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Nutrients, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Rice Bran Derived Bioactive Compounds Modulate Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112736 (registering DOI) - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two chronic diseases that have claimed more lives globally than any other disease. Dietary supplementation of functional foods containing bioactive compounds is recognised to result in improvements in free-radical-mediated oxidative stress. Emerging evidence [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two chronic diseases that have claimed more lives globally than any other disease. Dietary supplementation of functional foods containing bioactive compounds is recognised to result in improvements in free-radical-mediated oxidative stress. Emerging evidence indicates that bioactive compounds derived from rice bran (RB) have therapeutic potential against cellular oxidative stress. This review aims to describe the mechanistic pathways behind CVD and T2DM development and the therapeutic potential of polyphenols derived from RB against these chronic diseases. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Do Consumers Care about Nutrition and Health Claims? Some Evidence from Italy
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112735 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study investigates Italian consumer knowledge and use of nutrition and health claims (NHCs). Six specific claims are examined on the basis of a web survey carried out on a sample of 504 consumers. Our results show that there is little attention to [...] Read more.
This study investigates Italian consumer knowledge and use of nutrition and health claims (NHCs). Six specific claims are examined on the basis of a web survey carried out on a sample of 504 consumers. Our results show that there is little attention to NHCs and their use is not widespread; objective knowledge of the selected claims is fairly scant, generating misinterpretation and confusion about their real meaning. K-means cluster analysis allowed us to identify three segments of consumers, characterized by different levels in attention and use frequency of NHCs, with a specific profile in terms of motivation and nutritional knowledge. Our results suggest the advisability of policy interventions and communication efforts which target the three segments with a view to achieving greater attention to NHCs. In conclusion, to boost knowledge concerning the actual meaning of the claims and their relation with a healthy diet, especially to reach non-users, information should be provided both simply and clearly, avoiding the use of complex scientific terminology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Choice and Health-Related Claims)
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Open AccessCommunication
Management of Cow’s Milk Allergy from an Immunological Perspective: What Are the Options?
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112734 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The immunological mechanism underlying Immunoglobuline E (IgE)-mediated cow’s milk allergy has been subject to investigations for many years. Identification of the key immune cells (mast cells, B cells) and molecules (IgE) in the allergic process has led to the understanding that avoidance of [...] Read more.
The immunological mechanism underlying Immunoglobuline E (IgE)-mediated cow’s milk allergy has been subject to investigations for many years. Identification of the key immune cells (mast cells, B cells) and molecules (IgE) in the allergic process has led to the understanding that avoidance of IgE-crosslinking epitopes is effective in the reduction of allergic symptoms but it cannot be envisioned as a treatment. For the treatment and prevention of IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy, it is thought that the induction of a sustained state of immunological tolerance is needed. In this review, we will discuss various approaches aimed at achieving immunological tolerance and their success. Furthermore, we will speculate on the involved immunological mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy)
Open AccessArticle
Dysregulated Iron Metabolism-Associated Dietary Pattern Predicts an Altered Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112733 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Diet plays an important role in the development of obesity and may contribute to dysregulated iron metabolism (DIM). A cross-sectional survey of 208 adults was conducted in Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). A reduced-rank regression from 31 food groups was used for [...] Read more.
Diet plays an important role in the development of obesity and may contribute to dysregulated iron metabolism (DIM). A cross-sectional survey of 208 adults was conducted in Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). A reduced-rank regression from 31 food groups was used for a dietary pattern analysis. DIM was defined as at least four of the following criteria: serum hepcidin (men >200 ng/mL and women >140 ng/mL), hyperferritinemia (serum ferritin of >300 ng/mL in men and >200 ng/mL in women), central obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and two or more abnormal metabolic profiles. Compared to non-DIM patients, DIM patients were associated with an altered body composition and had a 4.52-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.95–10.49); p < 0.001) greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for covariates. A DIM-associated dietary pattern (high intake of deep-fried food, processed meats, chicken, pork, eating out, coffee, and animal fat/skin but low intake of steamed/boiled/raw foods and dairy products) independently predicted central obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.57; 95% CI: 1.05–2.34; p < 0.05) and MetS (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.07–3.35; p < 0.05). Individuals with the highest DIM pattern scores (tertile 3) had a higher visceral fat mass (%) (β = 0.232; 95% CI: 0.011–0.453; p < 0.05) but lower skeletal muscle mass (%) (β = −1.208; 95% CI: −2.177–−0.239; p < 0.05) compared to those with the lowest DIM pattern scores (tertile 1). In conclusion, a high score for the identified DIM-associated dietary pattern was associated with an unhealthier body composition and a higher risk of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Vitamin D Specific Questionnaire to Determine Vitamin D Status in Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112732 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The study objective was to validate a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire (FFLQ) to assess vitamin D intake and lifestyle factors affecting status. Methods: Data collected previously during the fall (n = 86), winter (n = 49), and spring (n [...] Read more.
