Special Issue "Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition Methodology & Assessment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
Website
Guest Editor
Professor of Nutrition and Food Science, CEU San Pablo University (Madrid, Spain); President of the Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN)
Interests: folates; hearing; aging; dietary surveys; nutritional status
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Angel Gil
Website
Guest Editor
CIBER: Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Childhood and adolescence are very sensitive periods for the onset and manifestation of lifestyle and health, including diet and physical activity behaviours. Toddlers and pre-school children are growing rapidly and are active, so their energy requirements are high relative to their body size. Pre-school children need nutrient-dense foods to support healthy growth and development. A healthy family approach to diet and lifestyle should be a key factor, along with school food and other daily intakes (e.g., breakfast). Food preferences are often established during this early stage of life. Children and teenagers experience many physical and lifestyle changes that may lead to adequate habits but also to eating disorders and feeding errors. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of information on these issues in relation to the pediatric population. Moreover, risk factors and diseases (obesity, diabetes) are increasing in prevalence among this population.
This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population ", welcomes the submission of original research, but also narrative and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. 

Prof. Dr. Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
Dr. Angel Gil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Early healthy diet
  • Dietary surveys in infancy and adolescence
  • Lifestyles in infancy and adolescence
  • Early prevention of chronic diseases

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
The Nutritional Impact of Milk Beverages in Reducing Nutrient Inadequacy among Children Aged One to Five Years in the Philippines: A Dietary Modelling Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113330 - 29 Oct 2020
Abstract
Around half of Filipino children are not consuming any dairy products on a given day, which has shown to be associated with increased risk of inadequate nutrient intakes. The current study applies dietary modelling to assess the nutritional impact of meeting dairy recommendations [...] Read more.
Around half of Filipino children are not consuming any dairy products on a given day, which has shown to be associated with increased risk of inadequate nutrient intakes. The current study applies dietary modelling to assess the nutritional impact of meeting dairy recommendations in reducing nutrient inadequacy in children aged one to five years in the Philippines. Dietary intake data of Filipino children aged one to five years (n = 3864) were analyzed from the 8th National Nutrition Survey 2013. Children who did not meet national dairy recommendations were identified. Two scenarios were applied, based on two types of commonly consumed milk products by the survey participants. In scenario one, one serving of powdered milk was added to the diet of these children. In scenario two, one serving of a young children milk (YCM) or preschool children milk (PCM) was added to the diet of children aged one to two years and three to five years, respectively. Mean nutrient intakes and percentages of children with inadequate intakes were estimated before and after applying modelling scenarios. Scenario one demonstrated improvement in calcium, phosphorus, sodium, vitamin A and riboflavin intakes, while in scenario two, further improvement of intakes of a wider range of nutrients including iron, selenium, zinc, magnesium, potassium, vitamins C, D, E, thiamin, niacin, vitamins B6, and B12 was observed. In both scenarios, if all children would meet their dairy recommendations, theoretical reductions in population nutrient inadequacy would be observed for all micronutrients, for example, only 20% of children aged one to two years would be inadequate in vitamin A instead of the current 60%, iron inadequacy would see a 5% reduction, and approximately 10% reduction for calcium and 20% reduction for folate. The present study is the first to apply dietary modelling to assess the theoretical impact of meeting dairy recommendations on nutrient inadequacy in children in the Philippines. Dairy consumption should be encouraged as part of the strategy to reduce nutrient inadequacies. Calcium, iron, vitamins D, E, and folate are of concern in the Philippines as the level of inadequacies are extremely high in early years, YCM and PCM can help increase the intake of these nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Open AccessArticle
Carbohydrates, Starch, Total Sugar, Fiber Intakes and Food Sources in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years—Results from the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103171 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
Diet quality is a modifiable factor that may contribute to the onset of diet-related chronic diseases. Currently, in Spain there are no studies that examine the intakes and sources for total carbohydrates, starch, total sugar, and fiber by both children consuming all kind [...] Read more.
