance between antioxidants, probiotics, natural agents, vitamin D, and calcium. Recently, there has been growing interest in the literature on the impact of nutraceutical dietary aliments on oral and general health. This Special Issue provides a current and thoughtful perspective on the relationship of diet and natural agents on oral and periodontal diseases through a correct clinical approach with the last and most important evidence that may determine good oral conditions and high quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Beetroot Juice Ingestion on Physical Performance in Highly Competitive Tennis Players
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020584 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Beetroot juice (BJ) contains high levels of inorganic nitrate (NO3) and its intake has good evidence in increasing blood nitrate/nitrite concentrations. The ingestion of BJ has been associated with improvements in physical performance of endurance sports, however the literature in [...] Read more.
Beetroot juice (BJ) contains high levels of inorganic nitrate (NO3) and its intake has good evidence in increasing blood nitrate/nitrite concentrations. The ingestion of BJ has been associated with improvements in physical performance of endurance sports, however the literature in intermittent sports is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BJ could improve physical performance in tennis players. Thirteen well-trained tennis players (25.4 ± 5.1 years) participated in the study during their preparatory period for the tennis season. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups and performed a neuromuscular test battery after either BJ or placebo (PLA) consumption. Both trials were executed on two separate days, in randomized order, with one week of wash out period. The test battery consisted of serve velocity test (SVT), countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric handgrip strength (IHS), 5-0-5 agility test (5-0-5), and 10 m sprint (10-m). No significant differences were found in SVT (1.19%; p = 0.536), CMJ (0.96%; p = 0.327), IHS (4.06%; p = 0.069), 5-0-5 dominant and nondominant side (1.11–2.02%; p = 0.071–0.191) and 10-m (1.05%; p = 0.277) when comparing BJ and PLA ingestion. Thus, our data suggest that low doses of BJ (70 mL) consumption do not enhance tennis physical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Precise and Personalized Nutrition on Athletes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Inhibitory Roles of Vitamin K in Progression of Vascular Calcification
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020583 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is indispensable for the activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Vascular calcification is intimately associated with CV events and mortality and is a chronic inflammatory process in which [...] Read more.
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is indispensable for the activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Vascular calcification is intimately associated with CV events and mortality and is a chronic inflammatory process in which activated macrophages promote osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and oncostatin M (OSM) in both intimal and medial layers of arterial walls. This process may be mainly mediated through NF-κB signaling pathway. Vitamin K has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects through antagonizing NF-κB signaling in both in vitro and in vivo studies, suggesting that vitamin K may prevent vascular calcification via anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a major inhibitor of soft tissue calcification and contributes to preventing both intimal and medial vascular calcification. Vitamin K may also inhibit progression of vascular calcification by enhancing the activity of MGP through facilitating its γ-carboxylation. In support of this hypothesis, the procalcific effects of warfarin, an antagonist of vitamin K, on arterial calcification have been demonstrated in several clinical studies. Among the inactive MGP forms, dephospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) may be regarded as the most useful biomarker of not only vitamin K deficiency, but also vascular calcification and CVD. There have been several studies showing the association of circulating levels of dp-ucMGP with vitamin K intake, vascular calcification, mortality, and CVD. However, additional larger prospective studies including randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm the beneficial effects of vitamin K supplementation on CV health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K Intake and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Targeting Abdominal Obesity and Its Complications with Dietary Phytoestrogens
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020582 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
In the assessment of the health risk of an obese individual, both the amount of adipose tissue and its distribution and metabolic activity are essential. In adults, the distribution of adipose tissue differs in a gender-dependent manner and is regulated by sex steroids, [...] Read more.
In the assessment of the health risk of an obese individual, both the amount of adipose tissue and its distribution and metabolic activity are essential. In adults, the distribution of adipose tissue differs in a gender-dependent manner and is regulated by sex steroids, especially estrogens. Estrogens affect adipocyte differentiation but are also involved in the regulation of the lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and inflammatory activity of the adipose tissue. Their deficiency results in unfavorable changes in body composition and increases the risk of metabolic complications, which can be partially reversed by hormone replacement therapy. Therefore, the idea of the supplementation of estrogen-like compounds to counteract obesity and related complications is compelling. Phytoestrogens are natural plant-derived dietary compounds that resemble human estrogens in their chemical structure and biological activity. Supplementation with phytoestrogens may confer a range of beneficial effects. However, results of studies on the influence of phytoestrogens on body composition and prevalence of obesity are inconsistent. In this review, we present data from in vitro, animal, and human studies regarding the role of phytoestrogens in adipose tissue development and function in the context of their potential application in the prevention of visceral obesity and related complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Bioactive Factors in Human Breast Milk Attenuate Intestinal Inflammation during Early Life
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020581 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Human breast milk is well known as the ideal source of nutrition during early life, ensuring optimal growth during infancy and early childhood. Breast milk is also the source of many unique and dynamic bioactive components that play a key role in the [...] Read more.