The study objective was to validate a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire (FFLQ) to assess vitamin D intake and lifestyle factors affecting status. Methods: Data collected previously during the fall (n = 86), winter (n = 49), and spring (n = 67) in collegiate-athletes (Study 1) and in active adults (n = 123) (Study 2) were utilized. Study 1: Vitamin D intake and ultraviolet B exposure were estimated using the FFLQ and compared to serum 25(OH)D concentrations via simple correlation and linear regression modeling. Study 2: Vitamin D intake from food was estimated using FFLQ and compared to vitamin D intake reported in 7-Day food diaries via paired t-test and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Study 1: Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with vitamin D intake from food, food plus supplements, or sun exposure, but was associated with tanning bed use (r = 0.39) in spring, supplement use in fall (r = 0.28), and BMI (body mass index) (r = −0.32 to −0.47) across all seasons. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were explained by BMI, tanning bed use, and sun exposure in fall, (R = 0.42), BMI in winter (R = 0.32), and BMI and tanning bed use in spring (R = 0.52). Study 2: Estimated Vitamin D intake from food was 186.4 ± 125.7 via FFLQ and 148.5 ± 228.2 IU/day via food diary. There was no association between intake estimated by the two methodologies (r = 0.12, p < 0.05). Conclusions: FFLQ-estimated vitamin D intake was not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration or food-record-estimated vitamin D intake. Results highlight the difficulty of designing/utilizing intake methodologies for vitamin D, as its status is influenced by body size and both endogenous and exogenous (dietary) sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Contingency Reduces Alcohol Drinking by Altering Central Neurotransmitter Receptor Gene Expression in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112731 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
We have previously shown that 6 weeks of intermittent high-fat diet (Int-HFD) pre-exposure significantly reduced alcohol drinking in rats, providing preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a dietary intervention in reducing alcohol intake. However, the functional framework and underlying neurobiological mechanisms of such [...] Read more.
We have previously shown that 6 weeks of intermittent high-fat diet (Int-HFD) pre-exposure significantly reduced alcohol drinking in rats, providing preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a dietary intervention in reducing alcohol intake. However, the functional framework and underlying neurobiological mechanisms of such dietary intervention are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of Int-HFD pre-exposure duration on alcohol drinking, plasma feeding peptides, and central neurotransmitter receptors gene expression. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6–7/group) received no pre-exposure, 1 or 2 weeks pre-exposure to Int-HFD and alcohol drinking (two-bottle choice) was evaluated. We observed HFD pre-exposure-dependent decrease in alcohol drinking, with a significant decrease observed following 2 weeks of Int-HFD pre-exposure. No significant between-group differences in plasma feeding peptides (i.e., ghrelin, leptin, insulin) were detected. A PCR array revealed that the expression of several neurotransmitter receptors was significantly (p < 0.05 and ≥2-fold) altered in the striatum and ventral tegmental area compared to controls. These data suggest that pre-exposure to a palatable diet is critical to reduce alcohol drinking in rats, possibly through genetic alterations in the brain reward circuitry. Importantly, the present study is a step forward in identifying the critical framework needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of nutritional contingency in the management of alcoholism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Micronutrient Powder Reduces Vitamin E Deficiency in Brazilian Children: A Pragmatic, Controlled Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112730 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Multiple micronutrient powder supplementation is a health promotion strategy, but data on its effectiveness regarding vitamin E are rare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of home fortification with powdered micronutrients on α-tocopherol concentrations, growth, and inflammation in Brazilian children aged 6–15 [...] Read more.
Multiple micronutrient powder supplementation is a health promotion strategy, but data on its effectiveness regarding vitamin E are rare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of home fortification with powdered micronutrients on α-tocopherol concentrations, growth, and inflammation in Brazilian children aged 6–15 months. This is a pragmatic, controlled clinical trial, in which the intervention group received micronutrient powder sachets for up to 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency was considered when α-tocopherol was less than 11.6 µmol/L. The Poisson regression model was used to estimate adjusted values for prevalence ratios (PR) for the outcome variable. A total of 224 children participated in the study. The intervention group had a higher median α-tocopherol level (17.2 versus 3.6 µmol/L; p < 0.001) and an 82.0% reduction in the prevalence of vitamin deficiency (PR = 0.18; 95% CI 0.11–0.30) when compared with the control group. Consumption of multiple micronutrients in powder increases serum α-tocopherol concentrations, promotes better linear growth, and reduces morbidity in children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Postnatal Systemic Steroids on the Growth of Preterm Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112729 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Postnatal steroids, often used to prevent and treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia, may influence the growth of preterm infants, although data are scarce in the literature. This is a multicenter cohort study including surviving preterm infants <32 weeks at birth (n = 17,621) from [...] Read more.