Diet quality is a modifiable factor that may contribute to the onset of diet-related chronic diseases. Currently, in Spain there are no studies that examine the intakes and sources for total carbohydrates, starch, total sugar, and fiber by both children consuming all kind of milks and children regularly consuming adapted milk formulas. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of different food groups to total carbohydrates, starch, total sugar, and fiber consumption within the EsNuPI study participants by assessing their usual intakes by applying two 24 h dietary recalls that were completed by 1448 children (1 to <10 years) divided into two cohorts: one Spanish Reference Cohort (SRS) of the general population (n = 707) and another cohort which included children consuming adapted milks including follow-on milk, toddler’s or growing up milk, fortified and enriched milks, here called Adapted Milk Consumers Cohort” (AMS) (n = 741). Estimation of the usual intake showed that nutrient intake increased with age for all nutrients except for fiber. The percentage of children by age and gender who met the reference intake (RI) range for total carbohydrates, was in all groups more than 50% of individuals, except for girls aged 6 to <10 years from the reference cohort in which only 46.9% complied the RI. Median fiber intake, both in the SRS and the AMS, was well below the adequate intake (AI) for children between 3 and 10 years. Main total carbohydrates sources were cereals, followed by milk and dairy products, fruits, bakery and pastry, vegetables and sugars and sweets. The highest contributors to starch intakes were cereals, bakery and pastry, vegetables, and fruits. Major sources of total sugar intakes were milk and dairy products, fruits, bakery and pastry, sugars and sweets, vegetables, and cereals. Nonetheless, milk and dairy products, and fruits, mainly provided lactose and fructose, respectively, which are not considered free sugars. Higher contribution to fiber intakes was provided by fruits, cereals, vegetables and bakery and pastry. There were no significant differences in relation with the total sugar intake according to the body mass index (BMI) between SRS and AMS. The present study suggests a high proportion of children had total carbohydrates intakes in line with recommendations by public health authorities, but still a significant number presented insufficient total carbohydrate and fiber intakes, while total sugar consumption was high, with no major differences between SRS and AMS cohorts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Community-Based Interventions Programs in Childhood Obesity Prevention in a Spanish Population According to Different Socioeconomic School Settings
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092680 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
Overweight and obesity amongst childhood are currently global health issues. However, this is the best stage of life to prevent diseases and to promote healthy habits. In our study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the THAO Salud Infantil, a community-based intervention program, by [...] Read more.
Overweight and obesity amongst childhood are currently global health issues. However, this is the best stage of life to prevent diseases and to promote healthy habits. In our study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the THAO Salud Infantil, a community-based intervention program, by means of a cross-sectional study carried out from 2009 to 2019 surveying children aged 3 to 12 years old (n = 27,686). During the study timeframe, overweight and obesity prevalence, according to both the International Obesity Task Force and Orbegozo Foundation criteria, showed a downward trend. Differences in the anthropometric variables were observed from the beginning to the end of the study, mainly in girls. Analysis of the influence of the socioeconomic status revealed that children from families with lower incomes are in greater risk of suffering from overweight and obesity and showed lower effectiveness of the actions proposed by the program. The overall results of the study confirmed the effectiveness of community-based interventions in terms of childhood overweight/obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Nursery-Based Cooking Skills Programme with Parents and Children Reduced Food Fussiness and Increased Willingness to Try Vegetables: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092623 - 28 Aug 2020
Abstract
Children’s fussy eating is associated with a reduced vegetable intake. This quasi-experimental study evaluated “Big Chef Little Chef” (BCLC), a nursery-based cooking skills programme aimed at reducing food fussiness and increasing willingness to try green vegetables by incorporating repeated exposure and sensory learning. [...] Read more.