Human breast milk is well known as the ideal source of nutrition during early life, ensuring optimal growth during infancy and early childhood. Breast milk is also the source of many unique and dynamic bioactive components that play a key role in the development of the immune system. These bioactive components include essential microbes, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), immunoglobulins, lactoferrin and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. These factors all interact with intestinal commensal bacteria and/or immune cells, playing a critical role in establishment of the intestinal microbiome and ultimately influencing intestinal inflammation and gut health during early life. Exposure to breast milk has been associated with a decreased incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease characterized by overwhelming intestinal inflammation and high morbidity among preterm infants. For this reason, breast milk is considered a protective factor against NEC and aberrant intestinal inflammation common in preterm infants. In this review, we will describe the key microbial, immunological, and metabolic components of breast milk that have been shown to play a role in the mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and/or NEC prevention. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Duality of Tocopherol Isoforms and Novel Associations with Vitamins Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism: Results from an Elderly Sample of the LifeLines Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020580 - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Whether the affinity of serum vitamin E with total lipids hampers the appropriate assessment of its association with age-related risk factors has not been investigated in epidemiological studies. We aimed to compare linear regression-derived coefficients of the association of non-indexed and total lipids-indexed [...] Read more.
Whether the affinity of serum vitamin E with total lipids hampers the appropriate assessment of its association with age-related risk factors has not been investigated in epidemiological studies. We aimed to compare linear regression-derived coefficients of the association of non-indexed and total lipids-indexed vitamin E isoforms with clinical and laboratory characteristics pertaining to the lipid, metabolic syndrome, and one-carbon metabolism biological domains. We studied 1429 elderly subjects (non-vitamin supplement users, 60–75 years old, with low and high socioeconomic status) from the population-based LifeLines Cohort and Biobank Study. We found that the associations of tocopherol isoforms with lipids were inverted in total lipids-indexed analyses, which may be indicative of overcorrection. Irrespective of the methods of standardization, we consistently found positive associations of α-tocopherol with vitamins of the one-carbon metabolism pathway and inverse associations with characteristics related to glucose metabolism. The associations of γ-tocopherol were often opposite to those of α-tocopherol. These data suggest that tocopherol isoforms and one-carbon metabolism are related, with beneficial and adverse associations for α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively. Whether tocopherol isoforms, or their interplay, truly affect the one-carbon metabolism pathway remains to be further studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Role of Vitamin D in Athletes and Their Performance: Current Concepts and New Trends
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020579 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4039
Abstract
We are currently experiencing a vitamin D (VITD) deficiency pandemic across the world. Athletes have the same predisposition to low levels of vitamin D, the majority of its concentrations being below 20 ng/mL in a wide range of sports, especially in the winter [...] Read more.
We are currently experiencing a vitamin D (VITD) deficiency pandemic across the world. Athletes have the same predisposition to low levels of vitamin D, the majority of its concentrations being below 20 ng/mL in a wide range of sports, especially in the winter months. Vitamin D is important in bone health, but recent research also points out its essential role in extraskeletal functions, including skeletal muscle growth, immune and cardiopulmonary functions and inflammatory modulation, which influence athletic performance. Vitamin D can also interact with extraskeletal tissues to modulate injury recovery and also influence the risk of infection. The data presented in this paper has triggered investigations in relation to the importance of maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D and to the possible positive influence supplementation has on immune and musculoskeletal functions in athletes, benefiting their performance and preventing future injuries. The objective of this review is to describe the latest research conducted on the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency and its effects on sports performance and musculoskeletal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hemoglobin A1c Levels Modify Associations between Dietary Acid Load and Breast Cancer Recurrence
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020578 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
Background: Metabolic acidosis promotes cancer metastasis. No prospective studies have examined the association between dietary acid load and breast cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors, who are susceptible to metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia promotes cancer progression and acid formation; however, researchers have not examined [...] Read more.
