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Carbohydrate Intake in the Context of Exercise in People with Type 1 Diabetes

by Sam Scott 1,2, Patrick Kempf 1, Lia Bally 1,† and Christoph Stettler 1,*,†
1
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, Nutritional Medicine and Metabolism, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
Team Novo Nordisk Professional Cycling Team, 2144 Hills Ave NW, Atlanta, GA 30318, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Lia Bally and Christoph Stettler share last authorship.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123017
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes)
Although the benefits of regular exercise on cardiovascular risk factors are well established for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), glycemic control remains a challenge during exercise. Carbohydrate consumption to fuel the exercise bout and/or for hypoglycemia prevention is an important cornerstone to maintain performance and avoid hypoglycemia. The main strategies pertinent to carbohydrate supplementation in the context of exercise cover three aspects: the amount of carbohydrates ingested (i.e., quantity in relation to demands to fuel exercise and avoid hypoglycemia), the timing of the intake (before, during and after the exercise, as well as circadian factors), and the quality of the carbohydrates (encompassing differing carbohydrate types, as well as the context within a meal and the associated macronutrients). The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the literature on carbohydrate intake in the context of exercise in people with T1D. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; carbohydrates; insulin; exercise; glycogen; hypoglycemia; glucose; fructose; hormones; glycemic index type 1 diabetes; carbohydrates; insulin; exercise; glycogen; hypoglycemia; glucose; fructose; hormones; glycemic index
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Scott, S.; Kempf, P.; Bally, L.; Stettler, C. Carbohydrate Intake in the Context of Exercise in People with Type 1 Diabetes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3017.

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