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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2019) – 289 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Phenolic compounds are promising molecules for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Effects of Fasting Glucose, Hemoglobin A1c, and Triglyceride–Glucose Index on Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2838; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112838 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
The triglyceride–glucose (TyG) index has been correlated with insulin resistance. We aim to investigate the role of the TyG index on cardiovascular (CV) events in type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare the roles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and the TyG [...] Read more.
The triglyceride–glucose (TyG) index has been correlated with insulin resistance. We aim to investigate the role of the TyG index on cardiovascular (CV) events in type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare the roles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and the TyG index in predicting CV events. This retrospective study enrolled 3524 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Kaohsiung Medical University Research Database in 2009 in this longitudinal study and followed them until 2015. The TyG index was calculated as log (fasting triglyceride level (mg/dL) × fasting glucose level (mg/dL)/2). CV events included myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, hospitalization for coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and CV-related death. The association between variables and CV events was assessed using a multivariable stepwise Cox proportional hazard analysis. Two hundred and fifteen CV events (6.1%) were recorded during a follow-up period of 5.93 years. The multivariable stepwise analysis showed that high fasting glucose (HR, 1.007; p < 0.001) and a high TyG index (HR, 1.521; p = 0.004) but not hemoglobin A1c or triglycerides were associated with a higher rate of CV events. Adding fasting glucose and the TyG index to the basic model improved the predictive ability of progression to a CV event (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively), over that of hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.084) and triglyceride (p = 0.221). Fasting glucose and the TyG index are useful parameters and stronger predictive factors than hemoglobin A1c and triglyceride for CV events and may offer an additional prognostic benefit in patients with type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Role of Probiotics in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Does Gut Microbiota Matter?
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112837 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2718
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic consequence of metabolic syndrome, which often also includes obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The connection between gut microbiota (GM) and NAFLD has attracted significant attention in recent years. Data has shown that GM affects hepatic lipid [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic consequence of metabolic syndrome, which often also includes obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. The connection between gut microbiota (GM) and NAFLD has attracted significant attention in recent years. Data has shown that GM affects hepatic lipid metabolism and influences the balance between pro/anti-inflammatory effectors in the liver. Although studies reveal the association between GM dysbiosis and NAFLD, decoding the mechanisms of gut dysbiosis resulting in NAFLD remains challenging. The potential pathophysiology that links GM dysbiosis to NAFLD can be summarized as: (1) disrupting the balance between energy harvest and expenditure, (2) promoting hepatic inflammation (impairing intestinal integrity, facilitating endotoxemia, and initiating inflammatory cascades with cytokines releasing), and (3) altered biochemistry metabolism and GM-related metabolites (i.e., bile acid, short-chain fatty acids, aromatic amino acid derivatives, branched-chain amino acids, choline, ethanol). Due to the hypothesis that probiotics/synbiotics could normalize GM and reverse dysbiosis, there have been efforts to investigate the therapeutic effect of probiotics/synbiotics in patients with NAFLD. Recent randomized clinical trials suggest that probiotics/synbiotics could improve transaminases, hepatic steatosis, and reduce hepatic inflammation. Despite these promising results, future studies are necessary to understand the full role GM plays in NAFLD development and progression. Additionally, further data is needed to unravel probiotics/synbiotics efficacy, safety, and sustainability as a novel pharmacologic approaches to NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 on Exercise Physiological Adaptation, Performance, and Body Composition in Healthy Humans
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112836 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Probiotics have been rapidly developed for health promotion, but clinical validation of the effects on exercise physiology has been limited. In a previous study, Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 (TWK10), isolated from Taiwanese pickled cabbage as a probiotic, was demonstrated to improve exercise performance in [...] Read more.
Probiotics have been rapidly developed for health promotion, but clinical validation of the effects on exercise physiology has been limited. In a previous study, Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 (TWK10), isolated from Taiwanese pickled cabbage as a probiotic, was demonstrated to improve exercise performance in an animal model. Thus, in the current study, we attempted to further validate the physiological function and benefits through clinical trials for the purpose of translational research. The study was designed as a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment. A total of 54 healthy participants (27 men and 27 women) aged 20–30 years without professional athletic training were enrolled and randomly allocated to the placebo, low (3 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU)), and high dose (9 × 1010 CFU) TWK10 administration groups (n = 18 per group, with equal sexes). The functional and physiological assessments were conducted by exhaustive treadmill exercise measurements (85% VO2max), and related biochemical indices were measured before and after six weeks of administration. Fatigue-associated indices, including lactic acid, blood ammonia, blood glucose, and creatinine kinase, were continuously monitored during 30 min of exercise and a 90 min rest period using fixed intensity exercise challenges (60% VO2max) to understand the physiological adaptation. The systemic inflammation and body compositions were also acquired and analyzed during the experimental process. The results showed that TWK10 significantly elevated the exercise performance in a dose-dependent manner and improved the fatigue-associated features correlated with better physiological adaptation. The change in body composition shifted in the healthy direction for TWK10 administration groups, especially for the high TWK10 dose group, which showed that body fat significantly decreased and muscle mass significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggest that TWK10 has the potential to be an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic endurance performance via physiological adaptation effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Poor Dietary Polyphenol Intake in Childhood Cancer Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112835 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Emerging research demonstrates polyphenol-rich diets like the Mediterranean diet may play a role in improving the outcomes of adult cancer therapy. To date, there are no trials assessing the intake or efficacy of polyphenol-rich diets in childhood cancer patients. In this study we [...] Read more.