Postnatal steroids, often used to prevent and treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia, may influence the growth of preterm infants, although data are scarce in the literature. This is a multicenter cohort study including surviving preterm infants <32 weeks at birth (n = 17,621) from the Spanish Neonatal Network SEN1500 database, without major congenital malformations. Linear regression models were adjusted for postnatal steroids, respiratory severity course (invasive mechanical ventilation at 28 days), progression to moderate–severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (O2 at 36 weeks), length of stay, sex, gestational age and z-scores at birth. A subgroup analysis depending on the timing of administration, ventilation status at 28 days and moderate–severe BPD diagnosis was also performed. Overall, systemic postnatal steroids were not independently associated with poorer weight gain (0.1; 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.2 g/kg/day), linear growth (0; 95% CI: −0.03 to 0.01 cm/week) or head circumference growth (−0.01; 95% CI: −0.02 to 0 cm/week). Patients who received steroids after 28 days or who were not O2 dependent at 36 weeks after having received steroids gained more weight (0.22; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.4 and 0.2; 95% CI: 0.004 to 0.5 g/kg/day, respectively). Globally, systemic postnatal steroids had no significant adjusted effect on postnatal growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Childhood Disability and Nutrition: Findings from a Population-Based Case Control Study in Rural Bangladesh
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112728 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Evidence regarding the complex relationship between childhood disability and malnutrition is limited in low and middle income countries. We aimed to measure the association between childhood disability and malnutrition in rural Bangladesh. Method: We conducted a population-based case control study among children [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence regarding the complex relationship between childhood disability and malnutrition is limited in low and middle income countries. We aimed to measure the association between childhood disability and malnutrition in rural Bangladesh. Method: We conducted a population-based case control study among children aged <18 years in a rural sub-district (i.e., Shahjadpur) in Bangladesh. Children with permanent disability (i.e., Cases) and their age/sex-matched peers (i.e., Controls) were identified from the local community utilizing the key informant method. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, and educational information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Only Cases underwent detailed medical assessment for clinical and rehabilitation information. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: Between October 2017 and February 2018, 1274 Cases and 1303 Controls were assessed. Cases had 6.6 times and 11.8 times higher odds of being severely underweight and severely stunted respectively than Controls. Although epileptic children had the highest overall prevalence of malnutrition, the age/sex-adjusted odds of malnutrition were significantly higher among children with physical impairments. Underweight and/or stunting among children with disability was significantly associated with parental educational qualification, socioeconomic status and mainstream school attendance. Conclusion: The significantly high proportion of severe malnutrition among children with disability calls for urgent action and implementation of inclusive nutrition intervention programs in rural Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Palsy and Nutrition—A Global Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status Among Male Late Adolescents Living in Southern Switzerland: Role of Body Composition and Lifestyle
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112727 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Poor vitamin D status is a worldwide health problem. Yet, knowledge about vitamin D status among adolescents in Southern Europe is limited. This study investigated concentrations and modulating factors of vitamin D in a healthy population of male late adolescents living in [...] Read more.
Background: Poor vitamin D status is a worldwide health problem. Yet, knowledge about vitamin D status among adolescents in Southern Europe is limited. This study investigated concentrations and modulating factors of vitamin D in a healthy population of male late adolescents living in Southern Switzerland. Methods: All apparently healthy subjects attending for the medical evaluation before the compulsory military service in Southern Switzerland during 2014-2016 were eligible. Dark-skin subjects, subjects on vitamin D supplementation or managed with diseases or drugs involved in vitamin D metabolism were excluded. Anthropometric measurements (body height, weight, fat percentage, mid-upper arm and waist circumference) and blood sampling for total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, total cholesterol and ferritin concentrations testing, were collected. Participants filled in a structured questionnaire addressing their lifestyle. Characteristics of the subjects with adequate (≥50 nmol/L–≤250 nmol/L) and insufficient (<50 nmol/L) vitamin D values were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test or χ2 test. Odds ratios for 25-hydroxy-vitamin D insufficiency were calculated by univariate and AIC-selected multiple logistic regression models. Results: A total of 1045 subjects volunteered to participate in the study. Insufficient concentrations of vitamin D were detected in 184 (17%). The season of measurement was the most significant factor associated with vitamin D levels and approximately 40% of subjects presented insufficient vitamin D concentrations in winter. After model selection, body fat percentage, frequency and site of recreational physical activity, and the seasonality were significantly associated with the risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Conclusions: Among healthy male late adolescents in Southern Switzerland, about one every fourth subject presents a poor vitamin D status in non-summer seasons. Body fat percentage, frequent and outdoor recreational physical activity are modulating factors of vitamin D status in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Obesity Does Not Modulate the Glycometabolic Benefit of Insoluble Cereal Fibre in Subjects with Prediabetes—A Stratified Post Hoc Analysis of the Optimal Fibre Trial (OptiFiT)
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2726; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112726 (registering DOI) - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Obesity does not modulate the glycometabolic benefit of insoluble cereal fibre in subjects with prediabetes—a stratified post hoc analysis of the Optimal Fibre Trial (OptiFiT). Background: OptiFiT demonstrated the beneficial effect of insoluble oat fibres on dysglycemia in prediabetes. Recent analyses of OptiFiT [...] Read more.
Obesity does not modulate the glycometabolic benefit of insoluble cereal fibre in subjects with prediabetes—a stratified post hoc analysis of the Optimal Fibre Trial (OptiFiT). Background: OptiFiT demonstrated the beneficial effect of insoluble oat fibres on dysglycemia in prediabetes. Recent analyses of OptiFiT and other randomised controlled trials (RCTs) indicated that this effect might be specific for the subgroup of patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). As subjects with IFG are more often obese, there is a need to clarify if the effect modulation is actually driven by glycemic state or body mass index (BMI). Aim: We conducted a stratified post hoc analysis of OptiFiT based on the presence or absence of obesity. Methods: 180 Caucasian participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were randomised in a double-blinded fashion to either twice-a-day fibre or placebo supplementation for 2 years (n = 89 and 91, respectively). Once a year, they underwent fasting blood sampling, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) and full anthropometry. At baseline, out of 136 subjects who completed the first year of intervention, 87 (62%) were classified as OBESE (BMI >30) and 49 subjects were NONOBESE. We performed a stratified per-protocol analysis of the primary glycemic and secondary metabolic effects attributable to dietary fibre supplementation after 1 year of intervention. Results: Neither the NONOBESE nor the OBESE subgroup showed significant differences between the respective fibre and placebo groups in metabolic, anthropometric or inflammatory outcomes. None of the four subgroups showed a significant improvement in either fasting glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) after 1 year of intervention and only OBESE fibre subjects improved 2 h glucose. Within the NONOBESE stratum, there were no significant differences in the change of primary or secondary metabolic parameters between the fibre and placebo arms. We found a significant interaction effect for leukocyte count (time × supplement × obesity status). Within the OBESE stratum, leukocyte count and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels decreased more in the fibre group compared with placebo (adjusted for change in body weight). Comparison of both fibre groups revealed that OBESE subjects had a significantly stronger benefit with respect to leukocyte count and fasting C-peptide levels than NONOBESE participants. Only the effect on leukocyte count survived correction for multiple comparisons. In contrast, under placebo conditions, NONOBESE subjects managed to decrease their body fat content significantly more than OBESE ones. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis resulted in similar outcomes. Conclusions: The state of obesity does not relevantly modulate the beneficial effect of cereal fibre on major glycometabolic parameters by fibre supplementation, but leukocyte levels may be affected. Hence, BMI is not a suitable parameter to stratify this cohort with respect to diabetes risk or responsiveness to cereal fibre, but obesity needs to be accounted for when assessing anti-inflammatory effects of fibre treatments. Targeted diabetes prevention should focus on the actual metabolic state rather than on mere obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Microbial Phenolic Metabolites: Which Molecules Actually Have an Effect on Human Health?