Children’s fussy eating is associated with a reduced vegetable intake. This quasi-experimental study evaluated “Big Chef Little Chef” (BCLC), a nursery-based cooking skills programme aimed at reducing food fussiness and increasing willingness to try green vegetables by incorporating repeated exposure and sensory learning. Parent and child (3–5 years) dyads attended BCLC for four/1.5 h weekly sessions. A comparison group was recruited after BCLC completion and attended a single education session at week 1. A questionnaire measured food fussiness at week 1 and week 4. At week 4, all children were offered six green vegetables (raw and cooked) and an average score (1 = did not try; 2 = tried it/ate some; 3 = ate it all) was calculated for willingness to try vegetables. In total, 121 dyads (intervention: n = 64; comparison: n = 57) participated. The food fussiness score (1 min–5 max) in the intervention group decreased significantly from 3.0 to 2.6 (p < 0.01) between time points, while there was no change in the comparison group (3.1 (week 1) and 3.0 (week 4)). The intervention group was more willing to try green vegetables with significantly higher (p < 0.001) median scores for raw and cooked vegetables (2.5 for both) compared with the comparison group (2.0 and 1.7, respectively). The BCLC reduced food fussiness and increased willingness to try green vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Complex and Slow Digestive Carbohydrates Prevent Fat Deposits During Catch-Up Growth in Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092568 - 25 Aug 2020
Abstract
A nutritional growth retardation study, which closely resembles the nutritional observations in children who consumed insufficient total energy to maintain normal growth, was conducted. In this study, a nutritional stress in weanling rats placed on restricted balanced diet for 4 weeks is produced, [...] Read more.
A nutritional growth retardation study, which closely resembles the nutritional observations in children who consumed insufficient total energy to maintain normal growth, was conducted. In this study, a nutritional stress in weanling rats placed on restricted balanced diet for 4 weeks is produced, followed by a food recovery period of 4 weeks using two enriched diets that differ mainly in the slow (SDC) or fast (RDC) digestibility and complexity of their carbohydrates. After re-feeding with the RDC diet, animals showed the negative effects of an early caloric restriction: an increase in adiposity combined with poorer muscle performance, insulin resistance and, metabolic inflexibility. These effects were avoided by the SDC diet, as was evidenced by a lower adiposity associated with a decrease in fatty acid synthase expression in adipose tissue. The improved muscle performance of the SDC group was based on an increase in myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) and creatine kinase as markers of muscle differentiation as well as better insulin sensitivity, enhanced glucose uptake, and increased metabolic flexibility. In the liver, the SDC diet promoted glycogen storage and decreased fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, the SDC diet prevents the catch-up fat phenotype through synergistic metabolic adaptations in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver. These coordinated adaptations lead to better muscle performance and a decrease in the fat/lean ratio in animals, which could prevent long-term negative metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and liver fat deposits later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Clustering of Dietary Patterns and Lifestyles Among Spanish Children in the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092536 - 21 Aug 2020
Abstract
Dietary patterns (DPs) are known to be tied to lifestyle behaviors. Understanding DPs and their relationships with lifestyle factors can help to prevent children from engaging in unhealthy dietary practices. We aimed to describe DPs in Spanish children aged 1 to <10 years [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns (DPs) are known to be tied to lifestyle behaviors. Understanding DPs and their relationships with lifestyle factors can help to prevent children from engaging in unhealthy dietary practices. We aimed to describe DPs in Spanish children aged 1 to <10 years and to examine their associations with sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. The consumption of toddler and young children milk formulas, enriched and fortified milk within the Spanish pediatric population is increasing, and there is a lack of evidence whether the consumption of this type of milk is causing an impact on nutrient intakes and if they are helping to reach the nutrient recommendations. Within the Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population (EsNuPI), we considered two study cohorts and three different age groups in three year-intervals in each of them. The study cohort included 740 children in a representative sample of the urban non-vegan Spanish population and 772 children in a convenience cohort of adapted milk consumers (AMS) (including follow-on formula, toddler’s milk, growing up milk, and fortified and enriched milks) who provided information about sociodemographics, lifestyle, and dietary habits; a food frequency questionnaire was used for the latter. Principal component analysis was performed to identify DPs from 18 food groups. Food groups and sociodemographic/lifestyle variables were combined through a hierarchical cluster algorithm. Three DPs predominated in every age group and study sample: a palatable energy-dense food dietary pattern, and two Mediterranean-like DPs. However, children from the AMS showed a predominant dietary pattern markedly related to the Mediterranean diet, with high consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and dairy products. The age of children and certain lifestyle factors, namely level of physical activity, parental education, and household income, correlated closely with the dietary clusters. Thus, the findings provide insight into designing lifestyle interventions that could reverse the appearance of unhealthy DPs in the Spanish child population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Total Fat and Fatty Acids, and Relationships with Personal and Family Factors in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years: Results of the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082467 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