Emerging research demonstrates polyphenol-rich diets like the Mediterranean diet may play a role in improving the outcomes of adult cancer therapy. To date, there are no trials assessing the intake or efficacy of polyphenol-rich diets in childhood cancer patients. In this study we collected dietary data on 59 childhood cancer patients on treatment using a three-pass 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR), which is based on a validated and structured three-part methodology. Polyphenol consumption was calculated by matching the food consumption data with polyphenol content extracted from the most updated Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total polyphenol intake was 173.31 ± 141.02 mg/day. The major food sources of polyphenols were fruits, beverages, and cereals. There were no significant associations with time since diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) z-score, types of cancer, treatment intensity, food-related symptoms, relapse, and total daily polyphenol intake. Further investigation with larger studies will facilitate the steps in assessing the value of polyphenol-rich dietary patterns in future nutritional interventions for childhood cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Atorvastatin and Vitamin E Accelerates NASH Resolution by Dietary Intervention in a Preclinical Guinea Pig Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112834 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Despite affecting millions of patients worldwide, no pharmacological treatment has yet proved effective against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced liver fibrosis. Current guidelines recommend lifestyle modifications including reductions in dietary energy intake. Recently, therapy with atorvastatin and vitamin E (vitE) has been recommended, although [...] Read more.
Despite affecting millions of patients worldwide, no pharmacological treatment has yet proved effective against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced liver fibrosis. Current guidelines recommend lifestyle modifications including reductions in dietary energy intake. Recently, therapy with atorvastatin and vitamin E (vitE) has been recommended, although clinical studies on the resolution of hepatic fibrosis are inconclusive. Targeting NASH-induced hepatic end-points, this study evaluated the effects of atorvastatin and vitE alone or in combination with a dietary intervention in the guinea pig NASH model. Guinea pigs (n = 72) received 20 weeks of high fat feeding before allocating to four groups: continued HF feeding (HF), HF diet with atorvastatin and vitE (HF+), low-fat diet (LF) and low-fat with atorvastatin and vitE (LF+), for four or eight weeks of intervention. Both LF and LF+ decreased liver weight, cholesterol and plasma dyslipidemia. LF+ further improved hepatic histopathological hallmarks (p < 0.05), liver injury markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05) and reduced the expression of target genes of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis (p < 0.05), underlining an increased effect on NASH resolution in this group. Collectively, the data support an overall beneficial effect of diet change, and indicate that atorvastatin and vitE therapy combined with a diet change act synergistically in improving NASH-induced endpoints. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Fluid Aspect of the Mediterranean Diet in the Prevention and Management of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: The Role of Polyphenol Content in Moderate Consumption of Wine and Olive Oil
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112833 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive [...] Read more.
A growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of plant-based diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Mediterranean diet, one of the most widely evaluated dietary patterns in scientific literature, includes in its nutrients two fluid foods: olive oil, as the main source of fats, and a low-to-moderate consumption of wine, mainly red, particularly during meals. Current mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include a reduction in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, improvement in lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function, as well as antithrombotic properties. Most of these effects are attributable to bioactive ingredients including polyphenols, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols are a heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings. The principal classes of red wine polyphenols include flavonols (quercetin and myricetin), flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), anthocyanin and stilbenes (resveratrol). Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds. Among them, the main are simple phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), secoroids and lignans. The present narrative review focuses on phenols, part of red wine and virgin olive oil, discussing the evidence of their effects on lipids, blood pressure, atheromatous plaque and glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols and Cardiometabolic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Cultural Moderation of Unconscious Hedonic Responses to Food
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112832 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Previous psychological studies have shown that images of food elicit hedonic responses, either consciously or unconsciously, and that participants’ cultural experiences moderate conscious hedonic ratings of food. However, whether cultural factors moderate unconscious hedonic responses to food remains unknown. We investigated this issue [...] Read more.
Previous psychological studies have shown that images of food elicit hedonic responses, either consciously or unconsciously, and that participants’ cultural experiences moderate conscious hedonic ratings of food. However, whether cultural factors moderate unconscious hedonic responses to food remains unknown. We investigated this issue in Polish and Japanese participants using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Images of international fast food and domestic Japanese food were presented subliminally as prime stimuli. Participants rated their preferences for the subsequently presented target ideographs. Participants also rated their preferences for supraliminally presented food images. In the subliminal rating task, Polish participants showed higher preference ratings for fast food primes than for Japanese food primes, whereas Japanese participants showed comparable preference ratings across these two conditions. In the supraliminal rating task, both Polish and Japanese participants reported comparable preferences for fast and Japanese food stimuli. These results suggest that cultural experiences moderate unconscious hedonic responses to food, which may not be detected based on explicit ratings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112831 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Background: Conflicting evidence supports a role for vitamin D in women with reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but studies on large, unselected populations have been lacking. Methods: We conducted a general population-based study from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort [...] Read more.