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112725 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
The role of gut microbiota in human health has been investigated extensively in recent years. The association of dysbiosis, detrimental changes in the colonic population, with several health conditions has led to the development of pro-, pre- and symbiotic foods. If not absorbed [...] Read more.
The role of gut microbiota in human health has been investigated extensively in recent years. The association of dysbiosis, detrimental changes in the colonic population, with several health conditions has led to the development of pro-, pre- and symbiotic foods. If not absorbed in the small intestine or secreted in bile, polyphenols and other food components can reach the large intestine where they are susceptible to modification by the microbial population, resulting in molecules with potentially beneficial health effects. This review provides an overview of studies that have detected and/or quantified microbial phenolic metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography as the separation technique, followed by detection through mass spectrometry. Both in vitro experimental studies and human clinical trials are covered. Although many of the microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM) reported in in vitro studies were identified in human samples, further research is needed to associate them with clinical health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits)
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Open AccessArticle
Z-ajoene from Crushed Garlic Alleviates Cancer-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112724 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the major symptoms of cancer cachexia. Garlic (Allium sativum), one of the world’s most commonly used and versatile herbs, has been employed for the prevention and treatment of diverse diseases for centuries. In the present [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the major symptoms of cancer cachexia. Garlic (Allium sativum), one of the world’s most commonly used and versatile herbs, has been employed for the prevention and treatment of diverse diseases for centuries. In the present study, we found that ajoene, a sulfur compound found in crushed garlic, exhibits protective effects against muscle atrophy. Using CT26 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, we demonstrate in vivo that ajoene extract alleviated muscle degradation by decreasing not only myokines secretion but also janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) and SMADs/forkhead box (FoxO) signaling pathways, thereby suppressing muscle-specific E3 ligases. In mouse skeletal myoblasts, Z-ajoene enhanced myogenesis as evidenced by increased expression of myogenic markers via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. In mature myotubes, Z-ajoene protected against muscle protein degradation induced by conditioned media from CT26 colon carcinoma cells, by suppressing expression of muscle specific E3 ligases and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation which contribute to muscle atrophy. Moreover, Z-ajoene treatment improved myofiber formation via stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. These findings suggest that ajoene extract and Z-ajoene can attenuate skeletal muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia through suppressing inflammatory responses and the muscle wasting as well as by promoting muscle protein synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Caesarean Section and its Impact on Early Initiation of Breastfeeding in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112723 (registering DOI) - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the early initiation of breastfeeding. Research shows that factors such as mode of delivery may interfere with the early initiation of breastfeeding. However, data in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on these findings is limited. Thus, the [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the early initiation of breastfeeding. Research shows that factors such as mode of delivery may interfere with the early initiation of breastfeeding. However, data in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on these findings is limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of caesarean sections (CSs) and evaluate their effect on breastfeeding initiation among mothers of children under the age of two years in Abu Dhabi. Data were collected in clinical and non-clinical settings across various geographical areas in Abu Dhabi during 2017 using consent and structured questionnaires for interviews with mothers. Data analysis included both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the 1624 participants, one-third (30.2%) reportedly delivered by CS, of which 71.1% were planned, while 28.9% were emergency CS. More than half of all mothers (62.5%) initiated early breastfeeding. Multivariable logistic regression indicated factors that were associated positively with CS included advanced maternal age, nationality, and obesity. However, gestational age (GA) was negatively associated with CS. This study shows that the prevalence of CS is high in Abu Dhabi, UAE. CS is associated with lower early initiation rates of breastfeeding. The early initiation rates of breastfeeding were 804 (79.2%) 95% confidence interval (CI) (76.4, 82.0), 162 (16.0%) 95% CI (10.4, 21.6), and 49 (4.8%) 95% CI (1.2, 10.8) among vaginal delivery, planned CS, and emergency CS, respectively. Regarding the mode of delivery, vaginal were 2.78 (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR)): CI (95%), (2.17–3.56, p < 0.001) times more likely related to an early initiation of breastfeeding. CS in general, and emergency CS, was the main risk factor for the delayed initiation of breastfeeding. The study provides valuable information to develop appropriate strategies to reduce the CS rate in UAE. Maternal literacy on CS choices, the importance of breastfeeding for child health, and additional guidance for mothers and their families are necessary to achieve better breastfeeding outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding: Short and Long-Term Benefits to Baby and Mother)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Food Group Intake, Cognition, and Academic Achievement in Elementary Schoolchildren
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112722 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Nutrition plays an important role in proper physical and cognitive functioning. However, there is limited evidence on the relationship between overall diet, cognition, and academic success in children, particularly among low-income and diverse groups. The objective of this study was to examine the [...] Read more.