We aimed to determine the usual intake of total fat, fatty acids (FAs), and their main food sources in a representative cohort of the Spanish pediatric population aged 1 to <10 years (n = 707) who consumed all types of milk and [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the usual intake of total fat, fatty acids (FAs), and their main food sources in a representative cohort of the Spanish pediatric population aged 1 to <10 years (n = 707) who consumed all types of milk and an age-matched cohort who consumed adapted milk over the last year (including follow-on formula, toddler’s milk, growing-up milk, and fortified and enriched milks) (n = 741) who were participants in the EsNuPI study (in English, Nutritional Study in the Spanish Pediatric Population). Dietary intake, measured through two 24 h dietary recalls, was compared to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN-FAO) recommendations. Both cohorts showed a high intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), according to FAO recommendations, as there are no numerical recommendations for SFAs at EFSA. Also, low intake of essential fatty acids (EFAs; linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA)) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) of the n-3 series, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were observed according to EFSA and FAO recommendations. The three main sources of total fat and different FAs were milk and dairy products, oils and fats, and meat and meat products. The consumption of adapted milk was one of the main factors associated with better adherence to the nutritional recommendations of total fat, SFAs, EFAs, PUFAs; and resulted as the main factor associated with better adherence to n-3 fatty acids intake recommendations. Knowledge of the dietary intake and food sources of total fat and FAs in children could help in designing and promoting effective and practical age-targeted guidelines to promote the consumption of EFA- and n-3 PUFA-rich foods in this stage of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dietary Knowledge, Dietary Adherence, and BMI of Lebanese Adolescents and Their Parents
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082398 - 11 Aug 2020
Abstract
Paediatric obesity is a severe public health problem accompanied by several physical and mental complications, mainly due to an imbalance between energy input and output. Dietary behaviours are influenced by many demographic factors and determinants, such as the place of residence and the [...] Read more.
Paediatric obesity is a severe public health problem accompanied by several physical and mental complications, mainly due to an imbalance between energy input and output. Dietary behaviours are influenced by many demographic factors and determinants, such as the place of residence and the level of dietary knowledge of the children and their parents. The aim of the current paper is to assess the levels of dietary knowledge, dietary adherence (in relation to recommendations), and the body mass index (BMI) of Lebanese adolescents in association with demographic variables, their parents’ dietary knowledge and adherence levels, and with other lifestyle behaviours. This cross-sectional study included 1535 Lebanese adolescents aged 15 to 18 years, from 16 public and private high schools located in urban and rural regions, and 317 of their parents. Our results showed that 30.2% of the adolescents were overweight or obese. Participants enrolled in private schools and those living in urban regions had a significantly higher BMI z-score compared to those enrolled in public schools and living in rural regions, respectively. In addition, Lebanese adolescents generally had low levels of dietary knowledge and 32.4% had low levels of dietary adherence. Their dietary adherence was significantly associated with their parents’ dietary adherence. The findings underline the significant role of the parents in shaping their children’s eating behaviours, in addition to the other determinants and factors affecting the diet of Lebanese adolescents. As the prevalence of paediatric overweight and obesity has reached alarming rates, the results of the current study have important implications for both public health policies and obesity prevention interventions in the Middle East and worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Open AccessArticle
Are Sugar-Reduced and Whole Grain Infant Cereals Sensorially Accepted at Weaning? A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061883 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
The way infants are fed during the complementary period can have a significant impact on infants’ health and development. Infant cereals play an important role in complementary feeding in many countries. In spite of well documented benefits of a low sugar and high [...] Read more.
