Special Issue "The Effect of Diet and Natural Agents on Oral, Periodontal Health and Dentistry"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gaetano Isola
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, 95124 Catania CT, Italy
Interests: periodontal disease; periodontal regeneration; biomaterials; local delivery agents; oral surgery; salivary diagnostics; antimicrobial agents; oral health; general health; quality of life
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oral, periodontal diseases, chewing disorders, and many destructive inflammatory diseases of the supporting tissues of the teeth are caused by an imbalance between the host defense and environmental factors like bacteria, smoking, and poor nutrition. For these reasons, the focus should not only be on plaque control and removal of bacteria but also on improving host resistance through smoking abstention, stress reduction, and a healthy diet. The importance of micronutrients has been extensively reviewed, and it was concluded that prevention and treatment of periodontitis daily nutrition should include sufficient antioxidants, probiotics, natural agents, vitamin D, and calcium. Regarding antioxidants, vitamin C has attracted the attention of periodontal researchers. To date, there is limited available research investigating the effect of diet supplementation on the oral and periodontal condition.

Recently, a significant increase in medical literature on the effect of nutraceutical dietary aliments on general health has been noted.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a current and thoughtful perspective on the relationship of diet and natural agents on oral, periodontal diseases, and chewing disorder preventions which may reflect good systemic conditions and related quality of life.

I especially welcome interventional and observational studies aimed at improving the knowledge of the effects of nutraceuticals, natural products, vitamins, and effects of diet changes oral and periodontal diseases and how oral and periodontal treatment improve general health. Review studies including those that use conceptual frameworks for any of the aforementioned topics will also be welcomed.

Prof. Gaetano Isola
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Oral diseases
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Oral cancer
  • Quality of life
  • Chewing disorders
  • Vitamins
  • Probiotics
  • Natural agents
  • Baicalin
  • Bromelin
  • Transglutaminases
  • Taste alterations
  • Oral biofilm

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Current Evidence of Natural Agents in Oral and Periodontal Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020585 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Oral and periodontal diseases, chewing disorders, and many destructive inflammatory diseases of the supporting tissues of the teeth are usually caused by an imbalance between host defense and environmental factors like smoking, poor nutrition, and a high percentage of periodontopathogenic bacteria. For these [...] Read more.
Oral and periodontal diseases, chewing disorders, and many destructive inflammatory diseases of the supporting tissues of the teeth are usually caused by an imbalance between host defense and environmental factors like smoking, poor nutrition, and a high percentage of periodontopathogenic bacteria. For these reasons, it is important also to focus attention on plaque control and also on improving host resistance through smoking and stress reduction, and a healthy diet. During the last decades, the importance of micronutrients has been extensively reviewed, and it was concluded that the prevention and treatment of periodontitis should include correct daily nutrition and a correct balance between antioxidants, probiotics, natural agents, vitamin D, and calcium. Recently, there has been growing interest in the literature on the impact of nutraceutical dietary aliments on oral and general health. This Special Issue provides a current and thoughtful perspective on the relationship of diet and natural agents on oral and periodontal diseases through a correct clinical approach with the last and most important evidence that may determine good oral conditions and high quality of life. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Salivary Microbiota Shifts under Sustained Consumption of Oolong Tea in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040966 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
Tea is the most widely consumed beverages next to water, however little is known about the influence of sustained tea consumption on the oral bacteria of healthy adults. In this study, three oral healthy adults were recruited and instructed to consume 1.0 L [...] Read more.
Tea is the most widely consumed beverages next to water, however little is known about the influence of sustained tea consumption on the oral bacteria of healthy adults. In this study, three oral healthy adults were recruited and instructed to consume 1.0 L of oolong tea infusions (total polyphenol content, 2.83 g/L) daily, for eight weeks. Salivary microbiota pre-, peri-, and post-treatment were fully compared by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate statistical analysis. It was revealed that oolong tea consumption reduced salivary bacterial diversity and the population of some oral disease related bacteria, such as Streptococcus sp., Prevotella nanceiensis, Fusobacterium periodonticum, Alloprevotella rava, and Prevotella elaninogenica. Moreover, via correlation network and Venn diagram analyses, seven bacterial taxa, including Streptococcus sp. (OTU_1), Ruminococcaceae sp. (OTU_33), Haemophilus sp. (OTU_696), Veillonella spp. (OTU_133 and OTU_23), Actinomyces odontolyticus (OTU_42), and Gemella haemolysans (OTU_6), were significantly altered after oolong tea consumption, and presented robust strong connections (|r| > 0.9 and p < 0.05) with other oral microbiota. These results suggest sustained oolong tea consumption would modulate salivary microbiota and generate potential oral pathogen preventative benefits. Additionally, diverse responses to oolong tea consumption among subjects were also noticed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Vitamin C and Antioxidant Profiles in Saliva and Serum in Patients with Periodontitis and Ischemic Heart Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122956 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 32
Abstract
Vitamin C and antioxidants play a crucial role in endothelial function and may be a link for the known interaction of periodontitis and ischemic heart disease (CAD). This pilot study evaluates the association of gingival health, periodontitis, CAD, or both conditions with salivary [...] Read more.
Vitamin C and antioxidants play a crucial role in endothelial function and may be a link for the known interaction of periodontitis and ischemic heart disease (CAD). This pilot study evaluates the association of gingival health, periodontitis, CAD, or both conditions with salivary and serum vitamin C and antioxidant levels. The clinical and periodontal characteristics, serum, and saliva samples were collected from 36 patients with periodontitis, 35 patients with CAD, 36 patients with periodontitis plus CAD, and 36 healthy controls. Levels of vitamin C, antioxidants, and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed with a commercially available kit. The median concentrations of salivary and serum vitamin C and antioxidants (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) were significantly lower in the CAD group (p < 0.001) and in the periodontitis plus CAD group (p < 0.001) compared to periodontitis patients and controls. In univariate models, periodontitis (p = 0.034), CAD (p < 0.001), and hs-CRP (p < 0.001) were significantly negatively associated with serum vitamin C; whereas, in a multivariate model, only hs-CRP remained a significant predictor of serum vitamin C (p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, the significant predictors of salivary vitamin C levels were triglycerides (p = 0.028) and hs-CRP (p < 0.001). Patients with CAD and periodontitis plus CAD presented lower levels of salivary and serum vitamin C compared to healthy subjects and periodontitis patients. hs-CRP was a significant predictor of decreased salivary and serum vitamin C levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Antibacterial and Antiinflammatory Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Pelargonium sidoides DC Root Extract
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112829 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on [...] Read more.
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS + IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS-induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin-8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS + IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis-mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Possible Involvement of Vitamin C in Periodontal Disease-Diabetes Mellitus Association
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020553 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an important water-soluble vitamin found in many fruits and vegetables. It has well-documented beneficial effects on the human body and is used as a supplement, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals. Over recent years, research [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an important water-soluble vitamin found in many fruits and vegetables. It has well-documented beneficial effects on the human body and is used as a supplement, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals. Over recent years, research has focused on possible new therapeutic actions in chronic conditions including periodontal disease (PD). We conducted a systematic review on clinical trials from four databases (PubMed, Clinical Trials, Cochrane, Web of Science) which measured plasmatic/salivary levels of ascorbic acid in PD–diabetes mellitus (DM) association. Six studies were included in our review, three of them analyzing patients with different grades of PD and DM who received vitamin C as a treatment (500 mg vitamin C/day for 2 months and 450 mg/day for 2 weeks) or as part of their alimentation (guava fruits), in combination with standard therapies and procedures. Decreased levels of vitamin C were observed in PD patients with DM but data about efficacy of vitamin C administration are inconclusive. Given the important bidirectional relationship between PD and DM, there is a strong need for more research to assess the positive effects of ascorbic acid supplementation in individuals suffering from both diseases and also its proper regimen for these patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Do Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals Have Effects on Dental Implant Osseointegration? A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010268 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Several factors affect dental implant osseointegration, including surgical issues, bone quality and quantity, and host-related factors, such as patients’ nutritional status. Many micronutrients might play a key role in dental implant osseointegration by influencing some alveolar bone parameters, such as healing of the [...] Read more.
Several factors affect dental implant osseointegration, including surgical issues, bone quality and quantity, and host-related factors, such as patients’ nutritional status. Many micronutrients might play a key role in dental implant osseointegration by influencing some alveolar bone parameters, such as healing of the alveolus after tooth extraction. This scoping review aims to summarize the role of dietary supplements in optimizing osseointegration after implant insertion surgery. A technical expert panel (TEP) of 11 medical specialists with expertise in oral surgery, bone metabolism, nutrition, and orthopedic surgery performed the review following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews) model. The TEP identified micronutrients from the “European Union (EU) Register of nutrition and health claims made on foods” that have a relationship with bone and tooth health, and planned a PubMed search, selecting micronutrients previously identified as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms and adding to each of them the words “dental implants” and “osseointegration”. The TEP identified 19 studies concerning vitamin D, magnesium, resveratrol, vitamin C, a mixture of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D, and synthetic bone mineral. However, several micronutrients are non-authorized by the “EU Register on nutrition and health claims” for improving bone and/or tooth health. Our scoping review suggests a limited role of nutraceuticals in promoting osseointegration of dental implants, although, in some cases, such as for vitamin D deficiency, there is a clear link among their deficit, reduced osseointegration, and early implant failure, thus requiring an adequate supplementation. Full article
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