Nutrition plays an important role in proper physical and cognitive functioning. However, there is limited evidence on the relationship between overall diet, cognition, and academic success in children, particularly among low-income and diverse groups. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between healthful versus less healthful food group intake, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in a diverse sample of schoolchildren. 868 urban schoolchildren (age 8 to 10 years) participated in the study. Intake of healthful (fruits, vegetables, unsweetened beverages) and less healthful (sweet and salty snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages) food groups was determined via a food frequency questionnaire. Digit Span and Stroop test scores were used to assess cognitive performance. Academic achievement was assessed via standardized test scores. Multiple Poisson and multiple linear regression were used to test the associations between diet and cognitive scores. Multiple ordered logistic regression was used to assess the associations between diet and academic achievement. Potential confounders (age, sex, body mass index (BMI) z-score, race/ethnicity, English language learner status, individualized education plan enrollment, physical activity, and parent education level) were tested for inclusion in all models. The sample included 868 children (56.7% girls; 33.2% non-Hispanic white, 26.2% Hispanic, 17.1% multiracial/other, 8.3% non-Hispanic black; 40.5% overweight/obese). The most frequently consumed foods were fruits and sweet snacks (1.9 and 1.6 servings per day, respectively). There were no statistically significant associations between diet and cognitive test scores. Greater intake of less healthful food groups (sweet snacks, salty snacks, and sweetened beverages) was associated with lower math (OR = 0.91, CI [0.84, 0.98], p = 0.014) and English standardized test scores (OR = 0.87, CI [0.80, 0.94, p = 0.001). Greater intake of sweet snacks and fruits was associated with lower English scores (OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.59, 0.88] p = 0.001; and OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.72, 0.94] p = 0.003, respectively). Consumption of less healthful food groups was associated with poorer academic achievement. Further research may shed light on unexpected associations between fruit consumption and achievement. Policies targeting multiple dietary components may positively influence child academic achievement and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake, Brain Development and Learning)
Open AccessArticle
β2 Adrenergic Regulation of the Phagocytic and Microbicide Capacity of Macrophages from Obese and Lean Mice: Effects of Exercise
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112721 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Macrophages are crucial in the inflammation associated with obesity. Exercise is the main non-pharmacological strategy against obesity, not only for improving metabolic impairment, but also because of its anti-inflammatory effects, particularly those mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (β2-AR). Nevertheless, these anti-inflammatory effects could [...] Read more.
Macrophages are crucial in the inflammation associated with obesity. Exercise is the main non-pharmacological strategy against obesity, not only for improving metabolic impairment, but also because of its anti-inflammatory effects, particularly those mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (β2-AR). Nevertheless, these anti-inflammatory effects could immunocompromise the innate response against pathogen challenge. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of obesity, and of exercise in this condition, on the β2 adrenergic regulation of the innate function of macrophages. High fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the effects of acute and regular exercise on the phagocytic and microbicide capacities of peritoneal macrophages. Selective β2-AR agonist terbutaline (1 µM) decreased the phagocytic and microbicide activities of macrophages from control lean and obese sedentary animals. While acute exercise did not modify the inhibitory capacity of terbutaline, regular exercise abolished this inhibitory effect. These effects cannot be explained only by changes in the surface expression of β2-AR. In conclusion, (1) obesity does not alter the β2-AR-mediated decrease of the innate response of macrophages and (2) regular exercise can revert the inhibitory effect of terbutaline on the phagocytic activity of macrophages, although obesity seems to hinder this immunophysiological adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Lentinus edodes Exposure before and after Fetus Implantation: Materno-Fetal Development in Rats with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112720 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: The presence of β-glucans and phenolic compounds in Lentinus edodes suggests this mushroom can be used as a nutritional supplement. Two gestational conditions (before and after fetus implantation) were evaluated, and Lentinus edodes exposure was performed in diabetes mellitus rat model induced [...] Read more.
Background: The presence of β-glucans and phenolic compounds in Lentinus edodes suggests this mushroom can be used as a nutritional supplement. Two gestational conditions (before and after fetus implantation) were evaluated, and Lentinus edodes exposure was performed in diabetes mellitus rat model induced by streptozotocin in pre-clinical tests. Methods: On the 20th day of pregnancy, cesarean sections were performed. Blood was collected for biochemical, hematologic parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. Placenta and amniotic fluid were collected, and fetuses were analyzed through morphological evaluation. Results: The mushroom did not reduce the severe hyperglycemia of the mother-concept but promoted an increase in maternal insulin levels; reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and total cholesterol; protected the animals from post-implantation losses. Liver damage induced by streptozotocin was reversed in experimental groups. Conclusions: Lentinus edodes mushroom has antioxidant properties that can minimize the damage caused by gestational diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Mushrooms or Mushroom Extracts to Enhance Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Antioxidants and Sensory Properties of Italian Chocolates and Related Ingredients Under Controlled Conditions During an Eighteen-Month Storage Period
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112719 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: While there has been an increasing interest in the health properties of chocolate, limited research has looked into the changes of antioxidants occurring in the time span from production to the best before date, which was a period of 18 months in [...] Read more.
