Special Issue "Calcium, Vitamin D and Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Luis Gracia-Marco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity research group (PROFITH), Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Interests: Bone mass; paediatrics, healthy lifestyles; cancer survivors; exercise; physical activity programs; nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that calcium is the main mineral in the body and it is involved in a variety of structural and functional roles in the body. Calcium is involved in neurotransmitter release, blood clotting and muscle contraction. In addition, intracellular calcium is involved in different cellular responses, such as cell division, contraction, endocytosis and motility. Calcium deposition in bones is an ongoing process that occurs throughout childhood and persists into adolescence, reaching its peak during the pubertal growth spurt. The scientific evidence suggests that prolonged insufficient calcium intake may cause important reductions in bone mass, and contribute to a greater risk of osteoporosis into adulthood. However, other nutrients are also involved in bone mass acquisition or preservation, such as energy and protein intakes, other minerals and vitamins (i.e. vitamin D).

Vitamin D can be synthesized in the skin, and therefore it is not strictly a vitamin. Cholecalciferol is both the dietary form and also the form synthesized in the skin following UV irradiation of the precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol. The maintenance of calcium homeostasis is perhaps the most studied function of vitamin D. However, vitamin D has also been found to be involved in other biological processes, such as promoting cell differentiation, blocking cell proliferation, the induction of apoptosis, inflammation inhibition and the modulation of the immune system. Interestingly, the role of vitamin D as an independent factor for the prognosis of various types of cancer is under debate, as recently highlighted in a systematic review and meta-analyses and with in-vitro studies supporting the anticancer properties of vitamin D.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Calcium, Vitamin D and Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts describing either original research (epidemiological studies or clinical trials) or systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examine the contribution of calcium and/or vitamin D to health outcomes throughout the lifespan.

Dr. Luis Gracia-Marco
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Exercise
  • Bone
  • Physical activity
  • Fitness
  • Sun exposure
  • Epidemiology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hypovitaminosis D in Postherpetic Neuralgia—High Prevalence and Inverse Association with Pain: A Retrospective Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112787 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/L) is associated with neuropathic pain and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity. A two-part retrospective hospital-based study was conducted. Part I (a case-control study): To investigate the prevalence and risk of hypovitaminosis D in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) patients [...] Read more.
Hypovitaminosis D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <75 nmol/L) is associated with neuropathic pain and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity. A two-part retrospective hospital-based study was conducted. Part I (a case-control study): To investigate the prevalence and risk of hypovitaminosis D in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) patients compared to those in gender/index-month/age-auto matched controls who underwent health examinations. Patients aged ≥50 years were automatically selected by ICD-9 codes for shingle/PHN. Charts were reviewed. Part II (a cross-sectional study): To determine associations between 25(OH)D, VZV IgG/M, pain and items in the DN4 questionnaire at the first pain clinic visit of patients. Independent predictors of PHN were presented as adjusted odds ratios(AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence (73.9%) of hypovitaminosis D in 88 patients was high. In conditional logistic regressions, independent predictors for PHN were hypovitaminosis D (AOR3.12, 95% CI1.73–5.61), malignancy (AOR3.21, 95% CI 1.38–7.48) and Helicobacter pylori-related peptic ulcer disease (AOR3.47, 95% CI 1.71–7.03). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated to spontaneous/brush-evoked pain. Spontaneous pain was positively correlated to VZV IgM. Based on the receiver operator characteristic curve, cutoffs for 25(OH)D to predict spontaneous and brush-evoked pain were 67.0 and 169.0 nmol/L, respectively. A prospective, longitudinal study is needed to elucidate the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Sclerosis Patients Show Lower Bioavailable 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, but No Difference in Ratio of 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2D and FGF23 Concentrations
