Special Issue "The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. François Mariotti
Website
Guest Editor
UMR PNCA, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, 75005, Paris, France
Interests: dietary protein and amino acids; cardiometabolic health; dietary quality; nutritional security
Dr. Dominique Dardevet
Website
Guest Editor
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UNH, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
Interests: Protein metabolism; aging; postprandial responses; sarcopenia; nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Humans feed themselves by discontinuous inputs that give an essentially dynamic characteristic to all nutritional processes. Metabolism is constructed according to a nutritional system: The individual's endogenous metabolism works on a fasting basis at a steady state to ensure physiological functions with consistency, but this situation results in molecule/nutrient losses that must be compensated for by ingestion. In the postprandial phase, conversely, the nutritional system must ensure the correct use of the influx of nutrients, by regulating flows while maintaining circulating concentrations within acceptable ranges. The postprandial phase is, therefore, the critical nutritional phase during which the body ensures its repletion while putting its hemostasis under pressure, and manages metabolic disturbance according to "hemodynamic" type processes. A decrease in good postprandial management capacity compromises the nutritional status of an individual, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, indicates alterations in metabolic health. The effectiveness of nutrient use in the postprandial phase appears to be a major determinant of long-term nutritional status for many nutrients. This efficiency is modulated by the characteristics of the diet, patterns of intake, nature of the meals, individual genetics, phenotypes and health status, and all other lifestyle characteristics. Changes in postprandial metabolism have been suspected to be potential early markers in pathophysiological course, leading to the risk of pathology. They are sensitive to diets and the complex nature of meals, which can alter the allostatic load, and postprandial deregulations are predictive of the risk of chronic diseases.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to expand and add to the research on the importance of postprandial metabolism in nutrition. In the transition period between fast and fed statuses, this issue seeks to cover the effects of diet, the nature of meals, and any nutritional characteristics, on meal nutrient metabolism and the ability to regulate metabolism in the postprandial phase. Associations with functional assessment criteria or risk factors can make a very interesting addition. The modulation of these phenomena by genetics and lifestyle is also interesting in this context. This issue welcomes the submission of manuscripts describing original research or reviews of the scientific literature on this topic in humans or animal models (rodents and pigs).

Prof. François Mariotti
Dr. Dominique Dardevet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Postprandial metabolism
  • Meal
  • Energy and nutrient metabolism
  • Dietary nutrient metabolic pathways
  • Metabolic regulation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Postprandial Endotoxin Transporters LBP and sCD14 Differ in Obese vs. Overweight and Normal Weight Men during Fat-Rich Meal Digestion
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061820 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
Circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) are recognized as clinical markers of endotoxemia. In obese men, postprandial endotoxemia is modulated by the amount of fat ingested, being higher compared to normal-weight (NW) subjects. Relative variations of [...] Read more.
Circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) are recognized as clinical markers of endotoxemia. In obese men, postprandial endotoxemia is modulated by the amount of fat ingested, being higher compared to normal-weight (NW) subjects. Relative variations of LBP/sCD14 ratio in response to overfeeding are also considered important in the inflammation set-up, as measured through IL-6 concentration. We tested the hypothesis that postprandial LBP and sCD14 circulating concentrations differed in obese vs. overweight and NW men after a fat-rich meal. We thus analyzed the postprandial kinetics of LBP and sCD14 in the context of two clinical trials involving postprandial tests in normal-, over-weight and obese men. In the first clinical trial eight NW and 8 obese men ingested breakfasts containing 10 vs. 40 g of fat. In the second clinical trial, 18 healthy men were overfed during 8 weeks. sCD14, LBP and Il-6 were measured in all subjects during 5 h after test meal. Obese men presented a higher fasting and postprandial LBP concentration in plasma than NW men regardless of fat load, while postprandial sCD14 was similar in both groups. Irrespective of the overfeeding treatment, we observed postprandial increase of sCD14 and decrease of LBP before and after OF. In obese individuals receiving a 10 g fat load, whereas IL-6 increased 5h after meal, LBP and sCD14 did not increase. No direct association between the postprandial kinetics of endotoxemia markers sCD14 and LBP and of inflammation in obese men was observed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Postprandial Effects of a Proprietary Milk Protein Hydrolysate Containing Bioactive Peptides in Prediabetic Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071700 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2Correction
Abstract
Milk proteins have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by beneficially modulating glycemic response, predominantly in the postprandial status. This potential is, amongst others, attributed to the high content of whey proteins, which are commonly a product of cheese production. [...] Read more.
Milk proteins have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by beneficially modulating glycemic response, predominantly in the postprandial status. This potential is, amongst others, attributed to the high content of whey proteins, which are commonly a product of cheese production. However, native whey has received substantial attention due to its higher leucine content, and its postprandial glycemic effect has not been assessed thus far in prediabetes. In the present study, the impact of a milk protein hydrolysate of native whey origin with alpha-glucosidase inhibiting properties was determined in prediabetics in a randomized, cross-over trial. Subjects received a single dose of placebo or low- or high-dosed milk protein hydrolysate prior to a challenge meal high in carbohydrates. Concentration–time curves of glucose and insulin were assessed. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) of glucose as the primary outcome were significantly reduced by low-dosed milk peptides compared to placebo (p = 0.0472), and a minor insulinotropic effect was seen. A longer intervention period with the low-dosed product did not strengthen glucose response but significantly reduced HbA1c values (p = 0.0244). In conclusion, the current milk protein hydrolysate of native whey origin has the potential to modulate postprandial hyperglycemia and hence may contribute in reducing the future risk of developing T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric and Symmetric Protein Arginine Dimethylation: Concept and Postprandial Effects of High-Fat Protein Meals in Healthy Overweight Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071463 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) are risk factors for the cardiovascular and renal systems. There is a paucity of data in humans regarding variations of protein L-arginine (Arg) methylation leading to ADMA and SDMA. In this study, we introduced and [...] Read more.
Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) are risk factors for the cardiovascular and renal systems. There is a paucity of data in humans regarding variations of protein L-arginine (Arg) methylation leading to ADMA and SDMA. In this study, we introduced and used Arg dimethylation indices based on the creatinine-corrected urinary excretion of SDMA and ADMA, and its major metabolite dimethylamine (DMA). The main objective of the present study was to assess whether, and to which extent, a high-fat protein meal (HFM), a classical allostatic load eliciting various adverse effects, may contribute to Arg dimethylation in proteins in humans. Reliable gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the concentration of ADMA, DMA, SDMA, and creatinine in spot urine samples collected before (0 h), and after (2, 4, 6 h) three HFM sessions in 10 healthy overweight individuals. At baseline, urinary ADMA, DMA, and SDMA excretion correlated positively with circulating TNF-α and IL-6. Arg dimethylation indices did not change postprandially. Our study shows that three HFMs do not contribute to Arg dimethylation in proteins. The proposed indices should be useful to determine extent and status of the whole-body Arg dimethylation in proteins in humans under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Postprandial Lipemic Responses to Various Sources of Saturated and Monounsaturated Fat in Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051089 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. However, the effects of different fat sources on PPL remain unclear. We aimed to determine the postprandial response in triglycerides (TG) to four dietary fat sources in adults. Methods: Participants completed four randomized [...] Read more.
Background: Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. However, the effects of different fat sources on PPL remain unclear. We aimed to determine the postprandial response in triglycerides (TG) to four dietary fat sources in adults. Methods: Participants completed four randomized meal trials. For each meal trial, participants (n = 10; 5M/5F) consumed a high-fat meal (HFM) (13 kcal/kg; 61% of total kcal from fat) with the fat source derived from butter, coconut oil, olive oil, or canola oil. Blood was drawn hourly for 6 h post-meal to quantify PPL. Results: Two-way ANOVA of TG revealed a time effect (p < 0.0001), but no time–meal interaction (p = 0.56), or meal effect (p = 0.35). Meal trials did not differ with regard to TG total (p = 0.33) or incremental (p = 0.14) area-under-the-curve. When stratified by sex and the TG response was averaged across meals, two-way ANOVA revealed a time effect (p < 0.0001), time–group interaction (p = 0.0001), and group effect (p = 0.048), with men exhibiting a greater response than women, although this difference could be attributed to the pronounced difference in BMI between men and women within the sample. Conclusion: In our sample of young adults, postprandial TG responses to a single HFM comprised of different fat sources did not differ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Post Meal Energy Boluses Do Not Increase the Duration of Muscle Protein Synthesis Stimulation in Two Anabolic Resistant Situations
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040727 - 29 Mar 2019
Abstract
Background: When given in the long term, whey proteins alone do not appear to be an optimal nutritional strategy to prevent or slow down muscle wasting during aging or catabolic states. It has been hypothesized that the digestion of whey may be too [...] Read more.
Background: When given in the long term, whey proteins alone do not appear to be an optimal nutritional strategy to prevent or slow down muscle wasting during aging or catabolic states. It has been hypothesized that the digestion of whey may be too rapid during a catabolic situation to sustain the anabolic postprandial amino acid requirement necessary to elicit an optimal anabolic response. Interestingly, it has been shown recently that the duration of the postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in healthy conditions can be prolonged by the supplementary ingestion of a desynchronized carbohydrate load after food intake. We verified this hypothesis in the present study in two different cases of muscle wasting associated with anabolic resistance, i.e., glucocorticoid treatment and aging. Methods: Multi-catheterized minipigs were treated or not with glucocorticoids for 8 days. Muscle protein synthesis was measured sequentially over time after the infusion of a 13C phenylalanine tracer using the arterio-venous method before and after whey protein meal ingestion. The energy bolus was given 150 min after the meal. For the aging study, aged rats were fed the whey meal and muscle protein synthesis was measured sequentially over time with the flooding dose method using 13C Valine. The energy bolus was given 210 min after the meal. Results: Glucocorticoid treatment resulted in a decrease in the duration of the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. The energy bolus given after food intake was unable to prolong this stimulation despite a simultaneous increase of insulin and glucose following its absorption. In old rats, a similar observation was made with no effect of the energy bolus on the duration of the muscle anabolic response following whey protein meal intake. Conclusions. Despite very promising observations in healthy situations, the strategy aimed at increasing muscle protein synthesis stimulation by giving an energy bolus during the postprandial period remained inefficient in our two anabolic resistance models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Profound Changes in Net Energy and Nitrogen Metabolites Fluxes within the Splanchnic Area during Overfeeding of Yucatan Mini Pigs That Remain Euglycemic
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020434 - 19 Feb 2019
Abstract
A dysregulation of nutrient exchange between tissues (gut, liver, muscles, adipose) occurs during overnutrition and could induce obesity and metabolic diseases. We aimed to evaluate how, in overfed mini pigs, nutrients use and partition were regulated in the gut and liver. Net nutrients [...] Read more.
A dysregulation of nutrient exchange between tissues (gut, liver, muscles, adipose) occurs during overnutrition and could induce obesity and metabolic diseases. We aimed to evaluate how, in overfed mini pigs, nutrients use and partition were regulated in the gut and liver. Net nutrients fluxes were assessed in the fed (PP) and post absorptive (PA) states at 1, 14 and 60 days of adaptation to overfeeding in five adult Yucatan female multicatheterized minipigs. Pigs PA glycaemia and PP-induced hyperglycemia remained unchanged over the experimental period, suggesting that the management of the excess of energy intake allowed the maintenance of glucose levels. This was associated with (1) an increased PA plasma insulin, (2) an increased gut lactate production (increased lactate net release +89%, 1 h PP, D1 vs. D60) probably from an increased glucose oxidation, (3) a shift in utilization of gluconeogenic precursor (lactate, propionate) in the liver, and (4) a reduced gut utilization of nitrogen moieties for energy purposes (glutamine), a nitrogen sparing effect at the whole body level (decreased plasma urea in PA (−24% D1 vs. D60) and PP states) and a specific increased level of AA involved in lipids handling and bile recycling in the gut lumen (taurine and glycine). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Protein and Fat Content on Intrahepatocellular and Intramyocellular Lipids during a 6-Day Hypercaloric, High Sucrose Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Normal Weight Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010209 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sucrose overfeeding increases intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid concentrations in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that these effects would be modulated by diet protein/fat content. Twelve healthy men and women were studied on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over trial. On each occasion, [...] Read more.
Sucrose overfeeding increases intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid concentrations in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that these effects would be modulated by diet protein/fat content. Twelve healthy men and women were studied on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over trial. On each occasion, they received a 3-day 12% protein weight maintenance diet (WM) followed by a 6-day hypercaloric high sucrose diet (150% energy requirements). On one occasion the hypercaloric diet contained 5% protein and 25% fat (low protein-high fat, LP-HF), on the other occasion it contained 20% protein and 10% fat (high protein-low fat, HP-LF). IHCL and IMCL concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) were measured after WM, and again after HP-LF/LP-HF. IHCL increased from 25.0 ± 3.6 after WM to 147.1 ± 26.9 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) after LP-HF and from 30.3 ± 7.7 to 57.8 ± 14.8 after HP-LF (two-way ANOVA with interaction: p < 0.001 overfeeding x protein/fat content). IMCL increased from 7.1 ± 0.6 to 8.8 ± 0.7 mmol/kg ww after LP-HF and from 6.2 ± 0.6 to 6.9 ± 0.6 after HP-LF, (p < 0.002). These results indicate that liver and muscle fat deposition is enhanced when sucrose overfeeding is associated with a low protein, high fat diet compared to a high protein, low fat diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Wheat Albumin Increases the Ratio of Fat to Carbohydrate Oxidation during the Night in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010197 - 18 Jan 2019
Abstract
Not only are energy expenditure (EE) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) parameters of the energy nutrient utilization and energy balance, they are also related to the development of obesity. In this study, post-meal night-time energy metabolism was investigated following the oral ingestion of [...] Read more.
Not only are energy expenditure (EE) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) parameters of the energy nutrient utilization and energy balance, they are also related to the development of obesity. In this study, post-meal night-time energy metabolism was investigated following the oral ingestion of wheat albumin (WA) with a late evening meal. A randomly assigned, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial for a single oral ingestion in healthy participants was completed. The participants ingested the placebo (PL) or WA (1.5 g) containing tablets 3 minutes before the late evening meal at 22:00 hour, and energy metabolism was measured using a whole-room indirect calorie meter until wake-up. The participants were in bed from 00:00 hour until 06:30 hour. Twenty healthy participants completed the trial and were included in the analyses. Night-time RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were significantly lower following the WA treatment as compared with the PL treatment. Although the total EE was not significantly different between treatments, postprandial fat oxidation was significantly higher following the WA treatment as compared with the PL treatment. In conclusion, WA has the potential to shift the energy balance to a higher ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation during the night. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Glucose Response during the Night Is Suppressed by Wheat Albumin in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010187 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Postprandial blood glucose excursions are important for achieving optimal glycemic control. In normal-weight individuals, glucose tolerance is diminished in the evening compared to glucose tolerance in the morning. Wheat albumin (WA) has the potential to suppress the postprandial glucose response with a relatively [...] Read more.
Postprandial blood glucose excursions are important for achieving optimal glycemic control. In normal-weight individuals, glucose tolerance is diminished in the evening compared to glucose tolerance in the morning. Wheat albumin (WA) has the potential to suppress the postprandial glucose response with a relatively small dose, compared to the dose required when using dietary fiber. In the present study, the effect of WA on glycemic control during the night was investigated after a late evening meal. A randomly assigned crossover trial involving a single oral ingestion in healthy male participants was performed in a double-blind placebo-controlled manner. The participants ingested the placebo (PL) tablets or the WA (1.5 g)-containing tablets 3 min before an evening meal at 22:00 hour, and blood samples were drawn during the night until 07:00 hour using an intravenous cannula. The participants slept from 00:30 hour to 06:30 hour. Glucose response, as a primary outcome during the night, was suppressed significantly by the WA treatment compared to the PL treatment, but the insulin response was not. Plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentration during the night was lowered significantly by the WA treatment compared to the PL treatment. In conclusion, WA may be a useful food constituent for glycemic control during the night. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Metabolism Acutely Adapted to Postprandial Transition and Mainly Reflected Metabolic Adipose Tissue Adaptations to a High-Fat Diet in Minipigs
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111816 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are widely used as a valuable tool able to provide biomarkers of health and diseases, little is known about PBMC functional (biochemistry-based) metabolism, particularly following short-term nutritional challenges. In the present study, the metabolic capacity of minipig [...] Read more.
Although peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are widely used as a valuable tool able to provide biomarkers of health and diseases, little is known about PBMC functional (biochemistry-based) metabolism, particularly following short-term nutritional challenges. In the present study, the metabolic capacity of minipig PBMCs to respond to nutritional challenges was explored at the biochemical and molecular levels. The changes observed in enzyme activities following a control test meal revealed that PBMC metabolism is highly reactive to the arrival of nutrients and hormones in the circulation. The consumption, for the first time, of a high fat–high sucrose (HFHS) meal delayed or sharply reduced most of the observed postprandial metabolic features. In a second experiment, minipigs were subjected to two-month HFHS feeding. The time-course follow-up of metabolic changes in PBMCs showed that most of the adaptations to the new diet took place during the first week. By comparing metabolic (biochemical and molecular) PMBC profiles to those of the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, we concluded that although PBMCs conserved common features with all of them, their response to the HFHS diet was closely related to that of the adipose tissue. As a whole, our results show that PBMC metabolism, particularly during short-term (postprandial) challenges, could be used to evaluate the whole-body metabolic status of an individual. This could be particularly interesting for early diagnosis of metabolic disease installation, when fasting clinical analyses fail to diagnose the path towards the pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Postprandial Appearance of Features of Cardiometabolic Risk: Acute Induction and Prevention by Nutrients and Other Dietary Substances
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091963 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diets, food, and food components that affect postprandial inflammation, endothelial function, and oxidative stress, which are related to cardiometabolic risk. A high-energy meal, rich in saturated fat and sugars, induces the transient [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diets, food, and food components that affect postprandial inflammation, endothelial function, and oxidative stress, which are related to cardiometabolic risk. A high-energy meal, rich in saturated fat and sugars, induces the transient appearance of a series of metabolic, signaling and physiological dysregulations or dysfunctions, including oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, which are directly related to the amplitude of postprandial plasma triglycerides and glucose. Low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are also known to cluster together with insulin resistance, a third risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type-II diabetes, thus making a considerable contribution to cardiometabolic risk. Because of the marked relevance of the postprandial model to nutritional pathophysiology, many studies have investigated whether adding various nutrients and other substances to such a challenge meal might mitigate the onset of these adverse effects. Some foods (e.g., nuts, berries, and citrus), nutrients (e.g., l-arginine), and other substances (various polyphenols) have been widely studied. Reports of favorable effects in the postprandial state have concerned plasma markers for systemic or vascular pro-inflammatory conditions, the activation of inflammatory pathways in plasma monocytes, vascular endothelial function (mostly assessed using physiological criteria), and postprandial oxidative stress. Although the literature is fragmented, this topic warrants further study using multiple endpoints and markers to investigate whether the interesting candidates identified might prevent or limit the postprandial appearance of critical features of cardiometabolic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Nutrient and Micronutrient Intake on Chylomicron Production and Postprandial Lipemia
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061299 - 08 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Postprandial lipemia, which is one of the main characteristics of the atherogenic dyslipidemia with fasting plasma hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase of small and dense low-density lipoproteins is now considered a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause [...] Read more.
Postprandial lipemia, which is one of the main characteristics of the atherogenic dyslipidemia with fasting plasma hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase of small and dense low-density lipoproteins is now considered a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Postprandial lipemia, which is mainly related to the increase in chylomicron production, is frequently elevated in individuals at high cardiovascular risk such as obese or overweight patients, type 2 diabetic patients and subjects with a metabolic syndrome who share an insulin resistant state. It is now well known that chylomicron production and thus postprandial lipemia is highly regulated by many factors such as endogenous factors: circulating factors such as hormones or free fatty acids, genetic variants, circadian rhythms, or exogenous factors: food components, dietary supplements and prescription drugs. In this review, we focused on the effect of nutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals but also on food structure on chylomicron production and postprandial lipemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)

Other

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Sartorius et al. “Postprandial Effects of a Proprietary Milk Protein Hydrolysate Containing Bioactive Peptides in Prediabetic Subjects” Nutrients 2019, 11, 1700
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051266 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Milk proteins have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by beneficially modulating glycemic response, predominantly in the postprandial status. This potential is, amongst others, attributed to the high content of whey proteins, which are commonly a product of cheese production. [...] Read more.
Milk proteins have been hypothesized to protect against type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by beneficially modulating glycemic response, predominantly in the postprandial status. This potential is, amongst others, attributed to the high content of whey proteins, which are commonly a product of cheese production. However, native whey has received substantial attention due to its higher leucine content, and its postprandial glycemic effect has not been assessed thus far in prediabetes. In the present study, the impact of a milk protein hydrolysate of native whey origin with alpha-glucosidase inhibiting properties was determined in prediabetics in a randomized, cross-over trial. Subjects received a single dose of placebo or low- or high-dosed milk protein hydrolysate prior to a challenge meal high in carbohydrates. Concentration–time curves of glucose and insulin were assessed. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) of glucose as the primary outcome were significantly reduced by low-dosed milk peptides compared to placebo (p = 0.0472), and a minor insulinotropic effect was seen. A longer intervention period with the low-dosed product did not strengthen glucose response but significantly reduced HbA1c values (p = 0.0244). In conclusion, the current milk protein hydrolysate of native whey origin has the potential to modulate postprandial hyperglycemia and hence may contribute in reducing the future risk of developing T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Diet and Nutrition on Postprandial Metabolism)
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