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Mechanisms of Calorie Restriction: A Review of Genes Required for the Life-Extending and Tumor-Inhibiting Effects of Calorie Restriction

1
Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
2
Section of Pediatric Dentistry, Division of Oral Health, Growth and Development, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123068
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
This review focuses on mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR), particularly the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis as an evolutionary conserved signal that regulates aging and lifespan, underlying the effects of CR in mammals. Topics include (1) the relation of the GH-IGF-1 signal with chronic low-level inflammation as one of the possible causative factors of aging, that is, inflammaging, (2) the isoform specificity of the forkhead box protein O (FoxO) transcription factors in CR-mediated regulation of cancer and lifespan, (3) the role for FoxO1 in the tumor-inhibiting effect of CR, (4) pleiotropic roles for FoxO1 in the regulation of disorders, and (5) sirtuin (Sirt) as a molecule upstream of FoxO. From the evolutionary view, the necessity of neuropeptide Y (Npy) for the effects of CR and the pleiotropic roles for Npy in life stages are also emphasized. Genes for mediating the effects of CR and regulating aging are context-dependent, particularly depending on nutritional states. View Full-Text
Keywords: calorie restriction; FoxO transcription factor; sirtuin; neuropeptide Y; pleiotropy of CR genes calorie restriction; FoxO transcription factor; sirtuin; neuropeptide Y; pleiotropy of CR genes
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Komatsu, T.; Park, S.; Hayashi, H.; Mori, R.; Yamaza, H.; Shimokawa, I. Mechanisms of Calorie Restriction: A Review of Genes Required for the Life-Extending and Tumor-Inhibiting Effects of Calorie Restriction. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3068.

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