Background: While there has been an increasing interest in the health properties of chocolate, limited research has looked into the changes of antioxidants occurring in the time span from production to the best before date, which was a period of 18 months in this study. Methods: Humidity, ash, pH, acidity, fiber, carotenoids, retinols, tocopherols, sugars, proteins, theobromine, caffeine, polyphenols, fats, the peroxide value, organic acids, and volatile compounds, along with the sensory profile, were monitored at 18-week intervals for 18 months under conditions simulating a factory warehouse or a point of sale. Results: At the end of the storage period, more polyphenols were lost (64% and 87%) than vitamin E (5% and 14%) in cocoa mass and cocoa powder, respectively. Conversely, a greater loss in vitamin E (34% and 86%) than in polyphenols (19% and 47%) was shown in the hazelnut paste and gianduja chocolate, respectively. The sensory profiling of cocoa mass, cocoa powder, and hazelnut paste revealed increases in grittiness and astringency, as well as decreases in melting, bitterness, and toasted aroma. Moreover, in the hazelnut paste and gianduja chocolate, oiliness increased with a toasted and caramel aroma. Furthermore, dark chocolate was more gritty, acidic, and bitter. Milk chocolate lost its nutty aroma but maintained its sweetness and creaminess. Conclusions: These results should contribute an important reference for companies and consumers, in order to preserve the antioxidants and understand how antioxidants and sensory properties change from the date of production until the best before date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus acidophilus-Fermented Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Preneoplastic Lesions of the Colon in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112718 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a cancer associated with chronic inflammation. Whole grains and probiotics play a protective role against CRC. Fermented grains are receiving increased attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Our previous study found that a combination of germinated brown [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a cancer associated with chronic inflammation. Whole grains and probiotics play a protective role against CRC. Fermented grains are receiving increased attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Our previous study found that a combination of germinated brown rice (GBR) with probiotics suppressed colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. However, the cancer-preventive effect of probiotic-fermented GBR has not been reported. This study investigated the preventive effect and possible mechanism of GBR fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus (FGBR) on colorectal carcinogenesis in rats induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). DMH/DSS treatment induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, as well as decreased pro-apoptotic Bax expression. GBR and FGBR reduced the primary ACF number and decreased TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels. GBR and FGBR at the 2.5% level increased pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 and decreased anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expressions. FGBR at the 2.5% level further reduced the number of sialomucin-producing ACF (SIM-ACF) and increased Bax expression. These results suggest that FGBR may inhibit preneoplastic lesions of the colon via activating the apoptotic pathway. This fermented rice product may have the potential to be developed as a novel dietary supplement for CRC chemoprevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Fermentation)
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Open AccessReview
Low Calorie Sweeteners Differ in Their Physiological Effects in Humans
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112717 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Low calorie sweeteners (LCS) are prevalent in the food supply for their primary functional property of providing sweetness with little or no energy. Though tested for safety individually, there has been extremely limited work on the efficacy of each LCS. It is commonly [...] Read more.
Low calorie sweeteners (LCS) are prevalent in the food supply for their primary functional property of providing sweetness with little or no energy. Though tested for safety individually, there has been extremely limited work on the efficacy of each LCS. It is commonly assumed all LCS act similarly in their behavioral and physiological effects. However, each LCS has its own chemical structure that influences its metabolism, making each LCS unique in its potential effects on body weight, energy intake, and appetite. LCS may have different behavioral and physiological effects mediated at the sweet taste receptor, in brain activation, with gut hormones, at the microbiota and on appetitive responses. Further elucidation of the unique effects of the different commercially available LCS may hold important implications for recommendations about their use for different health outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Osteoporotic Effects of Combined Extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex and Achyranthes japonica in Osteoblast and Osteoclast Cells and Ovariectomized Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112716 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density and quality with high risk of bone fracture. Here, we investigated anti-osteoporotic effects of natural plants (Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) and Achyranthes japonica (AJ)) in osteoblast and osteoclast cells in vitro and ovariectomized mice in [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density and quality with high risk of bone fracture. Here, we investigated anti-osteoporotic effects of natural plants (Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) and Achyranthes japonica (AJ)) in osteoblast and osteoclast cells in vitro and ovariectomized mice in vivo. Combined LRC and AJ enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone-forming osteoblasts by the up-regulation of bone metabolic markers (Alpl, Runx2 and Bglap) in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. However, LRC and AJ inhibited osteoclast differentiation of monocytes isolated from mouse bone marrow. In vivo experiments showed that treatment of LRC+AJ extract prevented OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and osteoclastogenesis in an osteoporotic animal model. These results suggest that LRC+AJ extract may be a good therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporotic bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Commercial Snack Food and Beverage Consumption Prevalence among Children 6–59 Months in West Africa
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112715 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Consumption of commercial snack food and beverage products among infants, young, and school-aged children may have negative effects on child nutritional outcomes, as these foods are typically dense in energy but not in micronutrients. However, there is limited information available about the consumption [...] Read more.
Consumption of commercial snack food and beverage products among infants, young, and school-aged children may have negative effects on child nutritional outcomes, as these foods are typically dense in energy but not in micronutrients. However, there is limited information available about the consumption of such snacks in low-income settings, particularly in Africa. We contribute to filling this gap using data from 11,537 children aged 6–59.9 months from four West African countries (i.e., Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, and Niger). We estimated the prevalence of commercial snack food and drink consumption and explored variations within the sample by age group, urban or rural residence, household wealth status, and caregiver educational attainment. The results show that 25.7% of children in Niger, 31.5% in Burkina Faso, 42.9% in Mali, and 45.4% in Cote d’Ivoire ate at least one commercial snack food or beverage in the prior 24 h. Consumption prevalence was significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas, among older children (ages 2–5 y) than those in the complementary feeding period (6–23.9 months), and among children in wealthier households. These relationships were confirmed via logistic regression. Our results confirm the widespread consumption of commercial snack foods and drinks by young children in West Africa, a finding with relevance for nutrition policy and programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snacking Behaviors and Weight Status)
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Open AccessReview
Undigested Food and Gut Microbiota May Cooperate in the Pathogenesis of Neuroinflammatory Diseases: A Matter of Barriers and a Proposal on the Origin of Organ Specificity
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112714 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
As food is an active subject and may have anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects, dietary habits may modulate the low-grade neuroinflammation associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Food is living matter different from us, but made of our own nature. Therefore, it is at the [...] Read more.
