Special Issue "Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Liliana G. González-Rodríguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, University Alfonso X El Sabio, 28691 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nutrition; vitamin D; omega-3; oxidative stress; inflammation; insulin resistance; fertility; obesity; exercise science; epidemiology; public health
Prof. Dr. Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nutrition; obesity; public health; children; cognitive function; elderly; micronutrients; epidemiology; insulin resistance; oxidative stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Abdominal obesity has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes type 2, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, and cognitive impairment. A significant number of publications have analyzed general obesity, but fewer studies have quantified the prevalence of abdominal obesity among the population, or have studied its relationship with diet, nutrition, and other lifestyle factors.

This Special Issue will focus on the recent studies on the role of dietary patterns, energy balance and nutrients situation, number of meals and snacks consumed per day and composition, and the role of chrononutrition in relation with abdominal obesity in different age groups. It is necessary to delve into the knowledge of those dietary risk and protective factors related to abdominal obesity. In addition, it is essential to analyze the efficacy and safety of food-based interventions, dietary supplements, or of interventions that combine multiple approaches (e.g., dietary behavior changes, supplements, and physical activity, among others) so as to prevent or properly treat this health condition, both individually and collectively.

Prof. Dr. Liliana G. González-Rodríguez
Prof. Dr. Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Abdominal obesity
  • Visceral adipose tissue
  • Dietary patterns
  • Meal timing and composition
  • Chrononutrition
  • Food intake
  • Nutrients intake
  • Supplementation
  • Physical activity
  • Risk and protective factors
  • Dietary preventive strategies
  • Dietary treatment interventions

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Silk Peptide Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Promotes Adipose Browning by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010201 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, and is caused when the energy intake is greater than the energy expenditure. We aimed to determine the mechanism whereby acid-hydrolyzed silk peptide (SP) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, and whether it induces browning [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, and is caused when the energy intake is greater than the energy expenditure. We aimed to determine the mechanism whereby acid-hydrolyzed silk peptide (SP) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, and whether it induces browning and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in white adipose tissue (WAT), using in vivo and ex vivo approaches. We determined the effects of dietary SP in high-fat diet-fed obese mice. The expression of adipose tissue-specific genes was quantified by western blotting, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence analysis. We also investigated whether SP directly induces browning in primarily subcutaneous WAT-derived adipocytes. Our findings demonstrate that SP has a browning effect in WAT by upregulating AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. SP also suppresses adipogenesis and promotes FAO, implying that it may have potential as an anti-obesity drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Fitness with Body Composition Parameters in 1717 European Adolescents: The AdolesHealth Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010077 - 27 Dec 2019
Abstract
Obesity, low levels of physical fitness, and unhealthy eating patterns are responsible for part of the health problems of adolescents today. The current study aimed at examining the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), through each answer to the items [...] Read more.
Obesity, low levels of physical fitness, and unhealthy eating patterns are responsible for part of the health problems of adolescents today. The current study aimed at examining the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), through each answer to the items of the Adherence to the MD Questionnaire (KIDMED), and physical fitness with body composition parameters (body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, and waist circumference) in 1717 European adolescents (N = 900 boys, N = 817 girls). Data of body composition, physical fitness results, and the answers to KIDMED were analyzed by the Student’s t-test. Additionally, the effect size (ES) was calculated and a Chi-square test analyzed the proportion of participants with and without over waist circumference, overfat, and overweight in each KIDMED question. The relative risk of suffering over waist circumference, overfat and overweight in relation to the responses was calculated by Odd-Ratio. Adherence to the MD did not influence the condition of over waist circumference, overfat and overweight, although certain dietary habits were identified as risk factors for their development. Over waist circumference, overfat, and overweight boys and girls presented higher levels of body mass, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and BMI (p < 0.001; ES = 1.73–3.38), as well as lower levels of all the parameters of the physical fitness analyzed (p < 0.001; ES = 0.45–1.08), except the handgrip test. A direct relationship between fitness and over waist circumference, overfat, and overweight was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Polarization of Macrophages in Human Adipose Tissue is Related to the Fatty Acid Spectrum in Membrane Phospholipids
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010008 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Residential macrophages in adipose tissue play a pivotal role in the development of inflammation not only within this tissue, but also affect the proinflammatory status of the whole body. Data on human adipose tissue inflammation and the role of macrophages are rather scarce. [...] Read more.
Residential macrophages in adipose tissue play a pivotal role in the development of inflammation not only within this tissue, but also affect the proinflammatory status of the whole body. Data on human adipose tissue inflammation and the role of macrophages are rather scarce. We previously documented that the proportion of proinflammatory macrophages in human adipose tissue correlates closely with non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We hypothesized that this is due to the identical influence of diet on both parameters and decided to analyze the fatty acid spectrum in cell membrane phospholipids of the same individuals as a parameter of the diet consumed. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages were isolated from human adipose tissue (n = 43) and determined by flow cytometry as CD14+CD16+CD36high and CD14+CD16−CD163+, respectively. The spectrum of fatty acids in phospholipids in the cell membranes of specimens of the same adipose tissue was analyzed, and the proportion of proinflammatory macrophage increased with the proportions of palmitic and palmitoleic acids. Contrariwise, these macrophages decreased with increasing alpha-linolenic acid, total n-3 fatty acids, n-3/n-6 ratio, and eicosatetraenoic acid. A mirror picture was documented for the proportion of anti-inflammatory macrophages. The dietary score, obtained using a food frequency questionnaire, documented a positive relation to proinflammatory macrophages in individuals who consumed predominantly vegetable fat and fish, and individuals who consumed diets based on animal fat without fish and nut consumption. he present data support our hypothesis that macrophage polarization in human visceral adipose tissue is related to fatty acid metabolism, cell membrane composition, and diet consumed. It is suggested that fatty acid metabolism might participate also in inflammation and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary and Plasma Carboxymethyl Lysine and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α as Mediators of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Women in Indonesia
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123057 - 14 Dec 2019
Abstract
Dietary and plasma carboxymethyl lysine (dCML, pCML) and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (pTNF-α) may be associated with obesity in affluent society. However, evidence in women from low-middle income countries with predominantly traditional diets is lacking. We investigated the mediator effects of dCML, pCML [...] Read more.
Dietary and plasma carboxymethyl lysine (dCML, pCML) and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (pTNF-α) may be associated with obesity in affluent society. However, evidence in women from low-middle income countries with predominantly traditional diets is lacking. We investigated the mediator effects of dCML, pCML and pTNF-α on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Indonesian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 235 non-diabetic, non-anemic and non-smoking women aged 19–50 years from selected mountainous and coastal areas of West Sumatra and West Java. Dietary CML, pCML, pTNF-α were obtained from 2 × 24-h recalls, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Between-group differences were analyzed by the Chi-square or Mann-Whitney test and mediator effects by Structural Equation Modeling. The medians and interquartile-ranges of dCML, pCML and pTNF-α were 2.2 (1.7–3.0) mg/day, 22.2 (17.2–28.2) ng/mL and 0.68 (0.52–1.00) IU/mL, respectively, and significantly higher in the WC ≥ 80 cm than in the WC < 80 cm group, but not in BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2 group. Plasma CML and pTNF-α were positively and directly related to WC (β = 0.21 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.33] and β = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.11, 0.35], respectively). Dietary CML that correlated with dry-heat processing and cereals as the highest contributions was positively related to WC (β = 0.33 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.83]). Ethnicity, level of education, intake of fat, and intake of energy contributed to dCML, pCML and pTNF-α, and subsequently affected WC, while only ethnicity contributed to BMI through dCML, pCML and pTNF-α (β = 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.14]). A positive direct effect of dCML on pCML and of pCML and pTNF-α on WC was seen among Indonesian women. Dietary CML seems to have several paths that indirectly influence the increases in WC if compared to BMI. Thus, intake of CML-rich foods should be reduced, or the foods consumed in moderate amounts to avoid the risk of central obesity in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Adherence to Time-Restricted Feeding and Impact on Abdominal Obesity in Primary Care Patients: Results of a Pilot Study in a Pre–Post Design
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122854 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
The epidemic of lifestyle-dependent diseases and the failure of previous interventions to combat the main causes demand an alternative approach. Abdominal obesity is associated with most of these diseases and is a good target for therapeutic and preventive measures. Time-restricted feeding (TRF) offers [...] Read more.
The epidemic of lifestyle-dependent diseases and the failure of previous interventions to combat the main causes demand an alternative approach. Abdominal obesity is associated with most of these diseases and is a good target for therapeutic and preventive measures. Time-restricted feeding (TRF) offers a low-threshold, easy-to-implement lifestyle-modification concept with promising results from animal testing. Here, we describe a pilot study of TRF with abdominally obese participants (waist-to-height ratio, WHtR ≥0.5) in a general practitioner’s office. Participants (n = 40, aged 49.1 ± 12.4, 31 females) were asked to restrict their daily eating time to 8–9 hours in order to prolong their overnight fasting period to 15–16 hours. Questionnaires, anthropometrics, and blood samples were used at baseline and at follow-up. After three months of TRF, participants had reached the fasting target, on average, on 85.5 ± 15.2% of all days recorded. Waist circumference (WC) was reduced by −5.3 ± 3.1cm (p < 0.001), and three participants reached a WHtR <0.5. HbA1c was diminished by −1.4 ± 3.5 mmol/mol (p = 0.003). TRF may be an easily understandable and readily adoptable lifestyle change with the potential to reduce abdominal obesity and lower the risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Further well-designed studies are necessary to investigate the applicability and usefulness of TRF for public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Dysregulated Iron Metabolism-Associated Dietary Pattern Predicts an Altered Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112733 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Diet plays an important role in the development of obesity and may contribute to dysregulated iron metabolism (DIM). A cross-sectional survey of 208 adults was conducted in Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). A reduced-rank regression from 31 food groups was used for [...] Read more.
Diet plays an important role in the development of obesity and may contribute to dysregulated iron metabolism (DIM). A cross-sectional survey of 208 adults was conducted in Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). A reduced-rank regression from 31 food groups was used for a dietary pattern analysis. DIM was defined as at least four of the following criteria: serum hepcidin (men >200 ng/mL and women >140 ng/mL), hyperferritinemia (serum ferritin of >300 ng/mL in men and >200 ng/mL in women), central obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and two or more abnormal metabolic profiles. Compared to non-DIM patients, DIM patients were associated with an altered body composition and had a 4.52-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.95–10.49); p < 0.001) greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for covariates. A DIM-associated dietary pattern (high intake of deep-fried food, processed meats, chicken, pork, eating out, coffee, and animal fat/skin but low intake of steamed/boiled/raw foods and dairy products) independently predicted central obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.57; 95% CI: 1.05–2.34; p < 0.05) and MetS (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.07–3.35; p < 0.05). Individuals with the highest DIM pattern scores (tertile 3) had a higher visceral fat mass (%) (β = 0.232; 95% CI: 0.011–0.453; p < 0.05) but lower skeletal muscle mass (%) (β = −1.208; 95% CI: −2.177–−0.239; p < 0.05) compared to those with the lowest DIM pattern scores (tertile 1). In conclusion, a high score for the identified DIM-associated dietary pattern was associated with an unhealthier body composition and a higher risk of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Whey Protein Combined with Low Dietary Fiber Improves Lipid Profile in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092091 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Abdominal obesity is associated with elevated postprandial triglycerides (TG), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies show that whey protein (WP) and dietary fiber may separately reduce postprandial TG. However, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of WP and dietary [...] Read more.
Abdominal obesity is associated with elevated postprandial triglycerides (TG), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies show that whey protein (WP) and dietary fiber may separately reduce postprandial TG. However, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of WP and dietary fiber on postprandial TG. We aimed to investigate the separate and combined long-term effects of WP and dietary fiber from wheat bran on postprandial TG and markers of lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel intervention study. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 73 adults were randomized to receive 60 g/day of either WP hydrolysate or maltodextrin (MD) combined with high-fiber wheat bran products (HiFi; 30 g dietary fiber/day) or low-fiber refined wheat products (LoFi; 10 g dietary fiber/day). A high-fat meal test was conducted before and after the intervention. Sixty-five subjects were included in the final analyses. There were no differences between intervention groups in postprandial TG assessed as incremental area under the curve (iAUC). WP-LoFi had reduced postprandial TG assessed as total area under the curve (tAUC) and reduced fasting TG compared with all other groups, and reduced fasting apolipoprotein B-48 compared with MD-LoFi. There were no changes in lipoprotein lipase activity. Total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B-100 were reduced after WP intake compared with MD. Total cholesterol was increased after HiFi intake compared with LoFi. In conclusion, intake of WP in combination with low-fiber cereal products for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on postprandial TG tAUC and fasting TG, but not on postprandial TG iAUC in subjects with abdominal obesity. Combining WP with high-fiber wheat bran products did not improve lipid profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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