Background: Metabolic acidosis promotes cancer metastasis. No prospective studies have examined the association between dietary acid load and breast cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors, who are susceptible to metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia promotes cancer progression and acid formation; however, researchers have not examined whether hyperglycemia can modify the association between dietary acid load and breast cancer recurrence. Methods: We studied 3081 early-stage breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living study who provided dietary information through 24-h recalls at baseline and during follow-up and had measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at baseline. We assessed dietary acid load using two common dietary acid load scores, potential renal acid load (PRAL) score and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) score. Results: After an average of 7.3 years of follow-up, dietary acid load was positively associated with recurrence when baseline HbA1c levels were ≥ 5.6% (median level) and ≥5.7% (pre-diabetic cut-point). In the stratum with HbA1c ≥ 5.6%, comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary acid load, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-3.48) for PRAL and was 2.31 (95% CI 1.42-3.74) for NEAP. No associations were observed in the stratum with HbA1c levels were <5.6%. P-values for interactions were 0.01 for PRAL and 0.05 for NEAP. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that even at or above normal to high HbA1c levels, dietary acid load was associated with increased risk of breast cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors. Impacts: Our study provides strong evidence for developing specific dietary acid load guidelines based on HbA1c levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle
Zinc Burden Evokes Copper Deficiency in the Hypoalbuminemic Hemodialysis Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020577 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Background: Recent research has focused on the roles of trace minerals such as zinc and copper. In 2017, oral zinc acetate was approved to treat zinc deficiency, and the next year, the Japanese Society for Clinical Nutrition developed the guidelines for diagnosis and [...] Read more.
Background: Recent research has focused on the roles of trace minerals such as zinc and copper. In 2017, oral zinc acetate was approved to treat zinc deficiency, and the next year, the Japanese Society for Clinical Nutrition developed the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment for zinc deficiency. Accordingly, hemodialysis patients began receiving zinc acetate when zinc deficiency was diagnosed. However, studies regarding the values of zinc and copper in hemodialysis patients are extremely poor, thus it remains unclear if the guidelines for healthy subjects can be applied to hemodialysis patients. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study, in which 132 patients were subjected to simply examine serum zinc concentration and its association with copper levels in hemodialysis patients (N = 65) versus healthy individuals attending a routine check-up (control group; N = 67) in our hospital. Analyses were performed with BellCurve for Excel (Social Survey Research Information Co., Ltd. Tokyo, Japan). Results: The distribution of zinc level in the hemodialysis group was distinct from that in the control group (P < 0.001). The zinc level was correlated with serum albumin concentration. Zinc concentration was also negatively correlated with serum copper level in both groups. In the hemodialysis group, the upper limit of zinc to avoid copper deficiency was 109.7 μg/dL, and the safety upper limit was 78.3 μg/dL. Conclusions: Hemodialysis patients exhibited a lower level of zinc concentration compared to normal healthy subjects. Since albumin binds to zinc as a carrier, low zinc levels could be attributed to lower level of serum albumin. Importantly, zinc and copper levels were inversely correlated, thus administration of oral zinc acetate could increase a risk for copper deficiency. It might be better to check both zinc and copper values monthly after prescribing zinc acetate. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evidence for Dietary Agmatine Sulfate Effectiveness in Neuropathies Associated with Painful Small Fiber Neuropathy. A Pilot Open-Label Consecutive Case Series Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020576 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Peripheral neuropathies associated with painful small fiber neuropathy (SFN) are complex conditions, resistant to treatment with conventional medications. Previous clinical studies strongly support the use of dietary agmatine as a safe and effective treatment for neuropathic pain. Based on this evidence, we conducted [...] Read more.
