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Open AccessArticle

Non-Energy-Restricted Low-Carbohydrate Diet Combined with Exercise Intervention Improved Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Chinese Females

1
Institute of Physical Education, Huzhou University, Huzhou 313000, China
2
Faculty of Education, University of Macau, Macao 999078, China
3
School of Health Sciences and Sports, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao 999078, China
4
College of Physical Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123051
Received: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
This study aimed to examine the effects of four weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet (LC) and incorporated exercise training on body composition and cardiometabolic health. Fifty-eight overweight/obese Chinese females (age: 21.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to the control group (CON, n = 15), the LC control group (LC-CON, n = 15), the LC and high-intensity interval training group (LC-HIIT, n = 15), or the LC and moderate-intensity continuous training group (LC-MICT, n = 13). Subjects consumed a four week LC, whereas LC-HIIT and LC-MICT received extra training 5 d/week (LC-HIIT: 10 × 6 s cycling interspersed with 9 s rest, MICT: 30 min continuous cycling at 50–60% VO2peak). After intervention, the three LC groups demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (−2.85 kg in LC-CON, −2.85 kg in LC-HIIT, −2.56 kg in LC-MICT, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.510), BMI (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.504) and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.523). Groups with extra training (i.e., LC-HIIT and LC-MICT) improved VO2peak by 14.8 and 17.3%, respectively. However, fasting glucose and blood lipid levels remained unchanged in all groups. Short-term LC is a useful approach to improve body composition in overweight/obese Chinese females. Incorporated exercise training has no additional effects on weight loss, but has additional benefits on cardiorespiratory fitness, and HIIT is more time efficient than the traditional MICT (2.5 min vs. 30 min). View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic diet; short term; exercise; body composition; cardiorespiratory fitness; blood lipids ketogenic diet; short term; exercise; body composition; cardiorespiratory fitness; blood lipids
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Sun, S.; Kong, Z.; Shi, Q.; Hu, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, D.; Nie, J. Non-Energy-Restricted Low-Carbohydrate Diet Combined with Exercise Intervention Improved Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Chinese Females. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3051.

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