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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 239 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Carbohydrate consumption to fuel the exercise bout and/or for hypoglycemia prevention is an [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Having One Parent Absent on Children’ Food Consumption and Nutrition in China
by and
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123077 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 929
Abstract
The rapid economic and social development in the past decades has greatly increased the societal acceptance of divorce and non-marital pregnancies in China, which leads to a soaring number of single-parent children. This paper aimed to investigate the impact of having one parent [...] Read more.
The rapid economic and social development in the past decades has greatly increased the societal acceptance of divorce and non-marital pregnancies in China, which leads to a soaring number of single-parent children. This paper aimed to investigate the impact of having one parent absent on children’ food consumption and nutrition status. We extracted 1114 children from a longitudinal household survey data in China, all of which were observed twice. Using the Propensity Score Matching and Difference-in-Difference methods, we found that being raised by one parent does not have a negative effect on children’s food consumption and nutrition intake. On the contrary, single-parent families tend to provide more food to their children as a compensation for the absence of one parent and this compensation effect offsets the negative impact caused by declined family income. Particularly, urban, rich families had stronger compensation effect than other families with low and middle incomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Importance of Health Claims in the Adoption of New Breakfast Cereal Products in the UK
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123076 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Regular breakfast consumption has the potential to prevent the prevalence of NCDs and to improve the nutritional profile of diets. Given consumers’ interest in improving their diets, food suppliers are interested in introducing new cereal products making different health claims to capture consumers’ [...] Read more.
Regular breakfast consumption has the potential to prevent the prevalence of NCDs and to improve the nutritional profile of diets. Given consumers’ interest in improving their diets, food suppliers are interested in introducing new cereal products making different health claims to capture consumers’ attention. The purpose of this study is threefold: first, it aims to understand whether UK food suppliers are working to increase the availability of breakfast cereals with healthy and nutritious attributes; second, it explores which companies are leading the launch of these products; and third, it assesses to what extent health and nutrition claims made by breakfast cereals have an impact on their market success. The study employs an assembled database combining data from Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) and Kantar Worldpanel Dataset (KWDS) for the UK. A hazard-based duration model was used to analyse the success of the new products launched in the UK market in 2011 following them up to 2015. Our results reveal that UK suppliers broadened the number of breakfast cereals on offer in the period 2000 to 2018, with a particular focus on multigrain cereals, porridge and granola. Health and nutrition claims were added to 27% of these products. Although consumers welcome healthy alternatives such as muesli, the impact of positional claims on the success of newly developed breakfast cereals is claim-specific. No clear pattern regarding the impact of health and nutrition claims is identified. However, other elements such as celiac-friendly ingredients and UK origin do have a positive impact on the success of breakfast cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Choice and Health-Related Claims) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Food Supplement Containing Creatine and D-Ribose Combined with a Physical Exercise Program in Increasing Stress Tolerance in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123075 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 977
Abstract
The aim of this study is to establish whether a supplement of creatine and ribose combined with a physical exercise program can improve the total work capacity during exercise in a population of patients with known ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, six-month study [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to establish whether a supplement of creatine and ribose combined with a physical exercise program can improve the total work capacity during exercise in a population of patients with known ischemic heart disease. A double-blind, six-month study was designed in which 53 patients were enrolled and randomized to take either a nutraceutical composition containing creatine, D-ribose, vitamin B1, and vitamin B6 (active treatment) or the placebo. Both the nutraceutical supplement and the placebo were supplied by Giellepi S.p.A. Health Science in Lissone, Italy. After six months of study, the cardiac double product at the peak of the load, the delta double product, and the chronotropic index were higher in the active treatment group than in the placebo group. We can conclude that a supplementation with creatine, D-ribose, vitamin B1, and vitamin B6, in addition to standard therapy and a physical exercise program, seems to be helpful in improving exercise tolerance compared to the placebo in a population with cardiovascular disease. However, this needs to be further studied, given that there is no clear evidence that the double product can be used as a surrogate measure of exercise tolerance. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Bean Consumption and Human Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123074 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The focus of this Special Issue is on grain legumes, which are commonly referred to as pulses [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bean Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Trends in Dietary Intake of Total Fat and Fatty Acids Among Korean Adolescents from 2007 to 2017
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123073 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
We analyzed the trends in dietary intake of total fat and fatty acids among Korean adolescents during 2007–2017. A total of 6406 adolescents from the 2007–2017 Korea National Health and Examination Surveys were selected. Total fat and fatty acids intakes were calculated based [...] Read more.
We analyzed the trends in dietary intake of total fat and fatty acids among Korean adolescents during 2007–2017. A total of 6406 adolescents from the 2007–2017 Korea National Health and Examination Surveys were selected. Total fat and fatty acids intakes were calculated based on single 24-hour recall data and presented as grams (g) and percentage of energy intake (% kcal) across the survey period. Linear trends in intake across the survey period were compared using the multiple regression model. Total fat intake increased during the 11-year period from 54.3 g (21.7% kcal) to 61.8 g (25.2% kcal). Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intakes changed from 17.8 g (7.1% kcal) and 17.2 g (6.8% kcal) to 20.6 g (8.4% kcal) and 20.7 g (8.4% kcal) over time, respectively. For polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid intake did not change during the survey period. The proportions of individuals who had total fat and SFA above the recommendations increased across the survey period: 13.7% to 27.5% for total fat and 36.0% to 49.7% for SFA. Among Korean adolescents, dietary fat intake increased over time and the increases in SFA and MUFA intake were prominent. Monitoring dietary fat intake is helpful to suggest dietary guidelines and health policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macronutrients Intake and Adolescent Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional and Pharmacological Targeting of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Influences Chemically Induced Colitis in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123072 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main regulator of extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. It has diverse functions in different tissues, including the intestines. Intestine-specific knockout of the CaSR renders mice more susceptible to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. To test our hypothesis that [...] Read more.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main regulator of extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. It has diverse functions in different tissues, including the intestines. Intestine-specific knockout of the CaSR renders mice more susceptible to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. To test our hypothesis that the CaSR reduces intestinal inflammation, we assessed the effects of nutritional and pharmacological agonists of the CaSR in a colitis model. We treated female Balb/C mice with dietary calcium and protein (nutritional agonists of the CaSR) or pharmacological CaSR modulators (the agonists cinacalcet and GSK3004774, and the antagonist NPS-2143; 10 mg/kg), then induced colitis with DSS. The high-protein diet had a strong pro-inflammatory effect—it shortened the colons (5.3 ± 0.1 cm vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 cm normal diet, p < 0.05), lowered mucin expression and upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ, (4.2-fold, p < 0.05) compared with the normal diet. Cinacalcet reduced mucin expression, which coincided with an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (4.4-fold, p < 0.05) and IL-6 (4.9-fold, p < 0.05) in the plasma, compared with vehicle. The CaSR antagonist, NPS-2143, significantly reduced the cumulative inflammation score compared with the vehicle control (35.3 ± 19.1 vs. 21.9 ± 14.3 area under the curve, p < 0.05) and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. While dietary modulation of the CaSR had no beneficial effects, pharmacological inhibition of the CaSR may have the potential of a novel add-on therapy in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Chondroprotective Properties of Human-Enriched Serum Following Polyphenol Extract Absorption: Results from an Exploratory Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123071 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Polyphenols are widely acknowledged for their health benefits, especially for the prevention of inflammatory and age-related diseases. We previously demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy), alone or in combination, drive preventive anti-osteoathritic effects in vivo. However, the lack of sufficient clinical evidences [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are widely acknowledged for their health benefits, especially for the prevention of inflammatory and age-related diseases. We previously demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy), alone or in combination, drive preventive anti-osteoathritic effects in vivo. However, the lack of sufficient clinical evidences on the relationship between dietary phytochemicals and osteoarthritis remains. In this light, we investigated in humans the potential osteoarticular benefit of a grapeseed and olive extract (OPCO) characterized for its hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy) content. We first validated, in vitro, the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties of the extract on primary cultured human articular chondrocytes stimulated by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β). The sparing effect involved a molecular mechanism dependent on the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. To confirm the clinical relevance of such a nutritional strategy, we designed an innovative clinical approach taking into account the metabolites that are formed during the digestion process and that appear in circulation after the ingestion of the OPCO extract. Blood samples from volunteers were collected following ingestion, absorption, and metabolization of the extract and then were processed and applied on human primary chondrocyte cultures. This original ex vivo methodology confirmed at a clinical level the chondroprotective properties previously observed in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Berberis aristata, Elaeis guineensis and Coffea canephora Extracts Modulate the Insulin Receptor Expression and Improve Hepatic Steatosis in NAFLD Patients: A Pilot Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123070 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A reduction in insulin receptor (IR) expression has been reported in these patients. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a mixture of plant extracts consisting of [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A reduction in insulin receptor (IR) expression has been reported in these patients. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a mixture of plant extracts consisting of Berberis aristata, Elaeis guineensis and decaffeinated green coffee by Coffea canephora on the improvement of glycaemic profile, through the modulation of IR levels, and of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients. Forty-nine patients with a grade of steatosis S1-S2 were randomly allocated to the treatment with plant extracts or placebo for six months. Hepatic steatosis was evaluated using transient elastography with CAP (controlled attenuation parameter). Glucose, insulin, and IR levels were measured in serum samples. At the end of the study, patients treated with plant extracts displayed a significant reduction of serum glucose (p < 0.001), insulin levels (p < 0.01), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (p < 0.001), and CAP value (p < 0.01) compared to placebo. Moreover, the IR expression was increased significantly in the plant extracts group compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). The combination of plant extracts increases serum IR levels, determining amelioration of glycemic profile and improvement of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Amaranth Oil Increases Total and LDL Cholesterol Levels without Influencing Early Markers of Atherosclerosis in an Overweight and Obese Population: A Randomized Double-Blind Cross-Over Study in Comparison with Rapeseed Oil Supplementation
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123069 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Background: Atherosclerosis (AT) is a chronic inflammatory process in which oxidative stress is the key event. Amaranth oil (AmO) has potential hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of AmO and rapeseed oil (RaO) supplementation on [...] Read more.
Background: Atherosclerosis (AT) is a chronic inflammatory process in which oxidative stress is the key event. Amaranth oil (AmO) has potential hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of AmO and rapeseed oil (RaO) supplementation on expression of early markers of AT and lipid profile in obese or overweight subjects. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded cross-over study was conducted, in which participants took 20 mL of AmO in the first arm and 20 mL RaO in the second arm, switching after the washout period. Serum concentrations of adhesion molecules (sP-selectin, sVCAM-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and lipid profile were assessed before and after nutritional interventions. In addition, anthropometric parameters were measured. Results: The total (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations increased significantly in the AmO group in comparison with RaO (ΔTC 5.52 ± 35 vs. −8.43 ± 17.65 mg/dL; p = 0.002 and 4.43 ± 34.96 vs. −7.55 ± 16.41 mg/dL; p = 0.002, respectively). There were no significant differences in other parameters analyzed between the groups. Conclusion: The use of AmO instead of RaO may increase cardiovascular risk in obese and overweight subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms of Calorie Restriction: A Review of Genes Required for the Life-Extending and Tumor-Inhibiting Effects of Calorie Restriction
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123068 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
This review focuses on mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR), particularly the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis as an evolutionary conserved signal that regulates aging and lifespan, underlying the effects of CR in mammals. Topics include (1) the relation of the GH-IGF-1 [...] Read more.
This review focuses on mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR), particularly the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis as an evolutionary conserved signal that regulates aging and lifespan, underlying the effects of CR in mammals. Topics include (1) the relation of the GH-IGF-1 signal with chronic low-level inflammation as one of the possible causative factors of aging, that is, inflammaging, (2) the isoform specificity of the forkhead box protein O (FoxO) transcription factors in CR-mediated regulation of cancer and lifespan, (3) the role for FoxO1 in the tumor-inhibiting effect of CR, (4) pleiotropic roles for FoxO1 in the regulation of disorders, and (5) sirtuin (Sirt) as a molecule upstream of FoxO. From the evolutionary view, the necessity of neuropeptide Y (Npy) for the effects of CR and the pleiotropic roles for Npy in life stages are also emphasized. Genes for mediating the effects of CR and regulating aging are context-dependent, particularly depending on nutritional states. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by High-Fat Diet in C57bl/6 Models
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123067 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Researchers have a range of animal models in which to study Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Induction of NAFLD by a high-fat diet in the C57BL/6 strain is the most widely used among mice. In this study, we review works that performed NAFLD [...] Read more.
Researchers have a range of animal models in which to study Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Induction of NAFLD by a high-fat diet in the C57BL/6 strain is the most widely used among mice. In this study, we review works that performed NAFLD induction by a high-fat diet using the C57BL/6 strain, focusing on experiments on the effects of lipid ingestion. Studies are initially distinguished into researches in which mice received lipids by oral gavage and studies in which lipid was added to the diet, and each of these designs has peculiarities that must be considered. Oral gavage can be stressful for animals and needs trained handlers but allows accurate control of the dose administered. The addition of oils to the diet can prevent stress caused to mice by gavage, but possible changes in the consistency, taste, and smell of the diet should be considered. Regarding the experimental design, some variables, such as animal sex, treatment time, and diet-related variables, appear to have a definite pattern. However, no pattern was found regarding the number of animals per group, age at the beginning of the experiment, time of adaptation, the substance used as a vehicle, and substance used as a control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Carbohydrates and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents from Marginalized Areas of Chiapas, México
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123066 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Evidence of the role that dietary carbohydrates (total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugars, dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL)) exerts on insulin levels in adolescents is controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary carbohydrates [...] Read more.
Evidence of the role that dietary carbohydrates (total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugars, dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL)) exerts on insulin levels in adolescents is controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary carbohydrates and insulin resistance in adolescents from Chiapas, México. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 217 adolescents. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical data were obtained. Total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugars, dietary GI and GL were calculated from 24 h recalls. Two validated cut-off points for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were used as surrogates of insulin resistance. Fasting insulin levels ≥ 14.38 μU/mL were considered as abnormal. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between tertiles of dietary carbohydrates and insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia. In our study, adolescents with the highest dietary fiber intake had lower odds of HOMA-IR > 2.97 (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.13–0.93) when adjusted for sex, age, body fat percentage and saturated fatty acids intake. No significant associations were found for the rest of the carbohydrate variables. In summary, high-fiber diets reduce the probability of insulin resistance in adolescents from marginalized areas of Chiapas, México. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prioritizing the Scale-Up of Evidence-Based Nutrition and Health Interventions to Accelerate Stunting Reduction in Ethiopia
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3065; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123065 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Despite some progress, stunting prevalence in many African countries including Ethiopia remains unacceptably high. This study aimed to identify key interventions that, if implemented at scale through the health sector in Ethiopia, can avert the highest number of stunting cases. Using the Lives [...] Read more.
Despite some progress, stunting prevalence in many African countries including Ethiopia remains unacceptably high. This study aimed to identify key interventions that, if implemented at scale through the health sector in Ethiopia, can avert the highest number of stunting cases. Using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), the number of stunting cases that would have been averted, if proven interventions were scaled-up to the highest wealth quintile or to an aspirational 90% coverage was considered. Stunting prevalence was highest among rural residents and households in the poorest wealth quintile. Coverage of breastfeeding promotion and vitamin A supplementation were relatively high (>50%), whereas interventions targeting women were limited in number and had particularly low coverage. Universal coverage (90%) of optimal complementary feeding, preventive zinc supplementation, and water connection in homes could have each averted 380,000–500,000 cases of stunting. Increasing coverage of water connection to homes to the level of the wealthiest quintile could have averted an estimated 168,000 cases of stunting. Increasing coverage of optimal complementary feeding, preventive zinc supplementation, and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) services is critical. Innovations in program delivery and health systems governance are required to effectively reach women, remote areas, rural communities, and the poorest proportion of the population to accelerate stunting reduction. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Evaluation of Dietary Approaches for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123064 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Lifestyle interventions, namely optimizing nutrition and increasing physical activity, remain the cornerstone of therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as this can lead to the significant improvement or resolution of disease. The optimal nutritional approach to treat NAFLD remains unclear. The aim [...] Read more.
Lifestyle interventions, namely optimizing nutrition and increasing physical activity, remain the cornerstone of therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as this can lead to the significant improvement or resolution of disease. The optimal nutritional approach to treat NAFLD remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of different nutritional patterns on hepatic, metabolic, and weight-loss endpoints. MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched. Randomized trials of dietary interventions alone for adults with NAFLD were selected. Two authors independently reviewed articles, to select eligible studies, and performed data abstraction. Six studies, representing 317 patients, were included. The participants had a median age of 46, mean body mass index (BMI) 31.5 and were 64.3% male. The mean study duration was 16.33 ± 8.62 weeks. Reduction in hepatic steatosis (HS) was statistically significant in 3/5 Mediterranean Diet (MD), one low-carbohydrate, one intermittent fasting (IF) and 1/2 low fat (LF) diet interventions. A total of 3/5 studies using MD, 1/2 LF interventions, and the one IF intervention demonstrated significant reductions in weight. In conclusion, there appears to be most data in support of MD-based interventions, though further randomized trials are needed to assess comparative effectiveness for NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Roles of Lactose and Fructose Malabsorption and Dietary Outcomes in Children Presenting with Chronic Abdominal Pain
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123063 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Intolerance to lactose or fructose is frequently diagnosed in children with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). However, the causal relationship remains a matter of discussion. A cohort of 253 patients, aged 7–12 years, presenting with unexplained CAP received standardized diagnostics. Additional diagnostic tests were [...] Read more.
Intolerance to lactose or fructose is frequently diagnosed in children with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). However, the causal relationship remains a matter of discussion. A cohort of 253 patients, aged 7–12 years, presenting with unexplained CAP received standardized diagnostics. Additional diagnostic tests were performed based on their medical history and physical and laboratory investigations. Fructose and lactose hydrogen breath tests (H2BT) as well as empiric diagnostic elimination diets were performed in 135 patients reporting abdominal pain related to the consumption of lactose or fructose to evaluate carbohydrate intolerance as a potential cause of CAP. Carbohydrate malabsorption by H2BT was found in 55 (41%) out of 135 patients. An abnormal increase in H2BT was revealed in 30% (35/118) of patients after fructose consumption and in 18% (20/114) of patients after lactose administration. Forty-six percent (25/54) reported pain relief during a diagnostic elimination diet. In total, 17 patients had lactose malabsorption, 29 fructose malabsorption, and nine combined carbohydrate malabsorption. Carbohydrate intolerance as a cause of CAP was diagnosed at follow-up in only 18% (10/55) of patients with malabsorption after the elimination of the respective carbohydrate. Thus, carbohydrate malabsorption appears to be an incidental finding in children with functional abdominal pain disorders, rather than its cause. Therefore, testing of carbohydrate intolerance should only be considered in children with a strong clinical suspicion and with the goal to prevent long-term unnecessary dietary restrictions in children suffering from CAP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Disturbances in Children Treated for Solid Tumors
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123062 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Metabolic disturbances are among the most common disorders diagnosed in pediatric patients after anti-cancer therapy (ACT). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disturbances among patients after ACT. The study group comprised 44 patients (31 boys) treated for [...] Read more.
Metabolic disturbances are among the most common disorders diagnosed in pediatric patients after anti-cancer therapy (ACT). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disturbances among patients after ACT. The study group comprised 44 patients (31 boys) treated for solid tumors and 31 patients in the control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) values, lipid parameters are expressed in Standard Deviation Score (SDS), based on centile charts. Indicators of risk to atherosclerosis were calculated. Obesity/overweight was observed in one third of the patients. Hypercholesterolemia occurred in half of them, elevated tryglicerides (TG) SDS in 11, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) SDS in nine of the patients. Increased levels of both cholesterol SDS and LDL SDS were found in nine patients and four of them also showed elevated levels of TG SDS. There were significant differences in lipid parameters between the sexes. Risk indicators of lipid disorders defined by statistical distances (τ) were determined for the study group and the control group. The sum of the risk ratios of lipid disorders in the study group was 150 times higher than in the control group. Patients after ACT require special monitoring of lipids profiles and thyroid function as they are at higher risk for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis than healthy people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
Body Image and Disturbed Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Sport-Involved Adolescents: The Role of Gender and Sport Characteristics
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123061 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Disordered eating in adolescents who participate in sports is an issue of great concern. However, very few studies have examined the prevalence of sport-related determinants of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEABs) in sport-involved adolescents. The present study aims to assess body image [...] Read more.
Disordered eating in adolescents who participate in sports is an issue of great concern. However, very few studies have examined the prevalence of sport-related determinants of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEABs) in sport-involved adolescents. The present study aims to assess body image and DEABs in the sample of adolescents involved in a sport of different characteristics (competitive sport, leisure sport; weight-sensitive and less-weight-sensitive sport) and to compare the results with those of the controls. A total sample of 732 adolescents (437 (59.4%) were female) participated in the study. The participants ranged in age from 16 to 19 years (mean = 17.2, SD = 0.6). Study participants completed a questionnaire assessing sports characteristics, body image, disordered eating, and health-compromising eating behaviours. Analysis of covariance was used to test the differences of major study variables between controls and weight-sensitive and less-weight-sensitive leisure and competitive sports groups. There was no significant difference observed in DEABs between the sports groups. Competitive athletes reported more satisfaction with body image than controls. The girls participating in weight-sensitive leisure sports reported higher overweight preoccupation and greater DEABs compared to those participating in less-weight-sensitive leisure sports. Boys participating in weight-sensitive leisure sports reported a greater drive for muscularity-related behaviour compared to those participating in less-weight-sensitive leisure sports. There was no observed interaction between gender and weight sensitivity in the competitive sports group. Adolescents involved in a competitive sport demonstrated greater body image satisfaction and did not seem to present a greater risk for DEABs than controls. Special prevention attempts for lowering body image concerns and DEABs should be addressed for adolescents participating in a weight-sensitive leisure sports. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association of Strawberries and Anthocyanidin Intake with Alzheimer’s Dementia Risk
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123060 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Background: Strawberries have been identified to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that improve neuronal function and cognition, mostly in animal studies. It is unknown if the consumption of strawberries or related bioactives may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia risk. Material and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Strawberries have been identified to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that improve neuronal function and cognition, mostly in animal studies. It is unknown if the consumption of strawberries or related bioactives may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia risk. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 925 participants, aged 58–98 years of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Participants were dementia-free at baseline, completed a food frequency questionnaire, and had at least two annual neurological evaluations. The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s dementia was based on structured clinical neurological examination and standardized diagnostic criteria. The association of strawberry intake and incident Alzheimer’s dementia was analyzed using proportional hazard models adjusted for age, sex, education, physical activity, participation in cognitive activities, APOE-ɛ4 genotype, dietary intake of other fruits, and total calorie intake. Results: A total of 245 participants developed Alzheimer’s dementia over the mean follow-up of 6.7 (±3.6) years. Higher strawberry intake was associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s dementia (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60–0.96). In separate adjusted models, highest vs. lowest quartile intakes of Vitamin C (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.92), Pelargonidin (0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.92), total anthocyanidins (0.69, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.99), and total flavonoids (0.67, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) were each associated with lower Alzheimer’s dementia risk. These associations remained after further adjustment for cardiovascular conditions. Conclusion: Consumption of strawberries and foods rich in vitamin C, pelargonidin, anthocyanidins, and total flavonoids may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Macronutrients on Reproductive Hormones in Overweight and Obese Men: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123059 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Hypogonadal obese men find it difficult to lose weight. We investigated whether the modification of macronutrient intake can alter testosterone levels independently of the body mass index. Fasted overweight or obese fertile men were asked to consume meals of polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), monounsaturated [...] Read more.
Hypogonadal obese men find it difficult to lose weight. We investigated whether the modification of macronutrient intake can alter testosterone levels independently of the body mass index. Fasted overweight or obese fertile men were asked to consume meals of polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), monounsaturated fats (MUFA), refined carbohydrates (CHO, orange juice, OJ), whey and egg albumin and mixed meals of PUFA and CHO, PUFA and egg albumin, and CHO and egg albumin. Blood was collected at fasting, then hourly for 5 h and analysed to determine the levels of testosterone and other hormones. We found PUFA and MUFA or a mixed meal of PUFA and CHO significantly reduced serum testosterone production to a similar degree over a 5 h period. PUFA decreased serum testosterone levels by 3.2 nmol/L after 1 h compared to baseline (p = 0.023), with this suppression remaining significant up to 5 h postprandially (2.1 nmol/L; p = 0.012). The net overall testosterone levels were reduced by approximately 10 nmol/L × h by PUFA, MUFA and PUFA combined with CHO. CHO alone had little effect on testosterone levels, whereas egg albumin was able to increase them (7.4 cf 2.0 nmol/L × h). Therefore, for men wishing to optimize their testosterone levels, it may be wise to avoid a high fat intake, drink liquids such as water or OJ or even consider fasting. ANZCTR, Australia; ACTRN12617001034325. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Macronutrients and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Inhibitory Effects of Enteral Nutrition Formula on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3058; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123058 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 840
Abstract
We investigated the effects of enteral nutrition formula on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric lesions in mice. Male ICR mice aged 7–9 weeks old were fasted, then orally given either purified water, Mermed® One, or 2-fold diluted Terumeal® 2.0α as enteral [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of enteral nutrition formula on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric lesions in mice. Male ICR mice aged 7–9 weeks old were fasted, then orally given either purified water, Mermed® One, or 2-fold diluted Terumeal® 2.0α as enteral nutrition (25 or 50 mL/kg each). Indomethacin (IND) was orally administered at 20 mg/kg after 30 min, and the stomach was removed 6 h later and fixed in formalin. The number and area of lesions in the stomachs of the mice given enteral nutrition showed a significant, dose-dependent decrease compared to the purified water-treated group, and no significant difference was seen between the two enteral nutrition-treated groups. Comparable time courses of plasma IND concentrations suggest that enteral nutrition does not inhibit gastrointestinal absorption of IND. Our findings indicate that administering enteral nutrition could inhibit the onset of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary and Plasma Carboxymethyl Lysine and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α as Mediators of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among Women in Indonesia
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123057 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Dietary and plasma carboxymethyl lysine (dCML, pCML) and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (pTNF-α) may be associated with obesity in affluent society. However, evidence in women from low-middle income countries with predominantly traditional diets is lacking. We investigated the mediator effects of dCML, pCML [...] Read more.
Dietary and plasma carboxymethyl lysine (dCML, pCML) and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (pTNF-α) may be associated with obesity in affluent society. However, evidence in women from low-middle income countries with predominantly traditional diets is lacking. We investigated the mediator effects of dCML, pCML and pTNF-α on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among Indonesian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 235 non-diabetic, non-anemic and non-smoking women aged 19–50 years from selected mountainous and coastal areas of West Sumatra and West Java. Dietary CML, pCML, pTNF-α were obtained from 2 × 24-h recalls, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Between-group differences were analyzed by the Chi-square or Mann-Whitney test and mediator effects by Structural Equation Modeling. The medians and interquartile-ranges of dCML, pCML and pTNF-α were 2.2 (1.7–3.0) mg/day, 22.2 (17.2–28.2) ng/mL and 0.68 (0.52–1.00) IU/mL, respectively, and significantly higher in the WC ≥ 80 cm than in the WC < 80 cm group, but not in BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2 group. Plasma CML and pTNF-α were positively and directly related to WC (β = 0.21 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.33] and β = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.11, 0.35], respectively). Dietary CML that correlated with dry-heat processing and cereals as the highest contributions was positively related to WC (β = 0.33 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.83]). Ethnicity, level of education, intake of fat, and intake of energy contributed to dCML, pCML and pTNF-α, and subsequently affected WC, while only ethnicity contributed to BMI through dCML, pCML and pTNF-α (β = 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.14]). A positive direct effect of dCML on pCML and of pCML and pTNF-α on WC was seen among Indonesian women. Dietary CML seems to have several paths that indirectly influence the increases in WC if compared to BMI. Thus, intake of CML-rich foods should be reduced, or the foods consumed in moderate amounts to avoid the risk of central obesity in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Modifications of Own Mothers’ Milk Fortification Protocol Affect Early Plasma IGF-I and Ghrelin Levels in Preterm Infants. A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123056 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 767
Abstract
The aim was to investigate the effect of two own mother’s milk (OMM) fortification protocols on (a) IGF-I and ghrelin plasma levels at 35 post-conceptional weeks (PCW, T2) and whether this effect is maintained after elimination of the differences in OMM fortification, and [...] Read more.
The aim was to investigate the effect of two own mother’s milk (OMM) fortification protocols on (a) IGF-I and ghrelin plasma levels at 35 post-conceptional weeks (PCW, T2) and whether this effect is maintained after elimination of the differences in OMM fortification, and (b) growth until 12 months corrected age. Forty-eight OMM-fed preterm infants (GA 24–32 weeks) were randomly allocated to the fixed-fortification (FF) group (n = 23) and the protein-targeting fortification (PTF) group (n = 25) targeting the recommended daily protein intake (PI). Plasma IGF-I and ghrelin were assessed at 35 (T2) and 40 (T3) PCW while growth was longitudinally assessed until 12 months corrected age. PTF group had lower IGF-I and higher ghrelin than FF group at T2, while receiving lower daily protein and energy amounts. PI correlated positively to T2-IGF-I and inversely to T3-ghrelin while energy intake (EI) correlated inversely to T2- and T3-ghrelin. Group and PI were independent predictors of adjusted T2-IGF-I, while group and EI were predictors of adjusted and T2-ghrelin. Growth parameter z-scores were comparable between groups up to 12 months corrected age. Modifications of OMM fortification have a transient effect on early plasma IGF-I and ghrelin levels in preterm infants in a way consistent with the previously recognized protein-energy/endocrine balance, indicating a potential programming effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Human Milk of Spanish Lactating Women during the First Month of Lactation Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A Comparison with Infant Formulas
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123055 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
Breastfeeding is the ideal way to provide infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Milk composition changes throughout lactation, and fat is one of the most variable nutrients in human milk. The aim of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
Breastfeeding is the ideal way to provide infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Milk composition changes throughout lactation, and fat is one of the most variable nutrients in human milk. The aim of this study was to determine the main differences between the fatty acid (FA) profile of human milk samples (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk group) and infant formulas. Human milk samples were provided by lactating women from Granada. Moreover, different commercial infant formulas were analyzed. FAs were determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. According to the results, oleic acid was the predominant monounsaturated fatty acid (41.93% in human milk and 43.53% in infant formulas), while palmitic acid was the most representative saturated fatty acid (20.88% in human milk and 23.09% in infant formulas). Significant differences were found between human milk groups and infant formulas, mainly in long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs). The content of araquidonic acid (AA) and docoxahexaenoic acid (DHA) was higher in human milk (0.51% and 0.39%, respectively) than in infant formulas (0.31% and 0.22%, respectively). Linoleic acid (LA) percentage (15.31%) in infant formulas was similar to that found in human milk (14.6%). However, α-linolenic acid (ALA) values were also much higher in infant formulas than in human milk (1.64% and 0.42%, respectively). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
L-Arabinose Elicits Gut-Derived Hydrogen Production and Ameliorates Metabolic Syndrome in C57BL/6J Mice on High-Fat-Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123054 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) associated with excess calorie intake has become a great public health concern worldwide. L-arabinose, a naturally occurring plant pentose, has a promising future as a novel food ingredient with benefits in MS; yet the mechanisms remain to be [...] Read more.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) associated with excess calorie intake has become a great public health concern worldwide. L-arabinose, a naturally occurring plant pentose, has a promising future as a novel food ingredient with benefits in MS; yet the mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. Gut microbiota is recently recognized to play key roles in MS. Molecular hydrogen, an emerging medical gas with reported benefits in MS, can be produced and utilized by gut microbes. Here we show oral L-arabinose elicited immediate and robust release of hydrogen in mice in a dose-and-time-dependent manner while alleviating high-fat-diet (HFD) induced MS including increased body weight especially fat weight, impaired insulin sensitivity, liver steatosis, dyslipidemia and elevated inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, L-arabinose modulated gene-expressions involved in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in key metabolic tissues. Antibiotics treatment abolished L-arabinose-elicited hydrogen production independent of diet type, confirming gut microbes as the source of hydrogen. q-PCR of fecal 16S rDNA revealed modulation of relative abundances of hydrogen-producing and hydrogen-consuming gut microbes as well as probiotics by HFD and L-arabinose. Our data uncovered modulating gut microbiota and hydrogen yield, expression of genes governing lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in metabolic tissues is underlying L-arabinose’s benefits in MS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dihydropyranocoumarins Exerted Anti-Obesity Activity In Vivo and its Activity Was Enhanced by Nanoparticulation with Polylactic-Co-Glycolic Acid
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123053 - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Dihydropyranocoumarins (DPCs) were isolated from Peucedanum japonicum Thunb as anti-obesity compounds in 3T3-L1 adipocytes assay; however, it is uncertain whether DPC exerts anti-obesity activity in vivo. Therefore, this study evaluated the oral intake of pure DPCs in mice fed a high-fat diet, and [...] Read more.
Dihydropyranocoumarins (DPCs) were isolated from Peucedanum japonicum Thunb as anti-obesity compounds in 3T3-L1 adipocytes assay; however, it is uncertain whether DPC exerts anti-obesity activity in vivo. Therefore, this study evaluated the oral intake of pure DPCs in mice fed a high-fat diet, and also attempted to enhance its activity by nanoparticulation. Increases in body weight gain and fat accumulation in white adipose tissues were significantly suppressed by the dietary intake of DPCs (1.943 mg/mouse/day). DPCs intake also significantly decreased the mean size of adipocytes and upregulated mRNA levels of thermogenesis-related genes. Nanoparticulation of DPCs with polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) dramatically increased its activity almost 100-fold over that of a non-nanoparticulated form. Thus, our findings clearly demonstrated the anti-obesity activity of DPCs in vivo and suggested that PLGA nanoparticle encapsulation was useful to enhance the anti-obesity activity of DPCs with the aim to develop natural and safe anti-obesity agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations Among Taste Perception, Food Neophobia and Preferences in Type 1 Diabetes Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123052 - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common systemic diseases in childhood which predisposes the patient to serious short-term and long-term complications, affecting all body systems. Taste and olfactory impairments were first described a long time ago in adult patients affected [...] Read more.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common systemic diseases in childhood which predisposes the patient to serious short-term and long-term complications, affecting all body systems. Taste and olfactory impairments were first described a long time ago in adult patients affected by diabetes (both type 1 and type 2 diabetes). However, studies evaluating taste perception, behavioral attitudes (e.g., food neophobia), and preferences toward foods in children and adolescents affected by T1D are globally lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess taste sensitivity, food neophobia, and preferences among children and adolescents affected by T1D and healthy controls in a cross-sectional study. T1D patients presented a significantly lower ability in general to correctly identify taste qualities, especially bitter and sour tastes. Moreover, they were characterized by fewer fungiform papillae compared to controls, as well as a lower responsiveness to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). There were no significant differences in food neophobia scores between the two groups, but differences were observed in the mean hedonic ratings for some product categories investigated. Diabetic patients showed a greater liking for certain type of foods generally characterized by sourness and bitterness, an observation probably linked to their impaired ability to perceive taste stimuli, e.g., sourness and bitterness. These results may help to enhance the understanding of these relationships in populations with elevated diet-related health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Non-Energy-Restricted Low-Carbohydrate Diet Combined with Exercise Intervention Improved Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Chinese Females
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123051 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the effects of four weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet (LC) and incorporated exercise training on body composition and cardiometabolic health. Fifty-eight overweight/obese Chinese females (age: 21.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the effects of four weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet (LC) and incorporated exercise training on body composition and cardiometabolic health. Fifty-eight overweight/obese Chinese females (age: 21.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to the control group (CON, n = 15), the LC control group (LC-CON, n = 15), the LC and high-intensity interval training group (LC-HIIT, n = 15), or the LC and moderate-intensity continuous training group (LC-MICT, n = 13). Subjects consumed a four week LC, whereas LC-HIIT and LC-MICT received extra training 5 d/week (LC-HIIT: 10 × 6 s cycling interspersed with 9 s rest, MICT: 30 min continuous cycling at 50–60% VO2peak). After intervention, the three LC groups demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (−2.85 kg in LC-CON, −2.85 kg in LC-HIIT, −2.56 kg in LC-MICT, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.510), BMI (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.504) and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.523). Groups with extra training (i.e., LC-HIIT and LC-MICT) improved VO2peak by 14.8 and 17.3%, respectively. However, fasting glucose and blood lipid levels remained unchanged in all groups. Short-term LC is a useful approach to improve body composition in overweight/obese Chinese females. Incorporated exercise training has no additional effects on weight loss, but has additional benefits on cardiorespiratory fitness, and HIIT is more time efficient than the traditional MICT (2.5 min vs. 30 min). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dietary and Lifestyle Patterns in the Spanish Pediatric Population (One to <10 Years Old): Design, Protocol, and Methodology of the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123050 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
The interest in a healthy diet and lifestyle during the early stages of life increased, pointing out its role in the development of noncommunicable chronic diseases throughout adult life. Dietary habits and dietary patterns begin to be established in early childhood and persist [...] Read more.
The interest in a healthy diet and lifestyle during the early stages of life increased, pointing out its role in the development of noncommunicable chronic diseases throughout adult life. Dietary habits and dietary patterns begin to be established in early childhood and persist during adulthood. Therefore, the EsNuPI (“Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population”) study aims to depict the dietary patterns, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Spanish children aged from one to <10 years old. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study recruited a total of 1514 children from Spanish cities with >50,000 inhabitants, stratified by Nielsen areas. Participants were involved in one face-to-face survey, followed by a telephone survey after at least one week. Information about dietary intake and habits was obtained using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and two 24-h dietary recalls. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were registered using a specific questionnaire based on a seven-day record. Data were processed and stratified by categorical variables to be statistically analyzed in order to meet the study objectives. This study is the first of its kind in a Spanish reference population of this age range and the first to evaluate whether the consumption of adapted milk formulas and dairy products is associated with healthier dietary patterns and better diet quality and lifestyles in this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
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Open AccessArticle
Obesity and Vitamin D Insufficiency among Adolescent Girls and Young Adult Women from Korea
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123049 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Although there is evidence of the biological mechanisms by which obesity may induce vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, limited epidemiological studies have been conducted, especially among Asian adolescent girls and young adult women who are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency. [...] Read more.
Although there is evidence of the biological mechanisms by which obesity may induce vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, limited epidemiological studies have been conducted, especially among Asian adolescent girls and young adult women who are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between obesity and vitamin D insufficiency among adolescent girls and young adult women in Korea. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2014, and 3623 girls and young adult women aged 12–29 years were included. Demographic and lifestyle data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from the health interview survey. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured during health examinations. Multivariable logistic regression was used considering the complex, multistage probability sample design of KNHANES. In the multivariable-adjusted analyses, obese girls and women, defined by BMI, were more likely to have a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–2.17). This association was also evident for BF%. Participants with ≥30% BF% had a significantly higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.16). Obesity may worsen vitamin D insufficiency among adolescents and young women because of the fat-soluble characteristics of vitamin D and related health behaviors, such as a lack of outdoor activity. Further large-scale prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm this causality. Full article
Open AccessReview
Moderate Alcohol Intake in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: To Drink or Not to Drink?
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123048 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by hepatic steatosis in the presence of alcohol intake within safe limits, defined by guidelines of scientific associations (usually 20 g or 2 units/day in women, 30 g or 3 units in men). The diagnosis is [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by hepatic steatosis in the presence of alcohol intake within safe limits, defined by guidelines of scientific associations (usually 20 g or 2 units/day in women, 30 g or 3 units in men). The diagnosis is usually followed by medical counseling of total abstinence, in order to prevent disease progression. This policy has been challenged by epidemiological studies, suggesting that the risk of liver disease and disease progression is lower in modest drinkers than in total abstainers. We revised the literature on the effects of modest alcohol intake on disease burden. Epidemiological data may suffer from several potential biases (recall bias for retrospective analyses, difficulties in the calculation of g/day), limiting their validity. Prospective data suggest that NAFLD patients with regular alcohol intake, although within the safe thresholds, are at higher risk of liver disease progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma; a detrimental effect of modest alcohol drinking is similarly observed in liver disease of viral etiology. Alcohol intake is also a risk factor for extrahepatic cancers, particularly breast, oral, and pharyngeal cancers, with gender difference and no floor effect, which outweigh the possible beneficial effects on cardiovascular system, also derived from retrospective studies. Finally, the negative effects of the calorie content of alcohol on dietary restriction and weight loss, the pivotal intervention to reduce NAFLD burden, should be considered. In summary, the policy of counseling NAFLD patients for alcohol abstinence should be maintained. Full article
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