Background: Conflicting evidence supports a role for vitamin D in women with reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but studies on large, unselected populations have been lacking. Methods: We conducted a general population-based study from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966). Serum 25-hydroksyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were evaluated in women with self-reported PCOS (n = 280) versus non-symptomatic controls (n = 1573) at the age of 31 with wide range of endocrine and metabolic confounders. Results: The levels of 25(OH)D were similar among women with and without self-reported PCOS (50.35 vs. 48.30 nmol/L, p = 0.051). Women with self-reported PCOS presented with a higher body mass index (BMI), increased insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation and testosterone levels compared to controls. The adjusted linear regression model showed a positive association between total 25(OH)D levels in self-reported PCOS (β = 2.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 4.08, p = 0.003). The result remained after adjustment for BMI, testosterone, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Conclusion: In this population-based setting, PCOS was associated with higher vitamin D levels when adjusting for confounding factors, without distinct beneficial effects on metabolic derangements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Its Association with Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Spanish University Students
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112830 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The aims of this study were to assess the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) with physical fitness and body composition in Spanish university students and to determine the ability to predict the MD adherence of each Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to assess the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) with physical fitness and body composition in Spanish university students and to determine the ability to predict the MD adherence of each Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) item. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 310 first-year university students. Adherence to the MD was evaluated with MEDAS-14 items. Anthropometric variables, body composition, and physical fitness were assessed. Muscle strength was determined based on handgrip strength and the standing long jump test. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was measured using the Course–Navette test. Only 24% of the university students had good adherence to the MD. The ANCOVA models showed a significant difference between participants with high adherence to the MD and those with medium and low adherence in CRF (p = 0.017) and dynamometry (p = 0.005). Logistic binary regression showed that consuming >2 vegetables/day (OR = 20.1; CI: 10.1–30.1; p < 0.001), using olive oil (OR = 10.6; CI: 1.4–19.8; p = 0.021), consuming <3 commercial sweets/week (OR = 10.1; IC: 5.1–19.7; p < 0.001), and consuming ≥3 fruits/day (OR = 8.8; CI: 4.9–15.7; p < 0.001) were the items most associated with high adherence to the MD. In conclusion, a high level of adherence to the MD is associated with high-level muscular fitness and CRF in Spanish university students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Eating Patterns in College Students)
Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Antibacterial and Antiinflammatory Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Pelargonium sidoides DC Root Extract
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112829 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on [...] Read more.
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS + IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS-induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin-8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS + IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis-mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns and Risk of Obesity and Early Childhood Caries in Australian Toddlers: Findings from an Australian Cohort Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112828 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
We examined associations between dietary patterns at 12 months, characterised using multiple methodologies, and risk of obesity and early childhood caries (ECC) at 24–36 months. Participants were Australian toddlers (n = 1170) from the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral [...] Read more.
We examined associations between dietary patterns at 12 months, characterised using multiple methodologies, and risk of obesity and early childhood caries (ECC) at 24–36 months. Participants were Australian toddlers (n = 1170) from the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) birth cohort. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and the Dietary Guideline Index for Children and Adolescents (DGI-CA) were applied to dietary intake data (1, 2 or 3-days) at 12 months, and regression analysis used to examine associations of dietary patterns with body mass index Z-score and presence of ECC at 24–36 months. Two dietary patterns were extracted using PCA: family diet and cow’s milk and discretionary combination. The mean DGI-CA score was 56 ± 13 (out of a possible 100). No statistically significant or clinically meaningful associations were found between dietary pattern or DGI-CA scores, and BMI Z-scores or ECC (n = 680). Higher cow’s milk and discretionary combination pattern scores were associated with higher energy and free sugars intakes, and higher family diet pattern scores and DGI-CA scores with lower free sugars intakes. The association between dietary patterns and intermediate outcomes of free sugars and energy intakes suggests that obesity and/or ECC may not yet have manifested, and thus longitudinal investigation beyond two years of age is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Eating Behavior in Children)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Cereals Sold on the Italian Market: The Food Labelling of Italian Products (FLIP) Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112827 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Breakfast cereals are present on the market as different types and, in general, are one of the food categories in which voluntary information, such as nutrition or health claims (NHC) or gluten free (GF) declarations, have the largest distribution. The aims of the [...] Read more.
