Special Issue "Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Barbara Wessner
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Sport Science & Research Platform Active Ageing, University of Vienna, Auf der Schmelz 6, A-1150 Vienna, Austria
Interests: muscle physiology; sports nutrition; exercise immunology; healthy ageing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Muscle weakness induced by old age is associated with a higher risk of functional impairment and loss of independence, falls, and even mortality. Therefore, the projected rise in the global population of people aged 60 years or older poses a major burden to public health, private caregivers and of course the affected individuals. Several strategies have been pursued to counteract the age-associated loss of muscle mass and strength and to promote healthy ageing, but nutritional support and exercise seem to be incomparably effective to prolong healthy life years. Given the importance of this issue, the journal Nutrients is planning a Special Issue on “Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing”. We invite specialists in the field to submit original research findings, systematic reviews or meta-analyses focusing on the combined effect of exercise, physical (in) activity and nutrient intake on tissues and organ systems affected by ageing, but especially on skeletal muscles, immune system and brain. Thereby, clinical intervention studies are as welcomed as studies that aim to discover underlying molecular processes.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Barbara Wessner
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ageing
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Immune system
  • Exercise and physical activity
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Nutritional supplements

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Fat Soluble Vitamins in Institutionalized Elderly and the Effect of Exercise, Nutrition and Cognitive Training on Their Status—The Vienna Active Aging Study (VAAS): A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061333 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Institutionalized elderly are at higher risk for micronutrient deficiency. In particular, fat soluble micronutrients, which additionally have antioxidative function, are of interest. The purpose of this secondary investigation of the Vienna Active Ageing Study was to assess and evaluate the plasma status [...] Read more.
Background: Institutionalized elderly are at higher risk for micronutrient deficiency. In particular, fat soluble micronutrients, which additionally have antioxidative function, are of interest. The purpose of this secondary investigation of the Vienna Active Ageing Study was to assess and evaluate the plasma status of retinol, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, as well as vitamin D (25(OH)D) in a cohort of institutionalized elderly. We further determined the effect of six months strength training with or without supplementing (antioxidant) vitamins and protein on the plasma status of these ten micronutrients. Methods: Three groups (n = 117, age = 83.1 ± 6.1 years)—resistance training (RT), RT combined with protein and vitamin supplementation (RTS), or cognitive training (CT)—performed two guided training sessions per week for six months. Micronutrients were measured with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Physical fitness was assessed by the 6-min-walking, the 30-s chair rise, isokinetic dynamometry, and the handgrip strength tests. Results: At baseline, the plasma status of retinol was satisfactory, for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and 25(OH)D, the percentage of individuals with an insufficient status was 33%, 73% and 61%/81% (when using 50 nmol/L or 75 nmol/L as threshold levels for 25(OH)D), respectively. Plasma analyses were supported by intake data. Six months of elastic band resistance training with or without protein-vitamin supplementation had no biological impact on the status of fat soluble micronutrients. Even for vitamin D, which was part of the nutritional supplement (additional 20 µg/d), the plasma status did not increase significantly, however it contributed to a lower percentage of elderly below the threshold levels of 50/75 nmol/L (49%/74%). Conclusions: The findings of the study lead to the strong recommendation for regular physical activity and increased consumption of plant-based foods in institutionalized elderly. When supported by blood analysis, supplementing micronutrients in a moderate range should also be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle
Moderate Increase in Protein Intake Promotes a Small Additional Improvement in Functional Capacity, But Not in Muscle Strength and Lean Mass Quality, in Postmenopausal Women Following Resistance Exercise: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061323 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moderate increase in protein intake on muscle strength, functional capacity and lean mass quality improvements in postmenopausal women following resistance exercise. Forty-seven postmenopausal women were randomized in two groups: Normal protein [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moderate increase in protein intake on muscle strength, functional capacity and lean mass quality improvements in postmenopausal women following resistance exercise. Forty-seven postmenopausal women were randomized in two groups: Normal protein (NP, n = 25), who received a dietary plan containing ~0.8 g protein·kg−1·d−1 (recommended dietary allowance—RDA recommendations); and higher protein (HP, n = 22), which a moderate increase in protein intake was recommended (~1.2 g protein·kg−1·d−1). Resistance training was performed for 10 weeks, three times/week. Muscle strength (handgrip strength and one repetition maximum test—1-RM), functional capacity and lean mass (LM) quality (muscle strength to lean mass ratio) were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by nine 24 h food recalls. After intervention, both groups increased similarly the leg extension 1-RM and handgrip strength. Regarding functional capacity tests, both groups increased the balance test score (SPPB) and 10 m walk test speed, with no differences between the groups. In addition, an increase in speed to perform the 6 min and 400 m walk tests was observed over the time, with an additional improvement in the HP group (time × group interaction; p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). About LM quality, leg extension 1-RM/leg LM improved over the time in both groups (p = 0.050), with no time × group interaction. All these significant changes had a low effect size. In conclusion, a moderate increase in protein intake promoted a small additional improvement in functional capacity, but it did not induce a greater increase in strength and LM quality after 10 weeks of resistance exercise in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03024125. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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Open AccessCommunication
How to Prevent Loss of Muscle Mass and Strength among Older People in Neuro-Rehabilitation?
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040881 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide but also of disability. Stroke induces certain alterations of muscle metabolism associated with gross muscle atrophy and a decrease in muscle function, leading to sarcopenia. The vast majority of stroke cases occur in adults [...] Read more.
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide but also of disability. Stroke induces certain alterations of muscle metabolism associated with gross muscle atrophy and a decrease in muscle function, leading to sarcopenia. The vast majority of stroke cases occur in adults over 65 years of age, and the prevalence is expected to massively increase in the coming years in this population. Sarcopenia is associated with higher mortality and functional decline. Therefore, the identification of interventions that prevent muscle alterations after stroke is of great interest. The purpose of this review is to carry out a systematic literature review to identify evidence for nutritional and pharmacological interventions, which may prevent loss of muscle mass in the elderly after stroke. The search was performed on Medline in December 2018. Randomized controlled studies, observational studies and case reports conducted in the last 20 years on post-stroke patients aged 65 or older were included. In total, 684 studies were screened, and eight randomized control trials and two cohort studies were finally included and examined. This review reveals that interventions such as amino acid supplementation or anabolic steroid administration are efficient to prevent muscle mass. Little evidence is reported on nutritional aspects specifically in sarcopenia prevention after stroke. It pinpoints the need for future studies in this particular population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle
Appetite and Protein Intake Strata of Older Adults in the European Union: Socio-Demographic and Health Characteristics, Diet-Related and Physical Activity Behaviours
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040777 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Considerable efforts have been directed towards stimulating healthy ageing regarding protein intake and malnutrition, yet large-scale consumer studies are scarce and fragmented. This study aims to profile older adults in the European Union (EU) according to appetite (poor/good) and protein intake (lower/higher) strata, [...] Read more.
Considerable efforts have been directed towards stimulating healthy ageing regarding protein intake and malnutrition, yet large-scale consumer studies are scarce and fragmented. This study aims to profile older adults in the European Union (EU) according to appetite (poor/good) and protein intake (lower/higher) strata, and to identify dietary and physical activity behaviours. A survey with older (aged 65 years or above) adults (n = 1825) in five EU countries (Netherlands, United Kingdom, Finland, Spain and Poland) was conducted in June 2017. Four appetite and protein intake strata were identified based on simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) scores (≤14 versus >14) and the probability of a protein intake below 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/day (≥0.3 versus <0.3) based on the 14-item Pro55+ screener: “appi”—Poor appetite and lower level of protein intake (12.2%); “APpi”—Good appetite but lower level of protein intake (25.5%); “apPI”—Poor appetite but higher level of protein intake (14.8%); and “APPI”—Good appetite and higher level of protein intake (47.5%). The stratum of older adults with a poor appetite and lower level of protein intake (12.2%) is characterized by a larger share of people aged 70 years or above, living in the UK or Finland, having an education below tertiary level, who reported some or severe financial difficulties, having less knowledge about dietary protein and being fussier about food. This stratum also tends to have a higher risk of malnutrition in general, oral-health related problems, experience more difficulties in mobility and meal preparation, lower confidence in their ability to engage in physical activities in difficult situations, and a lower readiness to follow dietary advice. Two multivariate linear regression models were used to identify the behavioural determinants that might explain the probability of lower protein intake, stratified by appetite status. This study provides an overview and highlights the similarities and differences in the strata profiles. Recommendations for optimal dietary and physical activity strategies to prevent protein malnutrition were derived, discussed and tailored according to older adults’ profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle
Body Fat Percentage, Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and the Ageing Bone: Their Singular and Combined Roles Linked to Physical Activity and Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010195 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
This study took a multi-analytical approach including group differences, correlations and unit-weighed directional z-score comparisons to identify the key mediators of bone health. A total of 190 participants (18–80 years) were categorized by body fat%, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index [...] Read more.
This study took a multi-analytical approach including group differences, correlations and unit-weighed directional z-score comparisons to identify the key mediators of bone health. A total of 190 participants (18–80 years) were categorized by body fat%, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI) to examine the effect of differing obesity criteria on bone characteristics. A subset of 50 healthy-eating middle-to-older aged adults (44–80 years) was randomly selected to examine any added impact of lifestyle and inflammatory profiles. Diet was assessed using a 3-day food diary, bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar, thoracic, (upper and lower) appendicular and pelvic areas. Physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire, and endocrine profiling was assessed using multiplex luminometry. Obesity, classed via BMI, positively affected 20 out of 22 BMC- and BMD-related outcome measures, whereas FMI was associated with 14 outcome measures and adiposity only modulated nine out of 22 BMC- and BMD-related outcome measures. Whilst bivariate correlations only linked vitamin A and relative protein intake with BMD, the Z-score composite summary presented a significantly different overall dietary quality between healthy and osteopenic individuals. In addition, bivariate correlations from the subset revealed daily energy intake, sport-based physical activity and BMI positive mediators of seven out of 10 BMD sites with age and body fat% shown to be negative mediators of bone characteristics. In conclusion, whilst BMI is a good indicator of bone characteristics, high body fat% should also be the focus of osteoporosis risk with ageing. Interestingly, high BMI in conjunction with moderate to vigorous activity supplemented with an optimal diet (quality and quantity) are identified as positive modulators of bone heath. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Nutrient and Food Group Intakes across Sex, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index in an Urban Brazilian Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111714 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The burden of preventable diet-related diseases is significant and becoming worse. Thus, accurately assessing food intake is crucial to guide public health policies and actions. Using food dietary recalls, we evaluated usual dietary intake according to physical activity and nutritional status in an [...] Read more.
The burden of preventable diet-related diseases is significant and becoming worse. Thus, accurately assessing food intake is crucial to guide public health policies and actions. Using food dietary recalls, we evaluated usual dietary intake according to physical activity and nutritional status in an adult urban population from Brasília, Brazil. The usual nutrient and energy intakes distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University (ISU) method. Energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by gender, age group, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity (PA). The prevalence of inadequate intake was highest for vitamins E and D. Both men and women had excessive sodium intake. The percentage of intakes below daily serving recommendations for food groups were 96% for cereals, 74% for vegetables, and 87% for dairy products, whereas percentage of intakes above daily serving recommendations were 97% for meat, 93% for pulses, and 99% for fat/oils. Energy and nutrient intakes were highest in overweight and physically active individuals within the categories of BMI and physical activity, respectively. Our study found that high-income urban Brazilians consume large quantities of meat, beans, fat/oils, and exhibit a low prevalence of nutrient inadequacies but have excessive sodium intake. Energy and nutrient intakes are highest among men, as well as overweight and physically active individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Retired Athletes and the Intersection of Food and Body: A Systematic Literature Review Exploring Compensatory Behaviours and Body Change
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061395 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Retirement from elite sport is a unique transition that influences significant identity, body, and lifestyle changes. This mixed-studies systematic literature review reports on athletic retirement, maladaptive eating behaviours, and body dissatisfaction. Methods: The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) [...] Read more.
Background: Retirement from elite sport is a unique transition that influences significant identity, body, and lifestyle changes. This mixed-studies systematic literature review reports on athletic retirement, maladaptive eating behaviours, and body dissatisfaction. Methods: The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to search the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, EBSCO Host, Sport Discus, and CINAHL. Sixteen studies were synthesised and contrasted through thematic analysis to develop three overarching themes. Results: The three themes that arose include body dissatisfaction and grief, disordered eating and compensation, and long term influence of sporting culture. Maladaptive and compensatory behaviours can arise from sustained athletic identity, body grief, lack of education, and contradictory body ideals. Conclusion: The concept Athletic Body Transition is defined as exploring how a lack of body acceptance may lead to maladaptive behaviours related to food, exercise, and body arising in this transitory period. This review identifies the need for sporting organisations and health professionals to acknowledge this significant transition in regards to athletes’ relationship with food and body subsequent to a sporting career. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients Intake, Exercise and Healthy Ageing)
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