As food is an active subject and may have anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects, dietary habits may modulate the low-grade neuroinflammation associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Food is living matter different from us, but made of our own nature. Therefore, it is at the same time foreign to us (non-self), if not yet digested, and like us (self), after its complete digestion. To avoid the efflux of undigested food from the lumen, the intestinal barrier must remain intact. What and how much we eat shape the composition of gut microbiota. Gut dysbiosis, as a consequence of Western diets, leads to intestinal inflammation and a leaky intestinal barrier. The efflux of undigested food, microbes, endotoxins, as well as immune-competent cells and molecules, causes chronic systemic inflammation. Opening of the blood-brain barrier may trigger microglia and astrocytes and set up neuroinflammation. We suggest that what determines the organ specificity of the autoimmune-inflammatory process may depend on food antigens resembling proteins of the organ being attacked. This applies to the brain and neuroinflammatory diseases, as to other organs and other diseases, including cancer. Understanding the cooperation between microbiota and undigested food in inflammatory diseases may clarify organ specificity, allow the setting up of adequate experimental models of disease and develop targeted dietary interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency in the Rat Impairs Recognition Memory, but Has No Effect on Social Approach or Hedonia
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112713 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia. In rodents we show that DVD-deficiency alters brain development and produces behavioral phenotypes in the offspring of relevance to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aims of this study are to examine [...] Read more.
Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia. In rodents we show that DVD-deficiency alters brain development and produces behavioral phenotypes in the offspring of relevance to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aims of this study are to examine behavioral phenotypes specific to the cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in this model, and to vary the duration of vitamin D deficiency during gestation and beyond birth. We hypothesize that a longer duration of DVD-deficiency would result in greater behavioral impairments. Female vitamin D-deficient Sprague Dawley dams were mated at 10 weeks of age. Dietary vitamin D was reintroduced to dams and/or pups at different developmental time-points: Conception, Birth, Post-natal day (PND) 6 and PND21. Adult male and female offspring were assessed on a battery of behavioral tests, including sucrose preference, open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social approach and social novelty. We find that all windows of DVD-deficiency impaired NOR a cognitive measure that requires intact recognition memory. Sucrose consumption, social approach and social memory negative symptom-like phenotypes were unaffected by any maternal dietary manipulation. In addition, contrary to our hypothesis, we find that rats in the Conception group, that is the shortest duration of vitamin D deficiency, demonstrate increased locomotor activity, and decreased interaction time with novel objects. These findings have implications for the increasing number of studies examining the preclinical consequences of maternal vitamin D deficiency, and continue to suggest that adequate levels of maternal vitamin D are required for normal brain development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
Open AccessReview
Plant-Based Diets in the Reduction of Body Fat: Physiological Effects and Biochemical Insights
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112712 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Obesity affects over one-third of Americans and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Interventional trials have consistently demonstrated that consumption of plant-based diets reduces body fat in overweight and obese subjects, even when controlling for energy intake. Nonetheless, the [...] Read more.
Obesity affects over one-third of Americans and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Interventional trials have consistently demonstrated that consumption of plant-based diets reduces body fat in overweight and obese subjects, even when controlling for energy intake. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been well-defined. This review discusses six major dietary mechanisms that may lead to reduced body fat. These include (1) reduced caloric density, (2) improved gut microbiota symbiosis, (3) increased insulin sensitivity, (4) reduced trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), (5) activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and (6) over-expression of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. Collectively, these factors improve satiety and increase energy expenditure leading to reduced body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian, Vegan Diets and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome per the New International Evidence-Based Guideline
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112711 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Lifestyle modifications are recommended as first-line therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, usual dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors of women with PCOS remain uncertain, likely owing to controversy in diagnostic criteria. Our objective was to contrast the usual dietary and PA [...] Read more.
Lifestyle modifications are recommended as first-line therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, usual dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors of women with PCOS remain uncertain, likely owing to controversy in diagnostic criteria. Our objective was to contrast the usual dietary and PA behaviors of women with PCOS (n = 80) diagnosed by the 2018 International Evidence-based Guideline for the Assessment and Management of PCOS to that of controls (n = 44). Study outcomes were dietary intake, diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015), and PA (questionnaire, waist-worn accelerometers). Women with PCOS met the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, but did not meet the recommended dietary reference intakes for vitamin D (mean (95% confidence interval); 6 (5–7) μg/d), vitamin B9 (275 (252–298) μg/d), total fiber (24 (22–26) g/d), or sodium (4.0 (3.6–4.4) g/d). Women with PCOS also met the US recommendations for PA. No differences were detected in dietary intake, diet quality, or PA levels between groups (p ≥ 0.11). In conclusion, women with and without PCOS have comparable dietary and PA behaviors. A lack of unique targets for dietary or PA interventions supports the position of the new guideline to foster healthy lifestyle recommendations for the management of PCOS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potato-Resistant Starch Supplementation Improves Microbiota Dysbiosis, Inflammation, and Gut–Brain Signaling in High Fat-Fed Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112710 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
(1) High-fat (HF) diet leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis which is associated with systemic inflammation. Bacterial-driven inflammation is sufficient to alter vagally mediated satiety and induce hyperphagia. Promoting bacterial fermentation improves gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial barrier function and reduces inflammation. Resistant starch escape digestion [...] Read more.