Breakfast cereals are present on the market as different types and, in general, are one of the food categories in which voluntary information, such as nutrition or health claims (NHC) or gluten free (GF) declarations, have the largest distribution. The aims of the present study were to compare (i) the nutritional declaration among different types of breakfast cereals, as well as among products with and without NHC or GF declarations; and (ii) the salt and sugar contents with the “Italian shared objectives for the improvement of the nutritional characteristics of food”. To this aim, the nutrition declarations of 371 different breakfast cereal items, available in 13 retailers present on the Italian market, were analysed. Data showed an elevated inter-product variability, with cereal bars and muesli having the highest energy, total fat, and saturate contents per 100 g. Limited differences were found comparing products with and without NHC, as well as those with GF declaration. Most of the breakfast cereals were compliant to the shared objectives, although some items with NHC or GF declaration still have sugar or salt contents higher than these objectives. In conclusion, these data suggest that the different characteristics and the regulated information reported on the food label should not be considered as a marker of the overall nutritional quality. Thus, this study supports the importance of reading and understanding the information made on food label. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Labeling: Analysis, Understanding, and Perception)
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Open AccessCommunication
Impact of Vitamin D on Physical Efficiency and Exercise Performance—A Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112826 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency amongst athletes and the general population seems to be a prominent problem. The most recognized role of vitamin D is its regulation of calcium homeostasis; there is a strong relationship between vitamin D and bone health. Moreover, its concentrations are [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency amongst athletes and the general population seems to be a prominent problem. The most recognized role of vitamin D is its regulation of calcium homeostasis; there is a strong relationship between vitamin D and bone health. Moreover, its concentrations are associated with muscle function and immune response in both the general and athletic populations. Vitamin D level is strongly connected with the presence of VDRs (vitamin D receptors) in most human extraskeletal cells. Expression of multiple myogenic transcription factors enhancing muscle cell proliferation and differentiation is caused by an exposure of skeletal muscles to vitamin D. The aim of this review is to summarize current understanding of the significance of vitamin D on exercise performance and physical efficiency, as well to analyze the impact of vitamin D on multiple potential mechanisms. More high-quality research studies, considering free 25(OH)D as a better marker of vitamin D status, the baseline level of 25(OH)D and multiple pathways of vitamin D acting and usage in athletes are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Meat and Dairy Products Is Not Associated with the Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis among Women: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112825 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Diet has gained attention as a risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially with regards to food of animal origin, such as meat and dairy products. By using data from national patient registers and dietary data from a large prospective [...] Read more.
Diet has gained attention as a risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially with regards to food of animal origin, such as meat and dairy products. By using data from national patient registers and dietary data from a large prospective population cohort, the Swedish Mammography Cohort, we aimed to investigate whether the consumption of meat and dairy products had any impact on the risk of subsequent development of RA. During 12 years of follow-up (January 2003–December 2014; 381, 456 person-years), 368 patients with a new diagnosis of RA were identified. No associations between the development of RA and the consumption of meat and meat products (hazard ratio [HR] for the fully adjusted model: 1.08 [95% CI: 0.77–1.53]) or the total consumption of milk and dairy products (HR for the fully adjusted model: 1.09 [95% CI: 0.76–1.55]) were observed. In conclusion, in this large prospective cohort of women, no associations were observed between dietary intake of meat and dairy products and the risk of RA development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthritis and Nutrition: Can Food Be Medicine?)
Open AccessArticle
Exercise Mitigates the Loss of Muscle Mass by Attenuating the Activation of Autophagy during Severe Energy Deficit
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112824 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7752
Abstract
The loss of skeletal muscle mass with energy deficit is thought to be due to protein breakdown by the autophagy-lysosome and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. We studied the main signaling pathways through which exercise can attenuate the loss of muscle mass during severe energy [...] Read more.
The loss of skeletal muscle mass with energy deficit is thought to be due to protein breakdown by the autophagy-lysosome and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. We studied the main signaling pathways through which exercise can attenuate the loss of muscle mass during severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day). Overweight men followed four days of caloric restriction (3.2 kcal/kg body weight day) and prolonged exercise (45 min of one-arm cranking and 8 h walking/day), and three days of control diet and restricted exercise, with an intra-subject design including biopsies from muscles submitted to distinct exercise volumes. Gene expression and signaling data indicate that the main catabolic pathway activated during severe energy deficit in skeletal muscle is the autophagy-lysosome pathway, without apparent activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Markers of autophagy induction and flux were reduced by exercise primarily in the muscle submitted to an exceptional exercise volume. Changes in signaling are associated with those in circulating cortisol, testosterone, cortisol/testosterone ratio, insulin, BCAA, and leucine. We conclude that exercise mitigates the loss of muscle mass by attenuating autophagy activation, blunting the phosphorylation of AMPK/ULK1/Beclin1, and leading to p62/SQSTM1 accumulation. This includes the possibility of inhibiting autophagy as a mechanism to counteract muscle loss in humans under severe energy deficit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Trace Minerals
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112823 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Dietary trace minerals are pivotal and hold a key role in numerous metabolic processes. Trace mineral deficiencies (except for iodine, iron, and zinc) do not often develop spontaneously in adults on ordinary diets; infants are more vulnerable because their growth is rapid and [...] Read more.
Dietary trace minerals are pivotal and hold a key role in numerous metabolic processes. Trace mineral deficiencies (except for iodine, iron, and zinc) do not often develop spontaneously in adults on ordinary diets; infants are more vulnerable because their growth is rapid and intake varies. Trace mineral imbalances can result from hereditary disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson disease), kidney dialysis, parenteral nutrition, restrictive diets prescribed for people with inborn errors of metabolism, or various popular diet plans. The Special Issue “Dietary Trace Minerals” comprised 13 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the dietary intake of trace minerals, as well as their effect toward the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases. Original contributions and literature reviews further demonstrated the crucial and central part that dietary trace minerals play in human health and development. This editorial provides a brief and concise overview that addresses and summarizes the content of the Dietary Trace Minerals Special Issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Temporal Trends in Maternal Food Intake Frequencies and Associations with Gestational Diabetes: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112822 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that in the first decade of this century the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) in pregnancy rose worldwide. In the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort we observed that this temporal trend was associated with an index of multiple deprivation [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested that in the first decade of this century the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) in pregnancy rose worldwide. In the Cambridge Baby Growth Study cohort we observed that this temporal trend was associated with an index of multiple deprivation and reductions in indices of insulin secretion. Deprivation level was not directly associated with GDM, suggesting that the temporal trend may relate more to other factors linked to it, such as dietary composition. In this study we investigated temporal trends in perceived food intake frequencies, derived from a qualitative, short questionnaire, in 865 pregnant Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS) recruits. A number of food frequency ranks showed both temporal trends and associations with GDM, but of note is the frequency of egg consumption (negative temporal trend p = 0.03, slope = −6.2 ranks/year; negative association with GDM p = 3.0 × 10−8, slope = −0.002 increased risk/rank) as it was also positively associated with the insulin disposition index (p = 1.17 × 10−3, slope = 0.42 ranks. L/mmoL). These results are consistent with a potential protective effect of factors related to the frequency of egg consumption in pregnancy. Such factors may have contributed to the observed temporal trend in GDM risk but the overall detectable effect appears to have been small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Gestational Diabetes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma versus Erythrocyte Vitamin E in Renal Transplant Recipients, and Duality of Tocopherol Species
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112821 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent [...] Read more.
Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent a lipids-independent specimen to estimate vitamin E status, we performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of adult RTR (n = 113) recruited in a university setting (2015–2018). We compared crude and total lipids-standardized linear regression-derived coefficients of plasma and erythrocyte tocopherol species in relation to clinical and laboratory parameters. Strongly positive associations of fasting lipids with plasma tocopherol became inverse, rather than absent, in total lipids-standardized analyses, indicating potential overadjustment. Whilst, no variables from the lipids domain were associated with the tocopherol species measured from erythrocyte specimens. In relation to inflammatory status and clinical parameters with antioxidant activity, we found associations in directions that are consistent with either beneficial or adverse effects concerning α- or γ-tocopherol, respectively. In conclusion, erythrocytes offer a lipids-independent alternative to estimate vitamin E status and investigate its relationship with parameters over other biological domains. In RTR, α- and γ-tocopherol may serve as biomarkers of relatively lower or higher vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation, noticeably in opposite directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
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Open AccessReview
Cholesterol Disturbances and the Role of Proper Nutrition in CKD Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112820 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread disease with increasing prevalence in the modern society. Lipid disturbances are common in this group of patients. In most patients with CKD atherogenic dyslipidemia is observed. Dyslipidemia in patients with renal diseases increases the risk of [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread disease with increasing prevalence in the modern society. Lipid disturbances are common in this group of patients. In most patients with CKD atherogenic dyslipidemia is observed. Dyslipidemia in patients with renal diseases increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and it accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease to its end stage. The amelioration of dyslipidemia and the lowering of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, insulin sensitivity and remnant lipoproteins levels may lead to the reduction in cardiovascular burden. Nutritional interventions can strengthen the beneficial effect of treatment and they play an important role in the preservation of overall well-being of the patients with CKD since the aim of appropriate diet is to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, prevent malnutrition, and hamper the progression of kidney disease. The management of dyslipidemia, regardless of the presence of chronic kidney disease, should be initiated by the introduction of therapeutic lifestyle changes. The introduction of diet change was shown to exert beneficial effect on the lipid level lowering that reaches beyond pharmacological therapy. Currently available evidence give the impression that data on dietary interventions in CKD patients is not sufficient to make any clinical practice guidelines and is of low quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus plantarum P2R3FA Isolated from Traditional Cereal-Based Fermented Food Increase Folate Status in Deficient Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112819 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Folate deficiencies are widespread around the world. Promoting consumption of folate-rich foods could be a sustainable option to alleviate this problem. However, these foods are not always available. Cereals, being a staple food, could contribute to folate intake. They are fermented prior to [...] Read more.
Folate deficiencies are widespread around the world. Promoting consumption of folate-rich foods could be a sustainable option to alleviate this problem. However, these foods are not always available. Cereals, being a staple food, could contribute to folate intake. They are fermented prior to consumption in many African countries, and fermentation can modify the folate content. In Ethiopia, injera is a widely consumed fermented flat bread. The main drivers of its fermentation are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this work was to isolate and identify folate-producing LAB from injera fermented dough and to evaluate their ability to increase folate status after depletion in a rat model. Among the 162 strains isolated from 60 different fermentations, 19 were able to grow on a folate-free culture medium and produced 1 to 43 µg/L (24 h, 30 °C incubation). The four highest folate producers belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species. The most productive strain was able to enhance folate status after depletion in a rat model, despite the relatively low folate content of the feed supplemented with the strain. Folate-producing L. plantarum strain has potential use as a commercial starter in injera production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Fermentation)
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Open AccessCommunication
Enhanced Triacylglycerol Content and Gene Expression for Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Acyl-Ceramide Synthesis, and Corneocyte Lipid Formation in the Epidermis of Borage Oil Fed Guinea Pigs
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112818 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism is related to the acyl-ceramide (Cer) synthesis and corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE) formation involved in maintaining the epidermal barrier. Prompted by the recovery of a disrupted epidermal barrier with dietary borage oil (BO: 40.9% linoleic acid (LNA) and 24.0% γ-linolenic [...] Read more.
Triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism is related to the acyl-ceramide (Cer) synthesis and corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE) formation involved in maintaining the epidermal barrier. Prompted by the recovery of a disrupted epidermal barrier with dietary borage oil (BO: 40.9% linoleic acid (LNA) and 24.0% γ-linolenic acid (GLA)) in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, lipidomic and transcriptome analyses and subsequent quantitative RT-PCR were performed to determine the effects of borage oil (BO) on TAG content and species, and the gene expression related to overall lipid metabolism. Dietary BO for 2 weeks in EFA-deficient guinea pigs increased the total TAG content, including the TAG species esterified LNA, GLA, and their C20 metabolized fatty acids. Moreover, the expression levels of genes in the monoacylglycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate pathways, two major pathways of TAG synthesis, increased, along with those of TAG lipase, acyl-Cer synthesis, and CLE formation. Dietary BO enhanced TAG content, the gene expression of TAG metabolism, acyl-Cer synthesis, and CLE formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Butyric Acid and Leucine Induce α-Defensin Secretion from Small Intestinal Paneth Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112817 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The intestine not only plays a role in fundamental processes in digestion and nutrient absorption, but it also has a role in eliminating ingested pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Paneth cells, which reside at the base of small intestinal crypts, secrete α-defensins and contribute [...] Read more.
The intestine not only plays a role in fundamental processes in digestion and nutrient absorption, but it also has a role in eliminating ingested pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Paneth cells, which reside at the base of small intestinal crypts, secrete α-defensins and contribute to enteric innate immunity through potent microbicidal activities. However, the relationship between food factors and the innate immune functions of Paneth cells remains unknown. Here, we examined whether short-chain fatty acids and amino acids induce α-defensin secretion from Paneth cells in the isolated crypts of small intestine. Butyric acid and leucine elicit α-defensin secretion by Paneth cells, which kills Salmonella typhimurium. We further measured Paneth cell secretion in response to butyric acid and leucine using enteroids, a three-dimensional ex vivo culture system of small intestinal epithelial cells. Paneth cells expressed short-chain fatty acid receptors, Gpr41, Gpr43, and Gpr109a mRNAs for butyric acid, and amino acid transporter Slc7a8 mRNA for leucine. Antagonists of Gpr41 and Slc7a8 inhibited granule secretion by Paneth cells, indicating that these receptor and transporter on Paneth cells induce granule secretion. Our findings suggest that Paneth cells may contribute to intestinal homeostasis by secreting α-defensins in response to certain nutrients or metabolites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Various Doses of Phenylalanine Supplementation on Blood Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Concentrations in Tyrosinemia Type 1 Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112816 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluormethyl-benzyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a phenylalanine-tyrosine restricted diet is associated with low phenylalanine concentrations. Phenylalanine supplementation is prescribed without comprehensive consideration about its effect on metabolic control. We investigated the effect of phenylalanine supplementation on bloodspot phenylalanine, tyrosine, [...] Read more.
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluormethyl-benzyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a phenylalanine-tyrosine restricted diet is associated with low phenylalanine concentrations. Phenylalanine supplementation is prescribed without comprehensive consideration about its effect on metabolic control. We investigated the effect of phenylalanine supplementation on bloodspot phenylalanine, tyrosine, NTBC and succinylacetone. Eleven TT1 patients received 0, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day phenylalanine supplementation with the phenylalanine-tyrosine free L-amino acid supplements. Bloodspots were collected before breakfast, midday and evening meal. Differences between study periods, sample times and days within a study period were studied using (generalized) linear mixed model analyses. Twenty and 40 mg/kg/day phenylalanine supplementation prevented daytime phenylalanine decreases (p = 0.05) and most low phenylalanine concentrations, while tyrosine concentrations increased (p < 0.001). Furthermore, NTBC and succinylacetone concentrations did not differ between study periods. To conclude, 20 mg/kg/day phenylalanine supplementation can prevent most low phenylalanine concentrations without increasing tyrosine to concentrations above the target range or influencing NTBC and succinylacetone concentrations, while 40 mg/kg/day increased tyrosine concentrations to values above the targeted range. Additionally, this study showed that the effect of phenylalanine supplementation, and a possible phenylalanine deficiency, should be assessed using pre-midday meal blood samples that could be combined with an overnight fasted sample when in doubt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin B12 Status Upon Short-Term Intervention with a Vegan Diet—A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Participants
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112815 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3468
Abstract
Vegans are at an increased risk for certain micronutrient deficiencies, foremost of vitamin B12. Little is known about the short-term effects of dietary change to plant-based nutrition on vitamin B12 metabolism. Systemic biomarkers of vitamin B12 status, namely, serum [...] Read more.
