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Article

Increased Colonic Permeability and Lifestyles as Contributing Factors to Obesity and Liver Steatosis

1
Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
2
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
3
Section of Endocrinology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantations, University of Bari “Aldo Moro” Medical School, 70124 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020564
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 21 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Liver-Related Diseases)
Intestinal permeability (IP) is essential in maintaining gut-metabolic functions in health. An unequivocal evaluation of IP, as marker of intestinal barrier integrity, however, is missing in health and in several diseases. We aimed to assess IP in the whole gastrointestinal tract according to body mass index (BMI) and liver steatosis. In 120 patients (61F:59M; mean age 45 ± SEM 1.2 years, range: 18–75), IP was distinctively studied by urine recovery of orally administered sucrose (SO, stomach), lactulose/mannitol ratio (LA/MA, small intestine), and sucralose (SA, colon). By triple quadrupole mass-spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, we measured urinary recovery of saccharide probes. Subjects were stratified according to BMI as normal weight, overweight, and obesity, and answered questionnaires regarding dietary habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. Liver steatosis was assessed by ultrasonography. IP at every gastrointestinal tract was similar in both sexes and decreased with age. Stomach and small intestinal permeability did not differ according to BMI. Colonic permeability increased with BMI, waist, neck, and hip circumferences and was significantly higher in obese than in lean subjects. As determined by logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of BMI increment was significantly higher in subjects in the highest tertile of sucralose excretion, also after adjusting for age and consumption of junk food. The presence of liver steatosis was associated with increased colonic permeability. Patients with lower score of adherence to Mediterranean diet had a higher score of ‘junk food’. Intestinal permeability tended to increase in subjects with a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet. In conclusion, colonic (but not stomach and small intestinal) permeability seems to be linked to obesity and liver steatosis independently from dietary habits, age, and physical activity. The exact role of these last factors, however, requires specific studies focusing on intestinal permeability. Results should pave the way to both primary prevention measures and new therapeutic strategies in metabolic and liver diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: body mass index; intestinal permeability; obesity; sugars; urinary recovery body mass index; intestinal permeability; obesity; sugars; urinary recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Palo, D.M.; Garruti, G.; Di Ciaula, A.; Molina-Molina, E.; Shanmugam, H.; De Angelis, M.; Portincasa, P. Increased Colonic Permeability and Lifestyles as Contributing Factors to Obesity and Liver Steatosis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020564

AMA Style

Di Palo DM, Garruti G, Di Ciaula A, Molina-Molina E, Shanmugam H, De Angelis M, Portincasa P. Increased Colonic Permeability and Lifestyles as Contributing Factors to Obesity and Liver Steatosis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(2):564. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Palo, Domenica M., Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Emilio Molina-Molina, Harshitha Shanmugam, Maria De Angelis, and Piero Portincasa. 2020. "Increased Colonic Permeability and Lifestyles as Contributing Factors to Obesity and Liver Steatosis" Nutrients 12, no. 2: 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020564

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