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Review

Vitamin D and Endothelial Function

1
Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
2
Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
3
Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
4
Department of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville 4041, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020575
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 22 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplementation and Vascular Function)
Vitamin D is known to elicit a vasoprotective effect, while vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED is characterized by reduced bioavailability of a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), and is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. In endothelial cells, vitamin D regulates NO synthesis by mediating the activity of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Under pathogenic conditions, the oxidative stress caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) facilitates NO degradation and suppresses NO synthesis, consequently reducing NO bioavailability. Vitamin D, however, counteracts the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase which produces ROS, and improves antioxidant capacity by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase. In addition to ROS, proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-6 are risk factors for ED, restraining NO and eNOS bioactivity and upregulating the expression of various atherosclerotic factors through the NF-κB pathway. These proinflammatory activities are inhibited by vitamin D by suppressing NF-κB signaling and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, we discuss the diverse activities of vitamin D in regulating NO bioavailability and endothelial function. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcitriol; endothelial dysfunction; nitric oxide; NO; NOX; oxidative stress; ROS; inflammation; vitamin D deficiency; eNOS calcitriol; endothelial dysfunction; nitric oxide; NO; NOX; oxidative stress; ROS; inflammation; vitamin D deficiency; eNOS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, D.-H.; Meza, C.A.; Clarke, H.; Kim, J.-S.; Hickner, R.C. Vitamin D and Endothelial Function. Nutrients 2020, 12, 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020575

AMA Style

Kim D-H, Meza CA, Clarke H, Kim J-S, Hickner RC. Vitamin D and Endothelial Function. Nutrients. 2020; 12(2):575. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020575

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Do-Houn, Cesar A. Meza, Holly Clarke, Jeong-Su Kim, and Robert C. Hickner. 2020. "Vitamin D and Endothelial Function" Nutrients 12, no. 2: 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020575

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