Peripheral neuropathies associated with painful small fiber neuropathy (SFN) are complex conditions, resistant to treatment with conventional medications. Previous clinical studies strongly support the use of dietary agmatine as a safe and effective treatment for neuropathic pain. Based on this evidence, we conducted an open-label consecutive case series study to evaluate the effectiveness of agmatine in neuropathies associated with painful SFN (Study Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, System Identifier: NCT01524666). Participants diagnosed with painful SFN and autonomic dysfunctions were treated with 2.67 g/day agmatine sulfate (AgmaSet® capsules containing G-Agmatine® brand of agmatine sulfate) for a period of 2 months. Before the beginning (baseline) and at the end of the treatment period, participants answered the established 12-item neuropathic pain questionnaire specifically developed to distinguish symptoms associated with neuropathy and to quantify their severity. Secondary outcomes included other treatment options and a safety assessment. Twelve patients were recruited, and 11 patients—8 diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, two with idiopathic neuropathy and one with inflammatory neuropathy—completed the study. All patients showed improvement in neuropathic pain to a varied extent. The average decrease in pain intensity was 26.0 rating points, corresponding to a 46.4% reduction in overall pain (p < 0.00001). The results suggest that dietary agmatine sulfate has a significant effect in reducing neuropathic pain intensity associated with painful SFN resistant to treatment with conventional neuropathic pain medications. Larger randomized placebo-controlled studies are expected to establish agmatine sulfate as a preferred treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition in Neuropathic Pain and Headache)
Open AccessReview
Vitamin D and Endothelial Function
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020575 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
Vitamin D is known to elicit a vasoprotective effect, while vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED is characterized by reduced bioavailability of a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), and is an early event in the development [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is known to elicit a vasoprotective effect, while vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED is characterized by reduced bioavailability of a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), and is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. In endothelial cells, vitamin D regulates NO synthesis by mediating the activity of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Under pathogenic conditions, the oxidative stress caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) facilitates NO degradation and suppresses NO synthesis, consequently reducing NO bioavailability. Vitamin D, however, counteracts the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase which produces ROS, and improves antioxidant capacity by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase. In addition to ROS, proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-6 are risk factors for ED, restraining NO and eNOS bioactivity and upregulating the expression of various atherosclerotic factors through the NF-κB pathway. These proinflammatory activities are inhibited by vitamin D by suppressing NF-κB signaling and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, we discuss the diverse activities of vitamin D in regulating NO bioavailability and endothelial function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplementation and Vascular Function)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Gut–Joint Axis: The Role of Physical Exercise on Gut Microbiota Modulation in Older People with Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020574 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered one of the most common joint disorders worldwide and its prevalence is constantly increasing due to the global longevity and changes in eating habits and lifestyle. In this context, the role of gut microbiota (GM) in the pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered one of the most common joint disorders worldwide and its prevalence is constantly increasing due to the global longevity and changes in eating habits and lifestyle. In this context, the role of gut microbiota (GM) in the pathogenesis of OA is still unclear. Perturbation of GM biodiversity and function, defined as ‘gut dysbiosis’, might be involved in the development of inflammaging, one of the main risk factors of OA development. It is well known that physical exercise could play a key role in the prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases including OA, and it is recommended by several guidelines as a first line intervention. Several studies have shown that physical exercise could modulate GM composition, boosting intestinal mucosal immunity, increasing the Bacteroidetes–Firmicutes ratio, modifying the bile acid profile, and improving the production of short chain fatty acids. Moreover, it has been shown that low intensity exercise might reduce the risk of gastrointestinal diseases, confirming the hypothesis of a strict correlation between skeletal muscle and GM. However, up to date, there is still a lack of clinical trials focusing on this research field. Therefore, in this narrative, we aimed to summarize the state-of-the-art of the literature regarding the correlation between these conditions, supporting the hypothesis of a ‘gut–joint axis’ and highlighting the role of physical exercise combined with adequate diet and probiotic supplements in rebalancing microbial dysbiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study of Magnesium Formulations on Intestinal Cells to Influence Myometrium Cell Relaxation
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020573 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Background: Magnesium is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including direct relaxation of smooth muscle. A magnesium imbalance can be considered the primary cause or consequence of many pathophysiological conditions. The smooth muscle tissue of the uterus, i.e., the myometrium, [...] Read more.