The way infants are fed during the complementary period can have a significant impact on infants’ health and development. Infant cereals play an important role in complementary feeding in many countries. In spite of well documented benefits of a low sugar and high whole grain diet, commercial infant cereals are often refined and contain a high amount of sugars. The aim of the present study was to compare the sensory acceptability, gastrointestinal tolerance and bowel habits of two commercially available infant cereals in Spain with varying sugar and whole grain contents in infants at weaning. Forty-six healthy infants (mean age = 5.2 ± 0.4 months) received one of the two infant cereals containing either 0% whole grain flour and a high sugar content produced by starch hydrolysis (24 g/100 g) (Cereal A) or 50% whole grain flour and a medium-sugar content produced by hydrolysis (12 g/100 g) (Cereal B) in a randomized, triple blind, cross-over controlled trial. Both types of infant cereals were consumed for seven weeks. The cross-over was carried out after seven weeks. Sensory acceptability, anthropometry, gastrointestinal tolerance and adverse events were measured, and results evaluated using a linear regression model. No significant differences were observed between groups in any of the main variables analyzed. Importantly, the long-term health implications of our findings represent a wake-up call for the food industry to reduce or even eliminate simple sugars in infant cereals and for regulatory bodies and professional organizations to recommend whole grain infant cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Usual Dietary Intake, Nutritional Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years. Findings from the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061787 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bone problems in the population begin to be establish in childhood. The present study aims to assess the usual calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D intakes, along with the food sources of these nutrients, in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (Estudio Nutricional [...] Read more.
Bone problems in the population begin to be establish in childhood. The present study aims to assess the usual calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D intakes, along with the food sources of these nutrients, in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española) study. Two 24 h dietary recalls were applied to 1448 children (1 to <10 years) divided into two sub-samples: one reference sample (RS) of the general population [n = 707] and another sample which exclusively included children consuming enriched or fortified milks, here called “adapted milks” (AMS) [n = 741]. Estimation of the usual intake shows that nutrient intake increased with age for all nutrients except vitamin D. Using as reference the Dietary Reference Values from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), calcium and magnesium intakes were found to be below the average requirement (AR) and adequate intake (AI), respectively, in a considerable percentage of children. Furthermore, phosphorus exceeded the AI in 100% of individuals and vitamin D was lower than the AI in almost all children studied. The results were very similar when considering only plausible reporters. When analyzing the food sources of the nutrients studied, milk and dairy products contributed the most to calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D. Other sources of calcium were cereals and vegetables; for phosphorus: meat, meat products, and cereals; for magnesium: cereals and fruits; and, for vitamin D: fish and eggs. These results highlight the desirability of improving the intake concerning these nutrients, which are involved in bone and metabolic health in children. The AMS group appeared to contribute better to the adequacy of those nutrients than the RS group, but both still need further improvement. Of special interest are the results of vitamin D intakes, which were significantly higher in the AMS group (although still below the AI), independent of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Cluster Analysis of Physical Activity Patterns, and Relationship with Sedentary Behavior and Healthy Lifestyles in Prepubertal Children: Genobox Cohort
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051288 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sedentary habits during childhood are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this work was to cluster lifestyle behaviors and metabolic biomarkers to establish different patterns in children. Their physical and sedentary activities were evaluated by accelerometry, and questionnaires that included lifestyle [...] Read more.