(1) High-fat (HF) diet leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis which is associated with systemic inflammation. Bacterial-driven inflammation is sufficient to alter vagally mediated satiety and induce hyperphagia. Promoting bacterial fermentation improves gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial barrier function and reduces inflammation. Resistant starch escape digestion and can be fermented by bacteria in the distal gut. Therefore, we hypothesized that potato RS supplementation in HF-fed rats would lead to compositional changes in microbiota composition associated with improved inflammatory status and vagal signaling. (2) Male Wistar rats (n = 8/group) were fed a low-fat chow (LF, 13% fat), HF (45% fat), or an isocaloric HF supplemented with 12% potato RS (HFRS) diet. (3) The HFRS-fed rats consumed significantly less energy than HF animals throughout the experiment. Systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis were improved in the HFRS compared to HF rats. Cholecystokinin-induced satiety was abolished in HF-fed rats and restored in HFRS rats. HF feeding led to a significant decrease in positive c fiber staining in the brainstem which was averted by RS supplementation. (4) The RS supplementation prevented dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Additionally, microbiota manipulation via dietary potato RS prevented HF-diet-induced reorganization of vagal afferent fibers, loss in CCK-induced satiety, and hyperphagia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Compounds Impact on Human Gut Microbiome and Gut Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Oxidative Stress and Enhanced FGF21 Formation in Livers of Endurance-Exercised Rats with Diet-Induced NASH
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112709 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) including the severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent ailments to which no approved pharmacological treatment exists. Dietary intervention aiming at 10% weight reduction is efficient but fails due to low compliance. Increase in physical activity is [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) including the severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent ailments to which no approved pharmacological treatment exists. Dietary intervention aiming at 10% weight reduction is efficient but fails due to low compliance. Increase in physical activity is an alternative that improved NAFLD even in the absence of weight reduction. The underlying mechanisms are unclear and cannot be studied in humans. Here, a rat NAFLD model was developed that reproduces many facets of the diet-induced NAFLD in humans. The impact of endurance exercise was studied in this model. Male Wistar rats received control chow or a NASH-inducing diet rich in fat, cholesterol, and fructose. Both diet groups were subdivided into a sedentary and an endurance exercise group. Animals receiving the NASH-inducing diet gained more body weight, got glucose intolerant and developed a liver pathology with steatosis, hepatocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis typical of NAFLD or NASH. Contrary to expectations, endurance exercise did not improve the NASH activity score and even enhanced hepatic inflammation. However, endurance exercise attenuated the hepatic cholesterol overload and the ensuing severe oxidative stress. In addition, exercise improved glucose tolerance possibly in part by induction of hepatic FGF21 production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessCommunication
Effects of Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy and Lactation on the Endocrine Pancreas of the Offspring
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112708 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
The pancreas has an essential role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone with a blood glucose lowering effect in mammals. Several circulating molecules are able to positively or negatively influence insulin secretion. Among them, nutrients such as [...] Read more.
The pancreas has an essential role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone with a blood glucose lowering effect in mammals. Several circulating molecules are able to positively or negatively influence insulin secretion. Among them, nutrients such as fatty acids or amino acids can directly act on specific receptors present on pancreatic beta cells. Dietary intake, especially excessive nutrient intake, is known to modify energy balance in adults, resulting in pancreatic dysfunction. However, gestation and lactation are critical periods for fetal development and pup growth and specific dietary nutrients are required for optimal growth. Feeding alterations during these periods will impact offspring development and increase the risk of developing metabolic disorders in adulthood, leading to metabolic programming. This review will focus on the influence of nutrient intake during gestation and lactation periods on pancreas development and function in offspring, highlighting the molecular mechanism of imprinting on this organ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Intake on Pancreas)
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Open AccessArticle
The Timing of Water and Beverage Consumption During the Day Among Children and Adults in the United States: Analyses of NHANES 2011–2016 Data
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112707 (registering DOI) - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–20 recommend replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) with plain water in order to promote adequate hydration while reducing added sugar intake. This study explored how water intakes from water, beverages, and foods are distributed across the day. The dietary [...] Read more.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–20 recommend replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) with plain water in order to promote adequate hydration while reducing added sugar intake. This study explored how water intakes from water, beverages, and foods are distributed across the day. The dietary intake data for 7453 children (4–18 y) and 15,263 adults (>19 y) came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2011–2016). Water was categorized as tap or bottled. Beverages were assigned to 15 categories. Water intakes (in mL/d) from water, beverages, and food moisture showed significant differences by age group, meal occasion, and time of day. Plain water was consumed in the morning, mostly in the course of a morning snack and between 06:00 and 12:00. Milk and juices were consumed at breakfast whereas SSBs were mostly consumed at lunch, dinner, and in the afternoon. Children consumed milk and juices, mostly in the morning. Adults consumed coffee and tea in the morning, SSBs in the afternoon, and alcohol in the evening. Relatively little drinking water was consumed with lunch or after 21:00. Dietary strategies to replace caloric beverages with plain water need to build on existing drinking habits by age group and meal type. Full article
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