Background: Magnesium is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including direct relaxation of smooth muscle. A magnesium imbalance can be considered the primary cause or consequence of many pathophysiological conditions. The smooth muscle tissue of the uterus, i.e., the myometrium, undergoes numerous physiological changes during life, fundamental for uterine activities, and it receives proven benefits from magnesium supplementation. However, magnesium supplements have poor absorption and bioavailability. Furthermore, no data are available on the direct interaction between intestinal absorption of magnesium and relaxation of the myometrium. Methods: Permeability in human intestinal cells (Caco-2 cells) and direct effects on myometrial cells (PHM1-41 cells) of two different forms of magnesium, i.e., sucrosomial and bisglycinate, were studied in order to verify the magnesium capacity of modulate contractility. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, magnesium concentration, contractility, and pathways involved were analyzed. Results: Data showed a better influence of buffered chelate bisglycinate on intestinal permeability and myometrial relaxation over time with a maximum effect at 3 h and greater availability compared to the sucrosomial form. Conclusions: Magnesium-buffered bisglycinate chelate showed better intestinal absorption and myometrial contraction, indicating a better chance of effectiveness in human applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Effects of Ethanol on the Heart: Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020572 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Alcoholic-dilated Cardiomyopathy (ACM) is the most prevalent form of ethanol-induced heart damage. Ethanol induces ACM in a dose-dependent manner, independently of nutrition, vitamin, or electrolyte disturbances. It has synergistic effects with other heart risk factors. ACM produces a progressive reduction in myocardial contractility [...] Read more.
Alcoholic-dilated Cardiomyopathy (ACM) is the most prevalent form of ethanol-induced heart damage. Ethanol induces ACM in a dose-dependent manner, independently of nutrition, vitamin, or electrolyte disturbances. It has synergistic effects with other heart risk factors. ACM produces a progressive reduction in myocardial contractility and heart chamber dilatation, leading to heart failure episodes and arrhythmias. Pathologically, ethanol induces myocytolysis, apoptosis, and necrosis of myocytes, with repair mechanisms causing hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Myocyte ethanol targets include changes in membrane composition, receptors, ion channels, intracellular [Ca2+] transients, and structural proteins, and disrupt sarcomere contractility. Cardiac remodeling tries to compensate for this damage, establishing a balance between aggression and defense mechanisms. The final process of ACM is the result of dosage and individual predisposition. The ACM prognosis depends on the degree of persistent ethanol intake. Abstinence is the preferred goal, although controlled drinking may still improve cardiac function. New strategies are addressed to decrease myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis and try to improve myocyte regeneration, minimizing ethanol-related cardiac damage. Growth factors and cardiomyokines are relevant molecules that may modify this process. Cardiac transplantation is the final measure in end-stage ACM but is limited to those subjects able to achieve abstinence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Maternal Consumption of a Low-Isoflavone Soy Protein Isolate Diet Accelerates Chemically Induced Hepatic Carcinogenesis in Male Rat Offspring
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020571 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
It has been reported that maternal nutrition determines the offspring’s susceptibility to chronic diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal diets differing in protein source on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in adult rat offspring. Dams were fed a casein (CAS) diet [...] Read more.
It has been reported that maternal nutrition determines the offspring’s susceptibility to chronic diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal diets differing in protein source on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in adult rat offspring. Dams were fed a casein (CAS) diet or a low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) diet for two weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned to and fed a chow diet throughout the study. From four weeks of age, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were induced by intraperitoneal injection of DEN once a week for 14 weeks. The SPI/DEN group exhibited higher mortality rate, tumor multiplicity, and HCC incidence compared with the CAS/DEN group. Accordingly, altered cholesterol metabolism and increases in liver damage and angiogenesis were observed in the SPI/DEN group. The SPI/DEN group had a significant induction of the nuclear factor-κB-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway, as measured by increased phosphorylation of IκB kinase β, which may lead to the survival of precancerous hepatocytes. In conclusion, maternal consumption of a low-isoflavone soy protein isolate diet accelerated chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male rat offspring in the present study, suggesting that maternal dietary protein source may be involved in DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in adult offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parental Diet for Offspring Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Early Life Stress, Postnatal Diet Modulation, and Long-Term Western-Style Diet on Later-Life Metabolic and Cognitive Outcomes
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020570 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Early life stress (ES) increases the risk to develop metabolic and brain disorders in adulthood. Breastfeeding (exclusivity and duration) is associated with improved metabolic and neurocognitive health outcomes, and the physical properties of the dietary lipids may contribute to this. Here, we tested [...] Read more.
Early life stress (ES) increases the risk to develop metabolic and brain disorders in adulthood. Breastfeeding (exclusivity and duration) is associated with improved metabolic and neurocognitive health outcomes, and the physical properties of the dietary lipids may contribute to this. Here, we tested whether early life exposure to dietary lipids mimicking some physical characteristics of breastmilk (i.e., large, phospholipid-coated lipid droplets; Concept Nuturis® infant milk formula (N-IMF)), could protect against ES-induced metabolic and brain abnormalities under standard circumstances, and in response to prolonged Western-style diet (WSD) in adulthood. ES was induced by exposing mice to limited nesting material from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9. From P16 to P42, male offspring were fed a standard IMF (S-IMF) or N-IMF, followed by either standard rodent diet (SD) or WSD until P230. We then assessed body composition development, fat mass, metabolic hormones, hippocampus-dependent cognitive function, and neurogenesis (proliferation and survival). Prolonged WSD resulted in an obesogenic phenotype at P230, which was not modulated by previous ES or N-IMF exposure. Nevertheless, ES and N-IMF modulated the effect of WSD on neurogenesis at P230, without affecting cognitive function, highlighting programming effects of the early life environment on the hippocampal response to later life challenges at a structural level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Brain across the Lifespan)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Experimental Studies of Front-of-Package Nutrient Warning Labels on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Ultra-Processed Foods: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020569 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2593
Abstract
Policies that require front-of-package (FoP) nutrient warnings are becoming increasingly common across the globe as a strategy to discourage excess consumption of sugary drinks and ultra-processed food. However, a better understanding of the pathway through which FoP nutrient warnings work, as well as [...] Read more.
Policies that require front-of-package (FoP) nutrient warnings are becoming increasingly common across the globe as a strategy to discourage excess consumption of sugary drinks and ultra-processed food. However, a better understanding of the pathway through which FoP nutrient warnings work, as well as a review of how outcomes being measured in recent studies map onto this pathway, are needed in order to inform policy on the most effective FoP label design for reducing purchases of ultra-processed foods. This scoping review describes a conceptual model for how FoP nutrient warnings affect consumer behavior, examines which of these outcomes are currently being measured, and summarizes evidence from randomized controlled experiments. Twenty-two studies which experimentally tested nutrient warnings against a control label or other labeling systems were included for full-text review. Our conceptual model includes attention; comprehension, cognitive elaboration, and message acceptance; negative affect and risk perception; behavioral intentions, and behavioral response, along with other elements such as external factors and interpersonal communications. We found that many studies focused on outcomes such as attention, comprehension, and behavioral intentions, but considerable gaps in the evidence remain, particularly for intermediary steps on the pathway to behavioral change, such as negative affect and social interactions. FoP nutrient warnings were visually attended to by consumers, easy to understand, helped consumers identify products high in nutrients of concern, and discouraged them from purchasing these products, although other labeling systems were perceived as containing more information and performed better at helping consumers rank the healthfulness of products. More research is needed to understand whether and how nutrient warnings work in the real world to discourage consumer purchases of sugary drinks and ultra-processed food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Policies and Diet)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Habits of Saharawi Type II Diabetic Women Living in Algerian Refugee Camps: Relationship with Nutritional Status and Glycemic Profile
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020568 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Diabetes is one of the main health problems among Saharawi refugees living in Algerian camps, especially for women. As is known, diet plays an important role in the management of diabetes. However, the dietary habits of Saharawi diabetic women are unknown. Therefore, we [...] Read more.
Diabetes is one of the main health problems among Saharawi refugees living in Algerian camps, especially for women. As is known, diet plays an important role in the management of diabetes. However, the dietary habits of Saharawi diabetic women are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the dietary habits and established their relationship with the nutritional status and glycemic profile of such women. We recruited 65 Saharawi type II diabetic women taking orally glucose-lowering drugs only. Dietary habits were investigated using qualitative 24 h recall carried out over three non-consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements were taken and blood parameters were measured. About 80% of the women were overweight and about three out of four women had uncompensated diabetes and were insulin resistant. The Saharawi diet was found to mainly include cereals, oils, sugars, vegetables (especially onions, tomatoes, and carrots), tea, and meat. Principal component analysis identified two major dietary patterns, the first one “healthy” and the second one “unhealthy”. Women in the higher tertile of adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern had a higher homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA) index (b = 2.49; 95% CI: 0.41–4.57; p = 0.02) and circulating insulin (b = 4.52; 95% CI: 0.44–8.60; p = 0.03) than the women in the lowest tertile. Food policies should be oriented to improve the quality of diet of Saharawi diabetic women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Related with Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Schoolchildren Aged 6–13
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020567 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and both physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) level has been analysed in several studies. The aim of this research was to describe, compare and analyse the level of PF and PA in [...] Read more.
The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and both physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) level has been analysed in several studies. The aim of this research was to describe, compare and analyse the level of PF and PA in schoolchildren aged 6–13 in the Region of Murcia, according to adherence to the MD. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 370 schoolchildren (44.9% girls) aged 6–13 (8.7 ± 1.8) from six primary schools in the Region of Murcia (Spain). Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and teenagers (KIDMED) was used to determinate the adherence to the MD. The ALPHA-FIT Test Battery was applied for assess body composition and PF. PA level was determined using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Only 25.9% of the schoolchildren had optimal adherence to the MD. Regarding the scores of the different PF tests in MD groups, only statistically significant differences were found for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (p = 0.048) in boys. PA level showed statistically significant differences in both boys (p = 0.040) and girls (p = 0.016). A positive relationship was found between the KIDMED and PA level (p = 0.235). A higher probability of having a greater CRF (OR = 1.17; CI = 1.02–1.34) and PA level (OR = 7.84; CI = 2.84–21.60) was found in high MD group. These results suggest that an optimal adherence to the MD is associated with higher CRF and PA level in the selected schoolchildren. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Direct-to-Consumer Nutrigenetics Testing: An Overview
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020566 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
At present, specialized companies offering genetic testing services without the involvement of clinicians are growing; this development is a direct consequence of the significant decrease in genotyping and sequencing costs. Online companies offer predictions about the risk of developing complex diseases during one’s [...] Read more.
At present, specialized companies offering genetic testing services without the involvement of clinicians are growing; this development is a direct consequence of the significant decrease in genotyping and sequencing costs. Online companies offer predictions about the risk of developing complex diseases during one’s life course, and they offer suggestions for personal lifestyle. Several companies have been created that provide nutrigenetics services; these companies suggest dietary indications—a central issue in the prevention and etiopathogenesis of specific diseases—based on one’s personal genetic background. Dietary patterns are defined on the basis of a limited set of genetic markers. In this article, we analyze the online nutrigenetics services offered by 45 companies worldwide, to obtain an overall picture of the costs, the types of nutritional traits considered and the level of scientific precision of the services proposed. Our analysis clearly highlights the need for specific guidelines, in order to ensure a set of minimum quality standards for the nutrigenetics services offered to the customer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics and Personalized Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Timing of Acute and Consecutive Catechin Ingestion on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Mice and Humans
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020565 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
We examined the effects of the timing of acute and consecutive epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin-rich green tea ingestion on postprandial glucose in mice and human adults. In mouse experiments, we compared the effects of EGCG administration early (morning) and late (evening) in [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of the timing of acute and consecutive epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin-rich green tea ingestion on postprandial glucose in mice and human adults. In mouse experiments, we compared the effects of EGCG administration early (morning) and late (evening) in the active period on postprandial glucose. In human experiments, participants were randomly assigned to the morning-placebo (MP, n = 10), morning-green tea (MGT, n = 10), evening-placebo (EP, n = 9), and evening-green tea (EGT, n = 9) groups, and consumed either catechin-rich green tea or a placebo beverage for 1 week. At baseline and after 1 week, participants consumed their designated beverages with breakfast (MP and MGT) or supper (EP and EGT). Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after each meal. Consecutive administration of EGCG in the evening, but not in the morning, reduced postprandial glucose at 30 (p = 0.006) and 60 (p = 0.037) min in the evening trials in mice. In humans, ingestion of catechin-rich green tea in the evening decreased postprandial glucose (three-factor analysis of variance, p < 0.05). Thus, catechin intake in the evening more effectively suppressed elevation of postprandial glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Increased Colonic Permeability and Lifestyles as Contributing Factors to Obesity and Liver Steatosis
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020564 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
Intestinal permeability (IP) is essential in maintaining gut-metabolic functions in health. An unequivocal evaluation of IP, as marker of intestinal barrier integrity, however, is missing in health and in several diseases. We aimed to assess IP in the whole gastrointestinal tract according to [...] Read more.