Vegans are at an increased risk for certain micronutrient deficiencies, foremost of vitamin B12. Little is known about the short-term effects of dietary change to plant-based nutrition on vitamin B12 metabolism. Systemic biomarkers of vitamin B12 status, namely, serum vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin, may respond quickly to a reduced intake of vitamin B12. To test this hypothesis, 53 healthy omnivore subjects were randomized to a controlled unsupplemented vegan diet (VD, n = 26) or meat-rich diet (MD, n = 27) for 4 weeks. Vitamin B12 status was examined by measurement of serum vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin (holo-TC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). Holo-TC decreased significantly in the VD compared to the MD group after four weeks of intervention, whereas metabolites MMA and tHcy were unaffected. Body weight remained stable in both groups. VD intervention led to a significant reduction of cholesterol intake, and adequate profiles of nutrient and micronutrient status. Lower intake of vitamin B12 was observed in VD, which was mirrored by a lower concentration of serum vitamin B12 and reduced holo-TC after 4 weeks. Plasma holo-TC may be a fast-responding biomarker to monitor adequate supply of vitamin B12 in plant-based individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian, Vegan Diets and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Are There Adverse Events after the Use of Sexual Enhancement Nutrition Supplements? A Nationwide Online Survey from Japan
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112814 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Dozens of safety alerts for sexual enhancement and weight loss dietary supplements have been launched from the government not only in Japan but also overseas. However, adverse events have been reported only for the use of weight loss supplements, and the prevalence of [...] Read more.
Dozens of safety alerts for sexual enhancement and weight loss dietary supplements have been launched from the government not only in Japan but also overseas. However, adverse events have been reported only for the use of weight loss supplements, and the prevalence of use and adverse events in sexual enhancement supplements is not known in Japan. To address this issue, we assessed the situation of sexual enhancement supplement use through a nationwide online survey. The prevalence of sexual enhancement supplement use among males was 23.0%. Use of these supplements was higher among younger people than among older people (p < 0.001). In total, 17.6% of users had experienced adverse events, but 58.3% of them did not consult about the events with anybody because of the temporality of their symptoms and their sense of shame. In addition, eight supplement products were found to be possible adulterated supplements in this survey. It is necessary to inform the public about the risk of sexual enhancement supplement use and also prepare a place for consultation on media channels that younger people are more familiar with, in order to monitor adverse events while also preserving their privacy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Rural–Urban Differences in Dietary Behavior and Obesity: Results of the Riskesdas Study in 10–18-Year-Old Indonesian Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112813 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Obesity has become a significant problem for developing countries, including Indonesia. High duration of sedentary activity and high intake of unhealthy foods were associated with high risk of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of sedentary [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a significant problem for developing countries, including Indonesia. High duration of sedentary activity and high intake of unhealthy foods were associated with high risk of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of sedentary activity and dietary behavior with overweight/obesity risks between urban and rural areas among children and adolescents aged 10–18 years in Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study. Data from a national survey in 33 Indonesian provinces (Basic Health Research /Riskesdas 2013) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) adjusted with all variables, such as age, gender, residency, education level, physical activity, and food intake. An urban–rural residence difference was found in the factors related to obesity. Daily caffeinated soft drinks and energy drinks consumption (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.23) were related to risk of overweight and obesity in urban areas. Daily grilled foods (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42) and salty food (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15) consumption were significantly associated with obesity in rural areas but not in urban areas. Furthermore, sedentary activity was correlated with overweight and obesity among those who lived in urban and rural areas. Our findings suggest that education, environmental, and policy interventions may need to specifically target urban settings, where access is high to a wide range of processed and traditional high-sugar, high-fat snack foods and beverages. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Autism, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Nutritional Interventions
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112812 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3860
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral syndrome that is characterized by speech and language disorders, intellectual impairment, learning and motor dysfunctions. Several genetic and environmental factors are suspected to affect the ASD phenotype including air pollution, exposure to pesticides, maternal infections, [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral syndrome that is characterized by speech and language disorders, intellectual impairment, learning and motor dysfunctions. Several genetic and environmental factors are suspected to affect the ASD phenotype including air pollution, exposure to pesticides, maternal infections, inflammatory conditions, dietary factors or consumption of antibiotics during pregnancy. Many children with ASD shows abnormalities in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, including increased intestinal permeability, overall microbiota alterations, and gut infection. Moreover, they are “picky eaters” and the existence of specific sensory patterns in ASD patients could represent one of the main aspects in hampering feeding. GI disorders are associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiome is able to communicate with brain activities through microbiota-derived signaling molecules, immune mediators, gut hormones as well as vagal and spinal afferent neurons. Since the diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiota and in the production of molecules, such as the SCFA, we wanted to investigate the role that nutritional intervention can have on GI microbiota composition and thus on its influence on behavior, GI symptoms and microbiota composition and report which are the beneficial effect on ASD conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Digestive Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Is There an Association between Breastfeeding and Dental Caries among Three-Year-Old Australian Aboriginal Children?
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112811 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
An unresolved question about breastfeeding is its effect on caries, in particular, early childhood caries (ECC). In secondary analyses of data from an ECC intervention, we describe breastfeeding among Aboriginal children and associations between breastfeeding and ECC. Breastfeeding (duration and exclusivity to six [...] Read more.
An unresolved question about breastfeeding is its effect on caries, in particular, early childhood caries (ECC). In secondary analyses of data from an ECC intervention, we describe breastfeeding among Aboriginal children and associations between breastfeeding and ECC. Breastfeeding (duration and exclusivity to six months) was grouped into mutually exclusive categories. ECC was observed by a calibrated dental professional. Outcomes were prevalence of ECC (% decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary dentition (% dmft>0)) and caries severity (mean number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (mean dmfs)) in children aged three years. Analyses were adjusted for confounding. Multiple imputation was undertaken for missing information. Of 307 participants, 29.3% were never breastfed, 17.9% exclusively breastfed to six months, and 9.3% breastfed >24 months. Breastfeeding >24 months was associated with higher caries prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PRa) 2.06 (95%CI 1.35, 3.13, p-value = 0.001) and mean dmfs (5.22 (95% CI 2.06, 8.38, p-value = 0.001), compared with children never breastfed. Exclusive breastfeeding to six months with breastfeeding <24 months was associated with 1.45 higher caries prevalence (95% CI –0.92, 2.30, p-value = 0.114) and mean dmfs 2.04 (−0.62, 4.71, p-value = 0.132), compared with never breastfeeding. The findings are similar to observational studies on breastfeeding and caries but not with randomized controlled trials of breastfeeding interventions. Despite attending to potential biases, inconsistencies with trial evidence raises concerns about the ability to identify causal effects of breastfeeding in observational research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Deletion of Syndecan-4 Alters Body Composition, Metabolic Phenotypes, and the Function of Metabolic Tissues in Female Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112810 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Syndecans are transmembrane proteoglycans that, like integrins, bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Previously, we showed significant associations of genetic variants in the Syndecan-4 (SDC4) gene with intra-abdominal fat, fasting plasma glucose levels, and insulin sensitivity index in children, and [...] Read more.
Syndecans are transmembrane proteoglycans that, like integrins, bind to components of the extracellular matrix. Previously, we showed significant associations of genetic variants in the Syndecan-4 (SDC4) gene with intra-abdominal fat, fasting plasma glucose levels, and insulin sensitivity index in children, and with fasting serum triglyceride levels in healthy elderly subjects. An independent study also reported a correlation between SDC4 and the risk of coronary artery disease in middle-aged patients. Here, we investigated whether deletion of Sdc4 promotes metabolic derangements associated with diet-induced obesity by feeding homozygous male and female Sdc4-deficient (Sdc4-/-) mice and their age-matched wild-type (WT) mice a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that WT and Sdc4-/- mice gained similar weight. However, while no differences were observed in males, HFD-fed female Sdc4-/- mice exhibited a higher percentage of body fat mass than controls and displayed increased levels of plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose, as well as reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity. Additionally, they had an increased adipocyte size and macrophage infiltration in the visceral adipose tissue, and higher triglyceride and fatty acid synthase levels in the liver. Together with our previous human genetic findings, these results provide evidence of an evolutionarily conserved role of SDC4 in adiposity and its complications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Status before and after Renal Replacement Therapy: Differences between Conventional High Flux Hemodialysis and on-Line Hemodiafiltration
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112809 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Hemodialysis patients experience high oxidative stress because of systemic inflammation and depletion of antioxidants. Little is known about the global oxidative status during dialysis or whether it is linked to the type of dialysis. We investigated the oxidative status before (pre-) and after [...] Read more.
Hemodialysis patients experience high oxidative stress because of systemic inflammation and depletion of antioxidants. Little is known about the global oxidative status during dialysis or whether it is linked to the type of dialysis. We investigated the oxidative status before (pre-) and after (post-) one dialysis session in patients subjected to high-flux dialysis (HFD) or on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF). We analyzed carbonyls, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity as oxidative markers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities as measures of antioxidant defense. Indices of oxidative damage (OxyScore) and antioxidant defense (AntioxyScore) were computed and combined into a global DialysisOxyScore. Both dialysis modalities cleared all markers (p < 0.01) except carbonyls, which were unchanged, and oxLDL, which increased post-dialysis (p < 0.01). OxyScore increased post-dialysis (p < 0.001), whereas AntioxyScore decreased (p < 0.001). XOD and catalase activities decreased post-dialysis after OL-HDF (p < 0.01), and catalase activity was higher after OL-HDF than after HFD (p < 0.05). TAC decreased in both dialysis modalities (p < 0.01), but remained higher in OL-HDF than in HFD post-dialysis (p < 0.05), resulting in a lower overall DialysisOxyScore (p < 0.05). Thus, patients on OL-HDF maintain higher levels of antioxidant defense, which might balance the elevated oxidative stress during dialysis, although further longitudinal studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD))
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