Sedentary habits during childhood are associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this work was to cluster lifestyle behaviors and metabolic biomarkers to establish different patterns in children. Their physical and sedentary activities were evaluated by accelerometry, and questionnaires that included lifestyle behaviors, such as adherence to a Mediterranean diet, anthropometry and blood biochemical markers. Cluster analysis was performed to establish different groups based on physical activity levels. A total of 489 children were finally selected. Cluster 1 included children with a mostly sedentary state, whereas Cluster 3 included the most active children and Cluster 2 included children that did not fit into either the sedentary or the highly active groups. In Cluster 3, 56% of children were in a sports club, and a lower percentage used electronic devices in their rooms compared to the other groups. Cluster 1 children exhibited higher insulin, HOMA-IR and triacylglycerides with respect to the other groups. No differences were found regarding adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The choice to practice an extracurricular sport could be an influencing factor to increase exercise and ensure an active lifestyle in children. Reducing or limiting screen time mainly in children’s rooms could contribute to an active lifestyle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Energy Intake, Macronutrient Profile and Food Sources of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years—Results from the EsNuPI Study †
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040893 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess energy intake, nutrient profile and food sources in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (“Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española”) study. Plausibility of energy intake and adequacy of nutrient intakes to international recommendations were analyzed in a [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess energy intake, nutrient profile and food sources in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (“Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española”) study. Plausibility of energy intake and adequacy of nutrient intakes to international recommendations were analyzed in a final sample of 1448 subjects (728 boys and 720 girls) and one group representative of the 1 to <10 years old urban Spanish children (reference sample (n = 707)) who consumed milk and one of the same age who consumed adapted milk over the last year (adapted milk consumers sample (n = 741)) were compared. Both groups completed data of a face-to-face and a telephone 24-h dietary recalls. Both the reference and the adapted milk consumers samples reported an adequate daily energy intake (1503 kcal/day and 1404 kcal/day); and a high contribution to total energy from protein (16.5% and 15.6%) and fat (36.5% and 35.9%). Also, a high percentage of children from both samples were below the lower limit of the recommendations for carbohydrates (47.8% and 39.3%). As the percentage of plausible energy reporters was high for both groups (84.7% and 83.5%, respectively), data for the whole sample were analyzed. Milk and dairy, cereals, meat and derived products, fats and oils, bakery and pastry, fruits and vegetables contributed to about 80% of the total energy intake in both groups. However, the reference sample reported significantly more contribution to energy from cereals, meat and meat products, bakery and pastry and ready to cook/eat foods; meanwhile, the adapted milk consumers sample reported significantly more energy from milk and dairy products, fruits and eggs. Those results suggest that adapted milk consumers have better adherence to the food-based dietary guidelines. Further analyses are warranted to characterize food patterns and the quality of the diet in the EsNuPI study population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Programming Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Flexibility in Offspring of Male Rats in Response to Maternal Consumption of Slow Digesting Carbohydrates during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020528 - 19 Feb 2020
Abstract
Skeletal muscle plays a relevant role in metabolic flexibility and fuel usage and the associated muscle metabolic inflexibility due to high-fat diets contributing to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previous research from our group indicates that a high-fat and rapid-digesting carbohydrate diet during [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle plays a relevant role in metabolic flexibility and fuel usage and the associated muscle metabolic inflexibility due to high-fat diets contributing to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previous research from our group indicates that a high-fat and rapid-digesting carbohydrate diet during pregnancy promotes an excessive adipogenesis and also increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the offspring. This effect can be counteracted by diets containing carbohydrates with similar glycemic load but lower digestion rates. To address the role of the skeletal muscle in these experimental settings, pregnant rats were fed high-fat diets containing carbohydrates with similar glycemic load but different digestion rates, a high fat containing rapid-digesting carbohydrates diet (HF/RD diet) or a high fat containing slow-digesting carbohydrates diet (HF/SD diet). After weaning, male offspring were fed a standard diet for 3 weeks (weaning) or 10 weeks (adolescence) and the impact of the maternal HF/RD and HF/SD diets on the metabolism, signaling pathways and muscle transcriptome was analyzed. The HF/SD offspring displayed better muscle features compared with the HF/RD group, showing a higher muscle mass, myosin content and differentiation markers that translated into a greater grip strength. In the HF/SD group, metabolic changes such as a higher expression of fatty acids (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transporters, an enhanced glycogen content, as well as changes in regulatory enzymes such as muscle pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 were found, supporting an increased muscle metabolic flexibility and improved muscle performance. The analysis of signaling pathways was consistent with a better insulin sensitivity in the muscle of the HF/SD group. Furthermore, increased expression of genes involved in pathways leading to muscle differentiation, muscle mass regulation, extracellular matrix content and insulin sensitivity were detected in the HF/SD group when compared with HF/RD animals. In the HF/SD group, the upregulation of the ElaV1/HuR gene could be one of the main regulators in the positive effects of the diet in early programming on the offspring. The long-lasting programming effects of the HF/SD diet during pregnancy may depend on a coordinated gene regulation, modulation of signaling pathways and metabolic flexibility that lead to an improved muscle functionality. The dietary early programming associated to HF/SD diet has synergic and positive crosstalk effects in several tissues, mainly muscle, liver and adipose tissue, contributing to maintain the whole body homeostasis in the offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Early Introduction of Core and Discretionary Foods in Australian Infants—Results from HSHK Birth Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010258 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Early introduction of complementary foods can have a detrimental impact on children’s long-term health. This study examined the timing and determinants of early introduction of core and discretionary foods among infants in Sydney, Australia. Mothers (n = 1035) from an ongoing population-based [...] Read more.