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112774 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). VitD has possible anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system. The ratio between VitD metabolites in MS patients and the severity of the disease are suggested to be related. However, the exact effect of [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). VitD has possible anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system. The ratio between VitD metabolites in MS patients and the severity of the disease are suggested to be related. However, the exact effect of the bone-derived hormone fibroblast-growth-factor-23 (FGF23) and VitD binding protein (VDBP) on this ratio is not fully elucidated yet. Therefore, the aim is to study differences in total, free, and bioavailable VD metabolites and FGF23 between MS patients and healthy controls (HCs). FGF23, vitD (25(OH)D), active vitD (1,25(OH)2D), inactive 24,25(OH)D, and VDBP were measured in 91 MS patients and 92 HCs. Bioavailable and free concentrations were calculated. No difference in FGF23 (p = 0.65) and 25(OH)D/24.25(OH)2D ratio (p = 0.21) between MS patients and HCs was observed. Bioavailable 25(OH)D and bioavailable 1.25(OH)2D were lower (p < 0.01), while VDBP concentrations were higher in MS patients (p = 0.02) compared with HCs, specifically in male MS patients (p = 0.01). In conclusion, FGF23 and 25(OH)D/24.25(OH)2D did not differ between MS patients and HCs, yet bioavailable VitD concentrations are of potential clinical relevance in MS patients. The possible immunomodulating role of VDBP and gender-related differences in the VD-FGF23 axis in MS need further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112760 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
The association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone health has been widely studied in children. Given that 25(OH)D and bone health are associated with muscular fitness, this could be the cornerstone to understand this relationship. Hence, the purpose of this work was to [...] Read more.
The association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone health has been widely studied in children. Given that 25(OH)D and bone health are associated with muscular fitness, this could be the cornerstone to understand this relationship. Hence, the purpose of this work was to examine if the relation between 25(OH)D and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was mediated by muscular fitness in children with overweight/obesity. Eighty-one children (8-11 years, 53 boys) with overweight/obesity were included. Body composition was measured with dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), 25(OH)D was measured in plasma samples and muscular fitness was assessed by handgrip and standing long jump tests (averaged z-scores were used to represent overall muscular fitness). Simple mediation analyses controlling for sex, years from peak height velocity, lean mass and season were carried out. Our results showed that muscular fitness z-score, handgrip strength and standing long jump acted as mediators in the relationship between 25(OH)D and aBMD outcomes (percentages of mediation ranged from 49.6% to 68.3%). In conclusion, muscular fitness mediates the association of 25(OH)D with aBMD in children with overweight/obesity. Therefore, 25(OH)D benefits to bone health could be dependent on muscular fitness in young ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status Among Male Late Adolescents Living in Southern Switzerland: Role of Body Composition and Lifestyle
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112727 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Poor vitamin D status is a worldwide health problem. Yet, knowledge about vitamin D status among adolescents in Southern Europe is limited. This study investigated concentrations and modulating factors of vitamin D in a healthy population of male late adolescents living in [...] Read more.
Background: Poor vitamin D status is a worldwide health problem. Yet, knowledge about vitamin D status among adolescents in Southern Europe is limited. This study investigated concentrations and modulating factors of vitamin D in a healthy population of male late adolescents living in Southern Switzerland. Methods: All apparently healthy subjects attending for the medical evaluation before the compulsory military service in Southern Switzerland during 2014-2016 were eligible. Dark-skin subjects, subjects on vitamin D supplementation or managed with diseases or drugs involved in vitamin D metabolism were excluded. Anthropometric measurements (body height, weight, fat percentage, mid-upper arm and waist circumference) and blood sampling for total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, total cholesterol and ferritin concentrations testing, were collected. Participants filled in a structured questionnaire addressing their lifestyle. Characteristics of the subjects with adequate (≥50 nmol/L–≤250 nmol/L) and insufficient (<50 nmol/L) vitamin D values were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test or χ2 test. Odds ratios for 25-hydroxy-vitamin D insufficiency were calculated by univariate and AIC-selected multiple logistic regression models. Results: A total of 1045 subjects volunteered to participate in the study. Insufficient concentrations of vitamin D were detected in 184 (17%). The season of measurement was the most significant factor associated with vitamin D levels and approximately 40% of subjects presented insufficient vitamin D concentrations in winter. After model selection, body fat percentage, frequency and site of recreational physical activity, and the seasonality were significantly associated with the risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Conclusions: Among healthy male late adolescents in Southern Switzerland, about one every fourth subject presents a poor vitamin D status in non-summer seasons. Body fat percentage, frequent and outdoor recreational physical activity are modulating factors of vitamin D status in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Predicting the Response to a Vitamin D-Fortified Milk in Healthy Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112641 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Milk products fortified with vitamin D may constitute an alternative to pharmacological supplements for reaching the optimal levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Our aim was to analyze the response of serum 25(OH)D and its predictive factors in postmenopausal healthy women after [...] Read more.
Background: Milk products fortified with vitamin D may constitute an alternative to pharmacological supplements for reaching the optimal levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Our aim was to analyze the response of serum 25(OH)D and its predictive factors in postmenopausal healthy women after a dietary intervention with a milk fortified with vitamin D and calcium. Methods: We designed a prospective study including 305 healthy postmenopausal women who consumed a fortified milk with calcium (900 mg/500 mL) and vitamin D3 (600 IU/500 mL) daily for 24 months. Results: The 25(OH)D concentrations at 24 months were correlated to weight, to body mass index, to the percentage of fat, triglycerides and to baseline 25(OH)D levels. We found significant differences in the levels of 25(OH)D at 24 months according to baseline 25(OH)D levels (p < 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.019) expressed at quartiles. Multivariate analysis showed an association between levels of 25(OH)D after the intervention and at baseline 25(OH)D (Beta = 0.47, p < 0.001) and percentage of body fat (Beta = −0.227, p = 0.049), regardless of the body mass index. Conclusions: In healthy postmenopausal women, the improvement in 25(OH)D after an intervention with a fortified milk for 24 months depends mainly on the baseline levels of serum 25(OH)D and on the percentage of body fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Sedentary Adults: The FIT-AGEING Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112567 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem that, in addition to its well-known negative effects on musculoskeletal health, has been related to a wide range of acute and chronic age-related diseases. However, little is known about the association of body composition with [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem that, in addition to its well-known negative effects on musculoskeletal health, has been related to a wide range of acute and chronic age-related diseases. However, little is known about the association of body composition with the active, hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plasma levels (1,25(OH)2D). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of 1,25(OH)2D with body composition including lean and fat body mass as well as bone mineral density (BMD) in middle-aged sedentary adults. A total of 73 (39 women) middle-aged sedentary adults (53.7 ± 5.1 years old) participated in the current study. We measured weight and height, and we used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure lean body mass, fat body mass and BMD. Body mass index (BMI), lean mass index (LMI), and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. 1,25(OH)2D was measured using a DiaSorin Liaison® immunochemiluminometric analyzer. The results showed a negative association of 1,25(OH)2D with BMI, LMI and BMD (β = −0.274, R2 = 0.075, p = 0.019; β = −0.268, R2 = 0.072, p = 0.022; and β = −0.325, R2 = 0.105, p = 0.005, respectively), which persisted after controlling for age and sex. No significant differences in 1,25(OH)2D across body weight status were observed after controlling for the same covariates. In summary, our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D could be negatively associated with BMI, LMI and BMD whereas no association was found with FMI in middle-aged sedentary adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on its Metabolism and the Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102539 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is commonly measured to assess vitamin D status. Other vitamin D metabolites such as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) provide additional insights into vitamin D status or metabolism. Earlier studies suggested that the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), calculated as [...] Read more.
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is commonly measured to assess vitamin D status. Other vitamin D metabolites such as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) provide additional insights into vitamin D status or metabolism. Earlier studies suggested that the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR), calculated as 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, could predict the 25(OH)D increase after vitamin D supplementation. However, the evidence for this additional value is inconclusive. Therefore, our aim was to assess whether the increase in 25(OH)D after supplementation was predicted by the VMR better than baseline 25(OH)D. Plasma samples of 106 individuals (25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L) with hypertension who completed the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial (NC.T.02136771) were analyzed. Participants received vitamin D (2800 IU daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. The treatment effect (ANCOVA) for 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and the VMR was 32 nmol/L, 3.3 nmol/L and 0.015 (all p < 0.001), respectively. Baseline 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 predicted the change in 25(OH)D3 with comparable strength and magnitude. Correlation and regression analysis showed that the VMR did not predict the change in 25(OH)D3. Therefore, our data do not support routine measurement of 24,25(OH)2D3 in order to individually optimize the dosage of vitamin D supplementation. Our data also suggest that activity of 24-hydroxylase increases after vitamin D supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Dietary Calcium Intake and Adiposity in Male Adolescents
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071454 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim was to investigate the possible association of dietary calcium intake with adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine values in adolescent boys. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 123 adolescent boys aged 13–15 years, who were divided into tertiles according to their dietary [...] Read more.
The aim was to investigate the possible association of dietary calcium intake with adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine values in adolescent boys. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 123 adolescent boys aged 13–15 years, who were divided into tertiles according to their dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using three 24 h dietary recalls. In addition, energy intake, body composition, physical activity (PA), and blood biochemical values were also measured. Mean body fat%, fat mass (FM), trunk FM, trunk fat%, and leptin differed between high and low tertiles of calcium intake after adjustment for age, pubertal stage, and PA. For the entire cohort, mean calcium intake was 786 ± 380 mg/day and was related to body mass index (BMI), FM, and trunk fat% but not to insulin resistance or adipocytokine values after adjusting for possible confounders. In addition, only 15.4% of the participants obtained or exceeded their mean dietary calcium intake requirements. These subjects who met their dietary calcium intake had significantly lower body fat% in comparison with subjects not meeting their dietary calcium intake. Odds ratio of being in the highest tertile of FM, trunk FM, and trunk fat% was 3.2–4.4 (95% confidence interval 1.19–12.47; p < 0.05) times higher for boys in low calcium intake tertile, compared to those boys in high calcium intake tertile. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake is inversely associated with total body and abdominal adiposity values in a specific group of healthy male adolescents with different body mass values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
Open AccessArticle
May Young Elite Cyclists Have Less Efficient Bone Metabolism?
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051178 - 26 May 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to describe changes in metabolic activity in the bones of young male competitive cyclists (CYC) as compared with age-matched controls (CON) over a one-year period of study. Eight adolescent male cyclists aged between fourteen and twenty, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to describe changes in metabolic activity in the bones of young male competitive cyclists (CYC) as compared with age-matched controls (CON) over a one-year period of study. Eight adolescent male cyclists aged between fourteen and twenty, and eight age-matched controls participated in this longitudinal study. Serum osteocalcin (OC), amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), beta-isomerized C-telopeptides (β-CTx) and plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], were investigated by an electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunoassay. Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in formation and resorption markers between cyclists and controls. Within the groups, both CYC and CON showed decreased OC at −30% and −24%, respectively, and PINP where the figures were −28% and −30% respectively (all p < 0.05). However, only the CYC group showed a decrease in [25(OH)D], lower by 11% (p < 0.05). The similarity in the concentrations of markers in cyclists and controls seems to indicate that cycling does not modify the process of bone remodeling. The decrease in vitamin D in cyclists might be detrimental to their future bone health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and the Risk of Depression: A Causal Relationship? Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051085 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
While observational studies show an association between 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, intervention studies, which examine the preventive effects of vitamin D supplementation on the development of depression, are lacking. To estimate the role of lowered 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations in the etiology [...] Read more.
While observational studies show an association between 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, intervention studies, which examine the preventive effects of vitamin D supplementation on the development of depression, are lacking. To estimate the role of lowered 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations in the etiology of depressive disorders, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study on depression, i.e., “depressive symptoms” (DS, n = 161,460) and “broad depression” (BD, n = 113,769 cases and 208,811 controls). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were genome-wide significantly associated with 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations in 79,366 subjects from the SUNLIGHT genome-wide association study (GWAS), were used as an instrumental variable. None of the six SNPs was associated with DS or BD (all p > 0.05). MR analysis revealed no causal effects of 25(OH)vitamin D concentration, either on DS (inverse variance weighted (IVW); b = 0.025, SE = 0.038, p = 0.52) or on BD (IVW; b = 0.020, SE = 0.012, p = 0.10). Sensitivity analyses confirmed that 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations were not significantly associated with DS or BD. The findings from this MR study indicate no causal relationship between vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, or broad depression. Conflicting findings from observational studies might have resulted from residual confounding or reverse causation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Passive Commuting and Higher Sedentary Time Is Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult and Older Women: Results from Chilean National Health Survey 2016–2017
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020300 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim was to investigate the associations between different physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time (ST) with vitamin D deficiency (<12 ng/mL) in a large sample of Chilean women. In this cross-sectional study, the final sample included 1245 adult and 686 older [...] Read more.
The aim was to investigate the associations between different physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time (ST) with vitamin D deficiency (<12 ng/mL) in a large sample of Chilean women. In this cross-sectional study, the final sample included 1245 adult and 686 older women. The PA levels, mode of commuting, ST, and leisure-time PA were self-reported. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as <12 ng/mL and insufficiency as <20 ng/mL. A higher ST was associated with vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio (OR): 2.4, 95%: 1.6–4.3) in adults, and passive commuting was associated with vitamin D deficiency in older (OR: 1.7, 95%: 1.1–2.7). Additionally, we found a joint association in the high ST/passive commuting group in adults (OR: 2.8, 95%: 1.6–4.9) and older (OR: 2.8, 95%: 1.5–5.2) with vitamin D deficiency, in respect to low ST/active commuting. The PA levels and leisure-time PA were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. In conclusion, mode of commuting and ST seems important variables related to vitamin D deficiency. Promoting a healthy lifestyle appears important also for vitamin D levels in adult and older women. Further studies are needed to establish causality of this association and the effect of vitamin D deficiency in different diseases in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Vitamin D Food Fortification and Nutritional Status in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112766 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Children are in the risk group for developing hypovitaminosis D. Several strategies are used to reduce this risk. Among these, fortification of foods with vitamin D (25(OH)D) has contributed to the achievement of nutritional needs. This systematic review aims to discuss food fortification [...] Read more.
Children are in the risk group for developing hypovitaminosis D. Several strategies are used to reduce this risk. Among these, fortification of foods with vitamin D (25(OH)D) has contributed to the achievement of nutritional needs. This systematic review aims to discuss food fortification as a strategy for maintenance or recovery of nutritional status related to vitamin D in children. The work was developed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and registered in the International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) database (CRD42018052974). Randomized clinical trials with children up to 11 years old, who were offered vitamin D-fortified foods, and who presented 25(OH)D concentrations were used as eligibility criteria. After the selection stages, five studies were included, totaling 792 children of both sexes and aged between two and 11 years. Interventions offered 300–880 IU of vitamin D per day, for a period of 1.6–9 months, using fortified dairy products. In four of the five studies, there was an increase in the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D with the consumption of these foods; additionally, most children reached or maintained sufficiency status. Moreover, the consumption of vitamin D-fortified foods proved to be safe, with no concentrations of 25(OH)D > 250 nmol/L. Based on the above, the fortification of foods with vitamin D can help maintain or recover the nutritional status of this vitamin in children aged 2–11 years. However, it is necessary to perform additional randomized clinical trials in order to establish optimal doses of fortification, according to the peculiarities of each region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessReview
Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071460 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The vitamin D receptor is expressed in multiple cells of the body (other than osteoblasts), including beta cells and cells involved in immune modulation (such as mononuclear cells, and activated T and B lymphocytes), and most organs in the body including the brain, [...] Read more.
The vitamin D receptor is expressed in multiple cells of the body (other than osteoblasts), including beta cells and cells involved in immune modulation (such as mononuclear cells, and activated T and B lymphocytes), and most organs in the body including the brain, heart, skin, gonads, prostate, breast, and gut. Consequently, the extra-skeletal impact of vitamin D deficiency has been an active area of research. While epidemiological and case-control studies have often suggested a link between vitamin D deficiency and conditions such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, connective tissue disorders, inflammatory bowel disorders, chronic hepatitis, food allergies, asthma and respiratory infections, and cancer, interventional studies for the most part have failed to confirm a causative link. This review examines available evidence to date for the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D deficiency, with a focus on randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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