Intestinal permeability (IP) is essential in maintaining gut-metabolic functions in health. An unequivocal evaluation of IP, as marker of intestinal barrier integrity, however, is missing in health and in several diseases. We aimed to assess IP in the whole gastrointestinal tract according to body mass index (BMI) and liver steatosis. In 120 patients (61F:59M; mean age 45 ± SEM 1.2 years, range: 18–75), IP was distinctively studied by urine recovery of orally administered sucrose (SO, stomach), lactulose/mannitol ratio (LA/MA, small intestine), and sucralose (SA, colon). By triple quadrupole mass-spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, we measured urinary recovery of saccharide probes. Subjects were stratified according to BMI as normal weight, overweight, and obesity, and answered questionnaires regarding dietary habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. Liver steatosis was assessed by ultrasonography. IP at every gastrointestinal tract was similar in both sexes and decreased with age. Stomach and small intestinal permeability did not differ according to BMI. Colonic permeability increased with BMI, waist, neck, and hip circumferences and was significantly higher in obese than in lean subjects. As determined by logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of BMI increment was significantly higher in subjects in the highest tertile of sucralose excretion, also after adjusting for age and consumption of junk food. The presence of liver steatosis was associated with increased colonic permeability. Patients with lower score of adherence to Mediterranean diet had a higher score of ‘junk food’. Intestinal permeability tended to increase in subjects with a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet. In conclusion, colonic (but not stomach and small intestinal) permeability seems to be linked to obesity and liver steatosis independently from dietary habits, age, and physical activity. The exact role of these last factors, however, requires specific studies focusing on intestinal permeability. Results should pave the way to both primary prevention measures and new therapeutic strategies in metabolic and liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Liver-Related Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Footsteps Using Connected Bracelets with the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 6-Minutes Walking Test in a Prospective Colorectal Surgery Cohort
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020563 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Preoperative physical activity and early postoperative mobilization are key components of enhanced recovery programs but both difficult to assess. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to compare different ways to measure preoperative physical activity and to correlate those tests with postoperative [...] Read more.
Preoperative physical activity and early postoperative mobilization are key components of enhanced recovery programs but both difficult to assess. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to compare different ways to measure preoperative physical activity and to correlate those tests with postoperative physical activity (footsteps). The daily number of footsteps was recorded from preoperative day 5 to postoperative day (POD) 3 in a prospective cohort of colorectal patients using connected wrist bracelets. Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) and 6-Minutes Walking Test (6MWT) were assessed preoperatively. Pearson correlation and multivariable regression were used to study the predictive potential of these tests for postoperative footsteps. A total of 50 patients were included. Mean number of preoperative and postoperative footsteps were 6163 (SD 4274) and 1183 (SD 1828), respectively. There was no correlation between preoperative footsteps and preoperative tests (TUGT and 6MWT) as well as between preoperative tests (TUGT and 6MWT) and postoperative footsteps. Postoperative physical activity was significantly correlated with mean number of preoperative footsteps (Rho = 0.527, IC 95 [0.28;0.709]; p < 0.001). Thereby, preoperative footsteps measurement was the only tool permitting to predict postoperative footsteps. Other preoperative tests as TUGT and 6MWT could not predict immediate postoperative physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prognostic Nutritional Index is a Predictor of Free Flap Failure in Extremity Reconstruction
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020562 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The nutritional condition of patients is an important prognostic factor in various diseases. Free flap failure is a serious complication in patients undergoing free flap reconstruction, increasing morbidity and hospital costs. We evaluated the predictive factors, including the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), associated [...] Read more.
The nutritional condition of patients is an important prognostic factor in various diseases. Free flap failure is a serious complication in patients undergoing free flap reconstruction, increasing morbidity and hospital costs. We evaluated the predictive factors, including the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), associated with free flap failure in extremity reconstruction. The PNI was calculated as follows: 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count (per mm3), with a PNI <40 defined as low. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of free flap failure. Postoperative outcomes, including duration of hospital stay and rate and duration of intensive care unit admission, were also evaluated. Of the 625 patients included, 38 (6.1%) experienced free flap failure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that predictors of free flap failure were female (odds ratio: 2.094; p = 0.031) and a low PNI (odds ratio: 3.859; p <0.001). The duration of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients who did than those who did not experience free flap failure (62.1 ± 55.5 days vs. 28.3 ± 24.4 days, p <0.001). A low PNI is associated with free flap failure, leading to prolonged hospital stay. This result suggests that the PNI can be simply and effectively used to predict free flap failure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop