Special Issue "Immunomodulation and Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 February 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eva Untersmayr
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, E3Q, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: mechanisms, risk factors, treatment and prevention of food allergy; characteristics of food allergen; microbiota composition in immune health and disease; immuno-nutrition; development of novel diagnostic test for immune mediated diseases
Dr. Liam O’Mahony
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland
Interests: microbiome; immune tolerance; allergies; asthma; obesity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet has a paramount influence on health and disease associated with immune homeostasis by contributing to immune regulation, inflammation, or even malignant cell transformation. Several risk factors introduced by dietary habits have been described for a large variety of intestinal but also extra-intestinal immune-mediated diseases. It is known that not only the immune response but the entire composition of the gastrointestinal barrier, i.e., intestinal epithelial cells, mucus composition, and the intestinal microbiota are influenced by diet. Thus, dietary compounds like vitamins, micronutrients, carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids substantially modulate the immune response throughout the entire body. Direct interaction with specific receptors, the modulation of microbial composition at mucosal sites, and changes of metabolic pathways in the human body contribute to multiple different pathways by which nutrients can influence immune responses and reactivity. With this Special Issue, we aim to provide a collection of authoritative updates on this rapidly developing field, addressing the topic from multiple aspects involving scientists specialized in different fields of health or disease associated immunology and nutrition research.

Dr. Eva Untersmayr
Dr. Liam O’Mahony
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tolerance
  • Dietary compounds
  • Metabolism
  • Microbiota

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional and Pharmacological Targeting of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Influences Chemically Induced Colitis in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123072 - 16 Dec 2019
Abstract
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main regulator of extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. It has diverse functions in different tissues, including the intestines. Intestine-specific knockout of the CaSR renders mice more susceptible to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. To test our hypothesis that [...] Read more.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main regulator of extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. It has diverse functions in different tissues, including the intestines. Intestine-specific knockout of the CaSR renders mice more susceptible to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. To test our hypothesis that the CaSR reduces intestinal inflammation, we assessed the effects of nutritional and pharmacological agonists of the CaSR in a colitis model. We treated female Balb/C mice with dietary calcium and protein (nutritional agonists of the CaSR) or pharmacological CaSR modulators (the agonists cinacalcet and GSK3004774, and the antagonist NPS-2143; 10 mg/kg), then induced colitis with DSS. The high-protein diet had a strong pro-inflammatory effect—it shortened the colons (5.3 ± 0.1 cm vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 cm normal diet, p < 0.05), lowered mucin expression and upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ, (4.2-fold, p < 0.05) compared with the normal diet. Cinacalcet reduced mucin expression, which coincided with an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (4.4-fold, p < 0.05) and IL-6 (4.9-fold, p < 0.05) in the plasma, compared with vehicle. The CaSR antagonist, NPS-2143, significantly reduced the cumulative inflammation score compared with the vehicle control (35.3 ± 19.1 vs. 21.9 ± 14.3 area under the curve, p < 0.05) and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. While dietary modulation of the CaSR had no beneficial effects, pharmacological inhibition of the CaSR may have the potential of a novel add-on therapy in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Immune Effects of the Nitrated Food Allergen Beta-Lactoglobulin in an Experimental Food Allergy Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102463 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Food proteins may get nitrated by various exogenous or endogenous mechanisms. As individuals might get recurrently exposed to nitrated proteins via daily diet, we aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly ingested nitrated food proteins on the subsequent immune response in non-allergic and [...] Read more.
Food proteins may get nitrated by various exogenous or endogenous mechanisms. As individuals might get recurrently exposed to nitrated proteins via daily diet, we aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly ingested nitrated food proteins on the subsequent immune response in non-allergic and allergic mice using the milk allergen beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) as model food protein in a mouse model. Evaluating the presence of nitrated proteins in food, we could detect 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in extracts of different foods and in stomach content extracts of non-allergic mice under physiological conditions. Chemically nitrated BLG (BLGn) exhibited enhanced susceptibility to degradation in simulated gastric fluid experiments compared to untreated BLG (BLGu). Gavage of BLGn to non-allergic animals increased interferon-γ and interleukin-10 release of stimulated spleen cells and led to the formation of BLG-specific serum IgA. Allergic mice receiving three oral gavages of BLGn had higher levels of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) compared to allergic mice receiving BLGu. Regardless of the preceding immune status, non-allergic or allergic, repeatedly ingested nitrated food proteins seem to considerably influence the subsequent immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Leptin and EGF Supplementation Enhance the Immune System Maturation in Preterm Suckling Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102380 - 06 Oct 2019
Abstract
In preterm newborns the immaturity of the immune system is remarkable, with reduced innate and adaptive immune responses. Many bioactive compounds in breast milk, such as growth factors and adipokines, contribute to the immune system’s maturation in early life. However, studies on the [...] Read more.
In preterm newborns the immaturity of the immune system is remarkable, with reduced innate and adaptive immune responses. Many bioactive compounds in breast milk, such as growth factors and adipokines, contribute to the immune system’s maturation in early life. However, studies on the immunoregulatory activity in preterm neonates are practically nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a nutritional supplementation in early life with leptin or epidermal growth factor (EGF) was able to promote the maturation of the systemic and intestinal immune system in preterm conditions. For this purpose, premature rats were daily supplemented by oral gavage with leptin or EGF. Term and Preterm groups receiving vehicle were used as controls. Preterm rats showed deficiencies compared to full-term ones, such as lower body weights, erythrocyte counts, plasma IgG and IgM concentrations and B cell percentages, and higher values of Th and Tc TCRαβ+ cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal permeability, among others. However, leptin and EGF supplementation were able to revert some of these deficiencies and to improve the premature immune system’s development. These results suggest that leptin and EGF are involved in enhancing the maturation of the systemic and intestinal immune system in preterm conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Fibre Intake Is Independently Associated with Increased Circulating Interleukin-22 in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040815 - 11 Apr 2019
Abstract
The positive effects of dietary fibre on gut barrier function and inflammation have not been completely elucidated. Mice studies show gut barrier disruption and diet-induced insulin resistance can be alleviated by cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22). However, little is known about IL-22 in humans and [...] Read more.
The positive effects of dietary fibre on gut barrier function and inflammation have not been completely elucidated. Mice studies show gut barrier disruption and diet-induced insulin resistance can be alleviated by cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22). However, little is known about IL-22 in humans and its association with gut-beneficial nutrients like fibre. We investigated whether fibre intake was associated with circulating levels of IL-22 in 48 participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Bivariate analysis was used to explore associations between circulating IL-22, fibre intake, MetS factors, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, V ˙ O2peak). Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) was used to test the independent association of fibre intake with circulating IL-22, adjusting for variables correlated with IL-22. Circulating IL-22 was positively associated with fibre intake (rs = 0.393, p < 0.006). The HMR-adjusted model explained 40% of circulating IL-22 variability, and fibre intake significantly improved the prediction model by 8.4% (p < 0.022). Participants with fibre intake above median intake of 21.5 g/day had a significantly higher circulating IL-22 than the lower intake group (308.3 ± 454.4 vs. 69.0 ± 106.4 pg/mL, p < 0.019). Fibre intake is independently associated with increased circulating IL-22 in individuals with MetS. Findings warrant further investigations to evaluate whether changes in dietary fibre intake alter circulating IL-22, and its effects on health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Hesperidin on the Oxidative Stress Induced by an Exhausting Exercise in Intensively Trained Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040783 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Intensive exercise can lead to oxidative stress, which can be particularly deleterious for lymphoid tissues. Hesperidin has demonstrated its antioxidant activity, but few studies focus on its influence on intensive training. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of hesperidin [...] Read more.
Intensive exercise can lead to oxidative stress, which can be particularly deleterious for lymphoid tissues. Hesperidin has demonstrated its antioxidant activity, but few studies focus on its influence on intensive training. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of hesperidin on the oxidant/antioxidant status of lymphoid tissues after an intensive training program. Wistar rats were trained for five weeks (five days per week), including two exhaustion tests plus three trainings per week. During this period, animals were orally administrated with 200 mg/kg of hesperidin or vehicle (three days per week). The oxidative status was determined before, immediately after and 24 h after an additional exhaustion test. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by peritoneal macrophages, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in spleen, thymus and liver, and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx) were assessed. Hesperidin prevented an increase in ROS production induced by the additional exhaustion test. Likewise, hesperidin avoided a decrease in SOD and catalase activities in the thymus and spleen that was found after the additional exhaustion test. The antioxidant effects of hesperidin were associated with a higher performance in the assessed training model. These results suggest that hesperidin, acting as an antioxidant, can prevent oxidative stress induced by exercise and improve exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Influence of Dietary Fatty Acids on Immune Responses
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122990 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Diet-derived fatty acids (FAs) are essential sources of energy and fundamental structural components of cells. They also play important roles in the modulation of immune responses in health and disease. Saturated and unsaturated FAs influence the effector and regulatory functions of innate and [...] Read more.
Diet-derived fatty acids (FAs) are essential sources of energy and fundamental structural components of cells. They also play important roles in the modulation of immune responses in health and disease. Saturated and unsaturated FAs influence the effector and regulatory functions of innate and adaptive immune cells by changing membrane composition and fluidity and by acting through specific receptors. Impaired balance of saturated/unsaturated FAs, as well as n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated FAs has significant consequences on immune system homeostasis, contributing to the development of many allergic, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. In this paper, we discuss up-to-date knowledge and the clinical relevance of the influence of dietary FAs on the biology, homeostasis, and functions of epithelial cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, innate lymphoid cells, T cells and B cells. Additionally, we review the effects of dietary FAs on the pathogenesis of many diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis as well as type 1 and 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
The Secrets of the Mediterranean Diet. Does [Only] Olive Oil Matter?
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2941; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122941 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
Diet plays a key role in the maintenance and optimal functioning of immune cells. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is an example of a prudent choice of lifestyle and scientifically accepted to help preserve human health by protecting against major chronic and inflammatory diseases. [...] Read more.
Diet plays a key role in the maintenance and optimal functioning of immune cells. The Mediterranean dietary pattern is an example of a prudent choice of lifestyle and scientifically accepted to help preserve human health by protecting against major chronic and inflammatory diseases. Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) are characteristically high in the consumption of fruits, vegetables and salad, bread and whole grain cereals, potatoes, legumes/beans, nuts, and seeds. Their common central feature is the usage of olive oil as the main source of fat. The health benefits attributed to olive oil are specifically related to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) intake with its high nutritional quality and multiple positive effects on health. Overall, MedDiets have direct (mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), tocopherols, polyphenols) and indirect (low saturated fats, well-balanced linoleic/alpha linolenic acid) effects on the immune system and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the effect of olive oil per se and MedDiets generally on immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD)/cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, type-2 diabetes, cancer, asthma, and allergies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation and Nutrition)
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