Early introduction of complementary foods can have a detrimental impact on children’s long-term health. This study examined the timing and determinants of early introduction of core and discretionary foods among infants in Sydney, Australia. Mothers (n = 1035) from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study were interviewed at 8, 17, 34 and 52 weeks postpartum. The outcome was ‘age at which particular core and discretionary food items were first introduced’. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate family and infant-related determinants of early introduction of core (<17 weeks of age) and discretionary foods (<52 weeks of age). Of the 934 mother-infant dyads interviewed, 12% (n = 113) of infants were introduced core foods before 17 weeks of age (median: 22). Mothers working part-time (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54–7.62) and those exclusively formula-feeding their babies at four-weeks postpartum (adjusted OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.99–5.33) were most likely to introduce core foods early. Ninety-five percent (n = 858) of infants were introduced discretionary foods before 52 weeks of age (median: 28). Low socio-economic status was significantly associated with early introduction of discretionary foods (adjusted OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.17–11.78). Compliance with infant feeding guidelines related to core foods was better; however, discretionary foods were introduced early in most infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improving the Metabolic and Mental Health of Children with Obesity: A School-Based Nutrition Education and Physical Activity Intervention in Wuhan, China
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010194 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention on cardiovascular risk profile and mental health outcomes among Chinese children with obesity. Two primary schools were randomly allocated to the control group (CG) and the intervention [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention on cardiovascular risk profile and mental health outcomes among Chinese children with obesity. Two primary schools were randomly allocated to the control group (CG) and the intervention group (IG). We selected children with obesity from 1340 students in the third and fourth grades as participants. The IG received 8 months of nutrition education and physical activity intervention, while the CG was waitlisted. A generalized estimating equation model was applied to assess repeated variables over time. A total of 171 children with obesity (99 IG and 72 CG) aged 9.8 ± 0.7 years completed the post-intervention stage. Compared with baseline, significant reductions were observed within the IG for depression and fasting plasma glucose at post-intervention. After adjusting for confounders, group and time interaction effects showed that the IG achieved improvements in the risk of poor well-being (p = 0.051) and social anxiety (p = 0.029), had decreased diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.001), and had significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) from baseline to post-intervention relative to the CG. The effects of school-based nutrition education and physical activity intervention on children with obesity are diverse, including not only the improvement of metabolic health but also mental health promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dietary and Lifestyle Patterns in the Spanish Pediatric Population (One to <10 Years Old): Design, Protocol, and Methodology of the EsNuPI Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123050 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The interest in a healthy diet and lifestyle during the early stages of life increased, pointing out its role in the development of noncommunicable chronic diseases throughout adult life. Dietary habits and dietary patterns begin to be established in early childhood and persist [...] Read more.
The interest in a healthy diet and lifestyle during the early stages of life increased, pointing out its role in the development of noncommunicable chronic diseases throughout adult life. Dietary habits and dietary patterns begin to be established in early childhood and persist during adulthood. Therefore, the EsNuPI (“Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population”) study aims to depict the dietary patterns, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Spanish children aged from one to <10 years old. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study recruited a total of 1514 children from Spanish cities with >50,000 inhabitants, stratified by Nielsen areas. Participants were involved in one face-to-face survey, followed by a telephone survey after at least one week. Information about dietary intake and habits was obtained using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and two 24-h dietary recalls. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were registered using a specific questionnaire based on a seven-day record. Data were processed and stratified by categorical variables to be statistically analyzed in order to meet the study objectives. This study is the first of its kind in a Spanish reference population of this age range and the first to evaluate whether the consumption of adapted milk formulas and dairy products is associated with healthier dietary patterns and better diet quality and lifestyles in this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop