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Special Issue "Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sonia González

Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo, Facultad de Medicina, Oviedo, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dietary antioxidants; diet and microbiota; bioactive compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds are non-nutritional components derived from vegetable foods and beverages. In the last decades, their consumption has been related to the prevention of multiple pathologies through several mechanisms that include the reduction of oxidative stress and the inhibition or enzymatic activation or the modulation in the expression of certain genes. The improvement of analytical techniques has allowed the scientific community to identify these compounds in foods to deepen the mechanisms that relate them to health. This Special Issue welcomes original studies as well as review articles examining the impact of bioactive compounds on health and disease. Epidemiological, interventional studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses are welcome in this effort.

Dr. Sonia González
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioactive compounds
  • Polyphenols
  • Carotenoids
  • Phytosterols

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Konjac Mannan Oligosaccharides on Glucose Homeostasis via the Improvement of Insulin and Leptin Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081705
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
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Abstract
Functional oligosaccharides, particularly konjac mannan oligosaccharides (KMOS), can regulate glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the hypoglycemic effect of KMOS remain largely unknown. Here, the effect of KMOS supplementation on glucose homeostasis was evaluated in both high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice [...] Read more.
Functional oligosaccharides, particularly konjac mannan oligosaccharides (KMOS), can regulate glucose metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the hypoglycemic effect of KMOS remain largely unknown. Here, the effect of KMOS supplementation on glucose homeostasis was evaluated in both high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice and high-glucosamine-induced HepG2 cells. KMOS supplementation remarkably ameliorated the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance of HFD-fed mice. Abnormalities of triglyceride and glycogen metabolism in the liver induced by the HFD were reversed by KMOS supplementation. The insulin signaling pathway was activated by KMOS, with stimulation of GLUT2 membrane translocation and glucose uptake in HepG2 cells via the AMPK pathway. Moreover, KMOS suppressed p-mTOR expression and stimulated the GSK-3β/CREB pathway via the AMPK pathway. KMOS significantly upregulated leptin receptor expression and downregulated PTP1B and SOCS3 levels in the liver and brain, with a decreased serum leptin concentration. Phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in the liver was activated by KMOS supplementation, while the expressions of Sirt1, Tfam, and Pgc1-α in the brain were elevated. Conclusively, KMOS attenuated HFD-induced glucose metabolism dysfunction through the regulation of insulin resistance and leptin resistance. This finding indicates that KMOS have potential value as an anti-hyperglycemic dietary supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Cyanidin-3-O-Galactoside-Enriched Aronia melanocarpa Extract Attenuates Weight Gain and Adipogenic Pathways in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051190
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aronia melanocarpa are a rich source of anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside-enriched Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in an in vivo [...] Read more.
Aronia melanocarpa are a rich source of anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside-enriched Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in an in vivo system. Five-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into five groups for 8-week feeding with a control diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD with 50 (AM-Ex 50), 100 (AM-Ex 100), or 200 AM-Ex (AM-Ex 200) mg/kg body weight/day. HFD-fed mice showed a significant increase in body weight compared to the CD group, and AM-Ex dose-dependently inhibited this weight gain. AM-Ex significantly reduced the food intake and the weight of white fat tissue, including epididymal fat, retroperitoneal fat, mesenteric fat, and inguinal fat. Treatment with AM-Ex (50 to 200 mg/kg) reduced serum levels of leptin, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that AM-Ex suppressed adipogenesis by decreasing CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, ATP-citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions. These results suggest that AM-Ex is potentially beneficial for the suppression of HFD-induced obesity by modulating multiple pathways associated with adipogenesis and food intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ecklonia cava Extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages and a Periodontitis Rat Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051143
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
Ecklonia cava, an edible marine brown alga (Laminariaceae), is a rich source of phlorotannins. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Ecklonia cava ethanol extract (ECE, dieckol 10.6%, w/w) on Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation in RAW 264.7 [...] Read more.
Ecklonia cava, an edible marine brown alga (Laminariaceae), is a rich source of phlorotannins. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Ecklonia cava ethanol extract (ECE, dieckol 10.6%, w/w) on Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells and in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 were decreased by more than half on treatment with 100 μg/mL ECE. Downregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 gene expression confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of ECE. ECE treatment upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by 6.3-fold and increased HO-1/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling decreased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation. ECE administration (400 mg/kg) significantly reduced gingival index, restricted tooth mobility, and prevented alveolar bone loss (p < 0.05). These beneficial effects were due to decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, IL-1β production, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in gingival tissues. The ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin, a biomarker of periodontitis and osteolysis, was significantly decreased by ECE administration (p < 0.05). Thus, ECE has potential therapeutic effects for the alleviation of periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Evidence that Nitric Oxide is Involved in the Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of the Peptide AVFQHNCQE in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020225
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
AVFQHNCQE is an antihypertensive nonapeptide obtained from a chicken foot protein hydrolysate. The present study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. Male (17–20 weeks old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used in this study. Rats were divided [...] Read more.
AVFQHNCQE is an antihypertensive nonapeptide obtained from a chicken foot protein hydrolysate. The present study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. Male (17–20 weeks old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used in this study. Rats were divided into two groups and orally administered water or 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) AVFQHNCQE. One hour post-administration, animals of both groups were intra-peritoneally treated with 1 mL of saline or with 1 mL of saline containing 30 mg/kg bw Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, or with 1 mL of saline containing 5 mg/kg bw indomethacin, which is an inhibitor of prostacyclin synthesis (n = 6 per group). Systolic BP was recorded before oral administration and six hours after oral administration. In an additional experiment, SHR were administered water or 10 mg/kg bw AVFQHNCQE (n = 6 per group) and sacrificed six hours post-administration to study the mechanisms underlying the peptide anti-hypertensive effect. Moreover, the relaxation caused by AVFQHNCQE in isolated aortic rings from Sprague-Dawley rats was evaluated. The BP-lowering effect of the peptide was not changed after indomethacin administration but was completely abolished by L-NAME, which demonstrates that its anti-hypertensive effect is mediated by changes in endothelium-derived NO availability. In addition, AVFQHNCQE administration downregulated aortic gene expression of the vasoconstrictor factor endothelin-1 and the endothelial major free radical producer NADPH. Moreover, while no changes in plasma ACE activity were observed after its administration, liver GSH levels were higher in the peptide-treated group than in the water group, which demonstrates that AVFQHNCQE presents antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Ellagitannins Extracted by Pomegranate Fruit on Disulfide Isomerase PDIA3 Activity
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010186
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pomegranate fruit is a functional food of high interest for human health due to its wide range of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties are implicated in the prevention of inflammation and cancer. Ellagitannins, such as punicalagin and ellagic acid, play a role as anti-atherogenic [...] Read more.
Pomegranate fruit is a functional food of high interest for human health due to its wide range of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties are implicated in the prevention of inflammation and cancer. Ellagitannins, such as punicalagin and ellagic acid, play a role as anti-atherogenic and neuroprotective molecules in the complex fighting against the degenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the composition in punicalagins and ellagic acid of differently obtained extracts from whole fruit, peels and juices, prepared by squeezing or by centrifugation, of pomegranate belonging to different cultivars. Moreover, a wider phenolic fingerprint was also determined. The bioactivity of the extracts was tested on the redox activity of PDIA3 disulfide isomerase, an enzyme involved in the regulation of several cellular functions and associated with different diseases such as cancer, prion disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The results demonstrate that the different ratios between punicalagin and ellagic acid modulate the enzyme activity and other ellagitannins could interfere with this activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effects of Sanghuang–Danshen Bioactives on Arterial Stiffness in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Healthy Smokers: An Integrative Approach to in silico Network Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010108
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The vascular endothelium is a favorite early target of cardiovascular risk factors, including cigarette smoking. Here, we investigated the synergistic effects of Sanghuang–Danshen (SD) bioactives on vascular stiffness in a controlled clinical trial of healthy chronic smokers (n = 72). Relative to [...] Read more.
The vascular endothelium is a favorite early target of cardiovascular risk factors, including cigarette smoking. Here, we investigated the synergistic effects of Sanghuang–Danshen (SD) bioactives on vascular stiffness in a controlled clinical trial of healthy chronic smokers (n = 72). Relative to placebo, 4-week SD consumption at 900 mg/day improves pulse wave velocity (p = 0.0497), reduces systolic blood pressure (peripheral, p = 0.0008; brachial, p = 0.0046; and ankle, p = 0.0066), and increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation (p < 0.0001). We then mapped all differential markers obtained from the clinical data, Affymetrix microarray, and 1H NMR metabolomics, together with 12 SD bioactives, onto the network platform termed the context-oriented directed associations. The resulting vascular subnetwork demonstrates that ellagic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA are linked to NOS3, ARG2, and EDN1 for vascular dilation, implicated with arginine/proline metabolism. They are also linked to SUCLG1, CYP1A1, and succinate related to the mitochondrial metabolism and detoxification, implicated with various metabolic pathways. These results could explain the synergistic action mechanisms of SD bioactives in the regulation of vascular endothelial dilation and metabolism, confirming the potential of SD in improving vascular stiffness and blood pressure in healthy smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Health Benefits of Resveratrol in Kidney Disease: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071624
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Different diseases and disorders that affect the kidneys include, but are not limited to, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, kidney stones, renal fibrosis, sepsis, and renal cell carcinoma. Kidney disease tends to develop over many years, making it difficult to identify until [...] Read more.
Different diseases and disorders that affect the kidneys include, but are not limited to, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, kidney stones, renal fibrosis, sepsis, and renal cell carcinoma. Kidney disease tends to develop over many years, making it difficult to identify until much later when kidney function is severely impaired and undergoing kidney failure. Although conservative care, symptom management, medication, dialysis, transplantation, and aggressive renal cancer therapy are some of the current strategies/approaches to kidney disease treatment, new preventative targeted therapies are needed. Epidemiological studies have suggested that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with health benefits including protection against kidney disease and renal cancer. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and berries, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies examining the nephroprotective effects of resveratrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Immunomodulatory Effects of Glutathione, Garlic Derivatives, and Hydrogen Sulfide
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020295
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glutathione and aged garlic extract are sulfur-containing products that play important protective and regulatory roles within the immune system and in oxidative processes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous, gaseous, signaling transmitter, has also been shown to be involved in the regulation [...] Read more.
Glutathione and aged garlic extract are sulfur-containing products that play important protective and regulatory roles within the immune system and in oxidative processes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous, gaseous, signaling transmitter, has also been shown to be involved in the regulation of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that sulfur-containing compounds from garlic have beneficial effects in attenuating outcomes associated with cardiovascular disease and inflammation by a mechanism that may be related to the H2S signaling pathway. In this review, we summarize the main functions of glutathione (GSH), garlic derivatives and H2S and their role in the immune response and impact on health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Human Health and Disease)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Author: Alberto Ruano Raviña
Affiliation:
Fulbright Senior Scholar, Santiago de Compostela University
Title:
epidemiological studies on diet and cancer

Author: Evangelia Litsa Tsiani
Affiliation:
Dept of Health Sciences, Brock University
Title:
The Health Benefits of Resveratrol against Kidney Disease: Evidence from In vitro and in vivo animal and human studies

Author: Tracy Burrows; Katherine Brain
Affiliation:
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle
Title:
dietary intervention with polyphenol supplement on pain outcomes

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