Special Issue "Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Paola Venditti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy
Interests: role played by free radicals in tissue functional adaptations to physio-pathological conditions in which tissue oxidative stress develops (alteration of thyroid state, physical activity, exposition to xenobiotics, cold exposure, ischemia-reperfusion, etc.); study of the ROS sensitive factors involved in the control of mitochondrial biogenesis and adaptation of the antioxidant system
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At about 100 years from its discovery (by Bishop in 1922 in studies concerning the effects of nutrition on reproduction in rats), Vitamin E can still cause surprises. Many aspects of the absorption, metabolism, tissue distribution, and excretion of this vitamin are yet to be fully understood. Similarly, the biological functions that this vitamin, its different forms, and metabolites play in living organisms are still being studied. After its discovery as a factor essential for rat fertility, Vitamin E was characterized for its properties of fat-soluble antioxidants and subsequently was shown to have signaling and gene-regulation effects. Recent acquisitions about vitamin E concern its capacity to reduce cardiovascular risk; to act as an immunomodulator; and to possess antiallergic effects and neuroprotective and hepatoprotective properties. Some data suggest that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin E needs to be revised based on new finding that are emerging from studies on its biological functions.  

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts describing either original research (clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and experiments conducted in animal models) or systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examine new aspects of Vitamin E metabolism and function.

With this Special Issue, we aim to advance knowledge and stimulate innovative ideas.

Assoc. Prof. Paola Venditti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Vitamin E
  • Tocopherols
  • Tocotrienols
  • Cytochrome P-450
  • Antioxidants
  • Tocopheryl phosphate
  • Nutrition
  • Diet
  • Ageing/aging rate
  • Natural product
  • Food supplement
  • fat-soluble vitamins
  • bioavailability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
Vitamin E Supplementation and Mitochondria in Experimental and Functional Hyperthyroidism: A Mini-Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122900 - 01 Dec 2019
Abstract
Mitochondria are both the main sites of production and the main target of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with harmful consequences for the cells and the whole organism, resulting in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders such as type 2 [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are both the main sites of production and the main target of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with harmful consequences for the cells and the whole organism, resulting in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dementia, and aging. To protect themselves from ROS, mitochondria are equipped with an efficient antioxidant system, which includes low-molecular-mass molecules and enzymes able to scavenge ROS or repair the oxidative damage. In the mitochondrial membranes, a major role is played by the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E, which reacts with the peroxyl radicals faster than the molecules of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in doing so, protects membranes from excessive oxidative damage. In the present review, we summarize the available data concerning the capacity of vitamin E supplementation to protect mitochondria from oxidative damage in hyperthyroidism, a condition that leads to increased mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative damage. Vitamin E supplementation to hyperthyroid animals limits the thyroid hormone-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS and oxidative damage. Moreover, it prevents the reduction of the high functionality components of the mitochondrial population induced by hyperthyroidism, thus preserving cell function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma versus Erythrocyte Vitamin E in Renal Transplant Recipients, and Duality of Tocopherol Species
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112821 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent [...] Read more.
Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent a lipids-independent specimen to estimate vitamin E status, we performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of adult RTR (n = 113) recruited in a university setting (2015–2018). We compared crude and total lipids-standardized linear regression-derived coefficients of plasma and erythrocyte tocopherol species in relation to clinical and laboratory parameters. Strongly positive associations of fasting lipids with plasma tocopherol became inverse, rather than absent, in total lipids-standardized analyses, indicating potential overadjustment. Whilst, no variables from the lipids domain were associated with the tocopherol species measured from erythrocyte specimens. In relation to inflammatory status and clinical parameters with antioxidant activity, we found associations in directions that are consistent with either beneficial or adverse effects concerning α- or γ-tocopherol, respectively. In conclusion, erythrocytes offer a lipids-independent alternative to estimate vitamin E status and investigate its relationship with parameters over other biological domains. In RTR, α- and γ-tocopherol may serve as biomarkers of relatively lower or higher vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation, noticeably in opposite directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
The Vitamin E Derivative Gamma Tocotrienol Promotes Anti-Tumor Effects in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112808 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer characterized by the formation of faulty defective myelogenous cells with morphological heterogeneity and cytogenic aberrations leading to a loss of their function. In an attempt to find an effective and safe AML treatment, vitamin E [...] Read more.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer characterized by the formation of faulty defective myelogenous cells with morphological heterogeneity and cytogenic aberrations leading to a loss of their function. In an attempt to find an effective and safe AML treatment, vitamin E derivatives, including tocopherols were considered as potential anti-tumor compounds. Recently, other isoforms of vitamin E, namely tocotrienols have been proposed as potential potent anti-cancerous agents, displaying promising therapeutic effects in different cancer types. In this study we evaluated the anti-cancerous effects of γ-tocotrienol, on AML cell lines in vitro. For this purpose, AML cell lines incubated with γ-tocotrienol were examined for their viability, cell cycle status, apoptotic cell death, DNA fragmentation, production of reactive oxygen species and expression of proapoptotic proteins. Our results showed that γ-tocotrienol exhibits time and dose-dependent anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and antioxidant effects on U937 and KG-1 cell lines, through the upregulation of proteins involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamins D and E Stimulate the PI3K-AKT Signalling Pathway in Insulin-Resistant SK-N-SH Neuronal Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102525 - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of vitamins D and E on an insulin-resistant model and hypothesized that this treatment would reverse the effects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and improves insulin signalling. An insulin-resistant model was induced in SK-N-SH neuronal cells with a treatment of 250 nM insulin and re-challenged with 100 nM at two different incubation time (16 h and 24 h). The effects of vitamin D (10 and 20 ng/mL), vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (200 ng/mL) and the combination of vitamins D and E on insulin signalling markers (IR, PI3K, GLUT3, GLUT4, and p-AKT), glucose uptake and AD markers (GSK3β and TAU) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated an improvement of the insulin signalling pathway upon treatment with vitamin D alone, with significant increases in IR, PI3K, GLUT3, GLUT4 expression levels, as well as AKT phosphorylation and glucose uptake, while GSK3β and TAU expression levels was decreased significantly. On the contrary, vitamin E alone, increased p-AKT, reduced the ROS as well as GSK3β and TAU but had no effect on the insulin signalling expression levels. The combination of vitamins D and E only showed significant increase in GLUT4, p-AKT, reduced ROS as well as GSK3β and TAU. Thus, the universal role of vitamin D, E alone and in combinations could be the potential nutritional agents in restoring the sensitivity of neuronal cells towards insulin and delaying the pathophysiological progression of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Analysis of MAPK Signaling in NSC-34 Motor Neurons Treated with Vitamin E
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051081 - 15 May 2019
Abstract
Vitamin E family is composed of different tocopherols and tocotrienols that are well-known as antioxidants but that exert also non-antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), characterized by motor neuron death. The [...] Read more.
Vitamin E family is composed of different tocopherols and tocotrienols that are well-known as antioxidants but that exert also non-antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), characterized by motor neuron death. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the changes induced in the transcriptional profile of NSC-34 motor neurons treated with α-tocopherol. In particular, cells were treated for 24 h with 10 µM α-tocopherol, RNA was extracted and transcriptomic analysis was performed using Next Generation Sequencing. Vitamin E treatment modulated MAPK signaling pathway. The evaluation revealed that 34 and 12 genes, respectively belonging to “Classical MAP kinase pathway” and “JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathway”, were involved. In particular, a downregulation of the genes encoding for p38 (Log2 fold change −0.87 and −0.67) and JNK (Log2 fold change −0.16) was found. On the contrary, the gene encoding for ERK showed a higher expression in cells treated with vitamin E (Log2 fold change 0.30). Since p38 and JNK seem more involved in cell death, while ERK in cell survival, the data suggested that vitamin E treatment may exert a protective role in NSC-34 motor neurons. Moreover, Vitamin E treatment reduced the expression of the genes which encode proteins involved in mitophagy. These results indicate that vitamin E may be an efficacious therapy in preventing motor neuron death, opening new strategies for those diseases that involve motor neurons, including ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Obesity Effects of Tocotrienols and Bran in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040830 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Obesity is a serious public health issue in developed countries, and is known to increase the risk of several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular events and arteriosclerosis. These phenomena are closely correlated with oxidative damage. Recently, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that [...] Read more.
Obesity is a serious public health issue in developed countries, and is known to increase the risk of several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular events and arteriosclerosis. These phenomena are closely correlated with oxidative damage. Recently, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s are also related to oxidative damage. To clarify the relationship between obesity and oxidative brain injury, we investigated brain antioxidant networks in high-fat (HF) diet-treated mice in the presence or absence of tocotrienols (T3s) and bran. Co-treatment with T3s and bran significantly inhibited bodyweight gain in HF diet-treated mice. Serum and cortex T3 levels, and brain antioxidant enzyme activities and protein expressions did not differ among the groups except for SOD protein expression in the cerebellum. Brain p-mTOR and p-Akt protein expressions, which are related to autophagy, did not differ among the groups. These results indicate that treatment with T3s for eight weeks had showed an anti-obesity effect in HF diet-treated mice. However, significant alterations in T3 levels were not observed in the serum and brain of mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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