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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The portion sizes of some energy dense foods have increased over time, thus a lack of compensatory [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Trajectories of Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Risk of Hypertension in China: Results from the CHNS Study, 1997–2011
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122014
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Evidence indicates that longitudinal changes in dietary patterns may predict variations in blood pressure (BP) and risk of incident hypertension. We aimed to identify distinct trajectories in the levels of Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) in China and explore their association with BP levels [...] Read more.
Evidence indicates that longitudinal changes in dietary patterns may predict variations in blood pressure (BP) and risk of incident hypertension. We aimed to identify distinct trajectories in the levels of Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) in China and explore their association with BP levels and hypertension risk using the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1997–2011 data. Three levels of MDA were constructed. The trajectories in these levels were constructed using group-based trajectory modeling. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to measure the association between MDA trajectory groups and the risk of incident hypertension after adjusting for covariates. Finally, 6586 individuals were included. Six distinct MDA trajectory groups were identified: persistently low and gradual decline; rapidly increasing and stabilized; persistently moderate; slightly increasing, steady, and acutely descending; slightly decreasing and acutely elevated; and persistently high. The systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly lower in trajectory groups with rapidly increasing and stabilized MDA; slightly increasing, steady, and acutely descending MDA; and persistently high MDA. Cox regression analysis showed that the risks of developing hypertension were relatively lower in the group with slightly increasing, steady, and acutely descending MDA (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09–0.32) and the group with rapidly increasing and stabilized MDA (HR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.23–0.42), but the risk was the highest in the trajectory with persistently moderate MDA (HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.84–1.08). In conclusion, MDA in China was categorized into six distinct trajectory groups. BP was relatively lower in trajectory groups with initially high or increasing MDA levels. Greater MDA was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations of Dietary Patterns and Metabolic-Hormone Profiles with Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122013
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Studies regarding complex breast cancer aetiology are limited and the results are inconclusive. We investigated the associations between dietary patterns (DPs), metabolic-hormone profiles (M-HPs), and breast cancer risk. This case-control study involved 420 [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Studies regarding complex breast cancer aetiology are limited and the results are inconclusive. We investigated the associations between dietary patterns (DPs), metabolic-hormone profiles (M-HPs), and breast cancer risk. This case-control study involved 420 women aged 40–79 years from north-eastern Poland, including 190 newly-diagnosed breast cancer cases. The serum concentration of lipid components, glucose, and hormones (oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, insulin) was marked in 129 post-menopausal women (82 controls, 47 cases). The food frequency consumption was collected using a validated 62-item food frequency questionnaire. A posteriori DPs or M-HPs were derived with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three DPs: ‘Non-Healthy’, ‘Prudent’, and ‘Margarine and Sweetened Dairy’ and two M-HPs: ‘Metabolic-Syndrome’ and ‘High-Hormone’ were identified. The ‘Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet’ (‘Polish-aMED’) score was calculated. The risk of breast cancer risk was three-times higher (odds ratio (OR): 2.90; 95% confidence interval (95% Cl): 1.62–5.21; p < 0.001) in the upper tertile of the ‘Non-Healthy’ pattern (reference: bottom tertile) and five-times higher (OR: 5.34; 95% Cl: 1.84–15.48; p < 0.01) in the upper tertile of the ‘High-Hormone’ profile (reference: bottom tertile). There was a positive association of ‘Metabolic-Syndrome’ profile and an inverse association of ‘Polish-aMED’ score with the risk of breast cancer, which disappeared after adjustment for confounders. No significant association between ‘Prudent’ or ‘Margarine and Sweetened Dairy’ DPs and cancer risk was revealed. Concluding, a pro-healthy diet is insufficient to reduce the risk of breast cancer in peri- and postmenopausal women. The findings highlight the harmful effect of the ‘High-Hormone’ profile and the ‘Non-Healthy’ dietary pattern on breast cancer risk. In breast cancer prevention, special attention should be paid to decreasing the adherence to the ‘Non-Healthy’ pattern by reducing the consumption of highly processed food and foods with a high content of sugar and animal fat. There is also a need to monitor the concentration of multiple sex hormones in the context of breast cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle Erythrocyte n-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Total Mortality in the Framingham Heart Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122012
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without [...] Read more.
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon, and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status, and red blood cell (RBC) n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 coronary heart disease (CHD) events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of marine n-3 FA levels are associated with reduced risk for incident CVD and ischemic stroke and for death from CHD and all-causes; however, in the same sample little evidence exists for association with n-6 FAs. Further work is needed to identify a full profile of FAs associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Quality of Dietary Fat Intake and Body Weight and Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: Secondary Analyses within the PREDIMED Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122011
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the [...] Read more.
A moderately high-fat Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary intake of specific types of fat and obesity and body weight. A prospective cohort study was performed using data of 6942 participants in the PREDIMED trial, with yearly repeated validated food-frequency questionnaires, and anthropometric outcomes (median follow-up: 4.8 years). The effects of replacing dietary fat subtypes for one another, proteins or carbohydrates were estimated using generalized estimating equations substitution models. Replacement of 5% energy from saturated fatty acids (SFA) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in weight changes of −0.38 kg (95% Confidece Iinterval (CI): −0.69, −0.07), and −0.51 kg (95% CI: −0.81, −0.20), respectively. Replacing proteins with MUFA or PUFA decreased the odds of becoming obese. Estimates for the daily substitution of one portion of red meat with white meat, oily fish or white fish showed weight changes up to −0.87 kg. Increasing the intake of unsaturated fatty acids at the expense of SFA, proteins, and carbohydrates showed beneficial effects on body weight and obesity. It may therefore be desirable to encourage high-quality fat diets like the Mediterranean diet instead of restricting total fat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Gastrointestinal Tolerance of D-Allulose in Healthy and Young Adults. A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122010
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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D-allulose has recently received attention as a sugar substitute. However, there are currently no reports regarding its association with gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance. Thus, we performed a GI tolerance test for D-allulose in order to establish its daily acceptable intake level. When the dose [...] Read more.
D-allulose has recently received attention as a sugar substitute. However, there are currently no reports regarding its association with gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance. Thus, we performed a GI tolerance test for D-allulose in order to establish its daily acceptable intake level. When the dose of D-allulose was gradually increased in steps of 0.1 g/kg·Body Weight (BW) to identify the maximum single dose for occasional ingestion, no cases of severe diarrhea or GI symptoms were noted until a dose of 0.4 g/kg·BW was reached. Severe symptoms of diarrhea were noted at a dose of 0.5 g/kg·BW. Similarly, the GI tolerance test did not show any incidences of severe diarrhea or GI symptoms until a dose of 0.5 g/kg·BW was reached. A correlation analysis of the GI tolerance test for D-allulose and sugar revealed significantly higher frequencies of symptoms of diarrhea (p = 0.004), abdominal distention (p = 0.039), and abdominal pain (p = 0.031) after D-allulose intake. Increasing the total daily D-allulose intake gradually to 1.0 g/kg·BW for regular ingestion resulted in incidences of severe nausea, abdominal pain, headache, anorexia, and diarrheal symptoms. Based on these results, we suggest a maximum single dose and maximum total daily intake of D-Allulose of 0.4 g/kg·BW and 0.9 g/kg·BW, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gut Microbiota and Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Obese Mexican Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122009
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by low-grade inflammation and accompanied by dyslipidemia and up-regulation of other bioactive molecules, creating a predisposition to endothelial dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between gut microbiota diversity and endothelial dysfunction (EDF) markers in obese [...] Read more.
Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by low-grade inflammation and accompanied by dyslipidemia and up-regulation of other bioactive molecules, creating a predisposition to endothelial dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between gut microbiota diversity and endothelial dysfunction (EDF) markers in obese Mexican children and adolescents. We examined clinical data including metabolic factors and EDF markers in blood samples. Gut bacterial diversity was characterized by high-throughput sequencing of V3-16S rDNA libraries. Triglycerides, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR), leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and EDF marker intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were significantly higher in obese children and adolescents. Multivariate analysis showed statistically significant positive associations between vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and Veillonellaceae, and between ICAM-1 and Ruminococcus in obese children. In obese adolescents, there was a statistically significant positive association between total cholesterol and Ruminococcus, and between ICAM-1 and Bacteroides. LEfSe analysis showed that the genus Lactobacillus and family Coriobacteriaceae were enriched in children, and genera Collinsella and Prevotella were enriched in obese adolescents. Obese children and adolescents had higher levels of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that obese Mexican children and adolescents had increased levels of CRP and a reduction of adiponectin, which causes higher expression of EDF markers, affecting endothelial function and associating with changes in the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle Sodium Content of Processed Foods Available in the Mexican Market
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122008
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Background: Sodium intake is related to several adverse health outcomes, such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Processed foods are major contributors to the population’s sodium intake. The aim of the present study was to determine sodium levels in Mexican packaged foods, as well [...] Read more.
Background: Sodium intake is related to several adverse health outcomes, such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Processed foods are major contributors to the population’s sodium intake. The aim of the present study was to determine sodium levels in Mexican packaged foods, as well as to evaluate the proportion of foods that comply with sodium benchmark targets set by the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency (UK FSA) and those set by the Mexican Commission for the Protection of Health Risks (COFEPRIS). We also evaluated the proportion of foods that exceeded the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) targets. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that comprised data collected from the package of 2248 processed foods from selected supermarkets in Mexico. Results: Many processed food categories contained an excessive amount of sodium. Processed meats, ham, bacon and sausages, had the highest concentrations. The proportion of foods classified as compliant in our sample was lower for international targets (FSA UK and PAHO) compared to the Mexican COFEPRIS criteria. Conclusions: These data provided a critical baseline assessment for monitoring sodium levels in Mexican processed foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Sodium Research to Improve Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Protects from Cognitive Decline in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study of Aging
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122007
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Following a Mediterranean diet high in plant-based foods and fish, low in meat and dairy foods, and with moderate alcohol intake has been shown to promote healthy aging. Therefore, we examined the association between a Mediterranean diet and trajectories of cognitive performance in [...] Read more.
Following a Mediterranean diet high in plant-based foods and fish, low in meat and dairy foods, and with moderate alcohol intake has been shown to promote healthy aging. Therefore, we examined the association between a Mediterranean diet and trajectories of cognitive performance in the InCHIANTI study. Subjects (N = 832) were examined every 2–3 years up to 18 years with an average follow-up period of 10.1 years. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at every visit. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to Mediterranean diet was computed on a scale of 0-9 and categorized into three groups of low (≤3), medium (4–5), and high (≥6). Those in the highest adherence group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29–0.79) and medium adherence group (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The annual average decline in MMSE scores was 0.4 units, for those in the high and medium adherence group this decline was attenuated by 0.34 units (p < 0.001) and 0.16 units (p = 0.03), respectively. Our findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet can have long-lasting protective effects on cognitive decline and may be an effective strategy for the prevent or delay dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Strategies in Cognitive Decline: Focus on Nutrition)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hammad, A.; Kaido, T.; Aliyev V.; Mandato C.; Uemoto S. Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation. Nutrients 2017; 9. E1126
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122006
Received: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to the published version of the paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Food Volume Estimation Based on Deep Learning View Synthesis from a Single Depth Map
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122005
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
An objective dietary assessment system can help users to understand their dietary behavior and enable targeted interventions to address underlying health problems. To accurately quantify dietary intake, measurement of the portion size or food volume is required. For volume estimation, previous research studies [...] Read more.
An objective dietary assessment system can help users to understand their dietary behavior and enable targeted interventions to address underlying health problems. To accurately quantify dietary intake, measurement of the portion size or food volume is required. For volume estimation, previous research studies mostly focused on using model-based or stereo-based approaches which rely on manual intervention or require users to capture multiple frames from different viewing angles which can be tedious. In this paper, a view synthesis approach based on deep learning is proposed to reconstruct 3D point clouds of food items and estimate the volume from a single depth image. A distinct neural network is designed to use a depth image from one viewing angle to predict another depth image captured from the corresponding opposite viewing angle. The whole 3D point cloud map is then reconstructed by fusing the initial data points with the synthesized points of the object items through the proposed point cloud completion and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithms. Furthermore, a database with depth images of food object items captured from different viewing angles is constructed with image rendering and used to validate the proposed neural network. The methodology is then evaluated by comparing the volume estimated by the synthesized 3D point cloud with the ground truth volume of the object items. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Portion Size in Relation to Diet and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Low Sucrose, Omega-3 Enriched Diet Has Region-Specific Effects on Neuroinflammation and Synaptic Function Markers in a Mouse Model of Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122004
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin may negatively affect long-term brain functioning in cancer survivors; neuroinflammation may play a causal role. Dietary approaches that reduce inflammation, such as lowering sucrose and increasing eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA), may attenuate chemotherapy-induced neuroinflammation [...] Read more.
Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin may negatively affect long-term brain functioning in cancer survivors; neuroinflammation may play a causal role. Dietary approaches that reduce inflammation, such as lowering sucrose and increasing eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA), may attenuate chemotherapy-induced neuroinflammation and synaptic damage, thereby improving quality of life. Ovariectomized, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a chemotherapy (9 mg/kg doxorubicin + 90 mg/kg cyclophosphamide) or vehicle two-injection regimen, with injections two and four weeks after starting diets. In Study 1, mice received low sucrose diets with EPA + DHA or No EPA + DHA for four to six weeks; tissues were collected four, seven, or 14 days after the second injection. Compared to vehicle, chemotherapy increased pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β at day seven in the cortex and hippocampus, and reduced gene expression of synaptic marker Shank 3 at all timepoints in cortex, while EPA + DHA increased expression of Shank 3. In Study 2, high or low sucrose/EPA + DHA or No EPA + DHA diets were fed for five weeks; tissues were collected ten days after the second injection. Among chemotherapy-treated mice, brain DHA was higher with low sucrose feeding. Furthermore, low sucrose increased gene expression of Shank 1, while EPA + DHA increased expression of Shank 3 and reduced protein concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers IL-5, IL-6 and KC/GRO in the cortex, but not the hippocampus. Low sucrose, EPA + DHA diets may attenuate neuroinflammation and synaptic damage induced by doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in specific brain regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mid-Pregnancy Fructosamine Measurement—Predictive Value for Gestational Diabetes and Association with Postpartum Glycemic Indices
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2003; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122003
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy is cumbersome. Measurement of plasma fructosamine may help simplify the first step of detecting GDM. We aimed to assess the predictive value of mid-pregnancy fructosamine for GDM, and its association with postpartum glycemic indices. Among [...] Read more.
Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy is cumbersome. Measurement of plasma fructosamine may help simplify the first step of detecting GDM. We aimed to assess the predictive value of mid-pregnancy fructosamine for GDM, and its association with postpartum glycemic indices. Among 1488 women from Project Viva (mean ± SD: 32.1 ± 5.0 years old; pre-pregnancy body mass index 24.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2), we measured second trimester fructosamine and assessed gestational glucose tolerance with a 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) followed, if abnormal, by a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Approximately 3 years postpartum (median 3.2 years; SD 0.4 years), we measured maternal glycated hemoglobin (n = 450) and estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; n = 132) from fasting blood samples. Higher glucose levels 1 h post 50 g GCT were associated with higher fructosamine levels (Pearson’s r = 0.06; p = 0.02). However, fructosamine ≥222 µmol/L (median) had a sensitivity of 54.8% and specificity of 48.6% to detect GDM (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.52); other fructosamine thresholds did not show better predictive characteristics. Fructosamine was also weakly associated with 3-year postpartum glycated hemoglobin (per 1 SD increment: adjusted β = 0.03 95% CI [0.00, 0.05] %) and HOMA-IR (per 1 SD increment: adjusted % difference 15.7, 95% CI [3.7, 29.0] %). Second trimester fructosamine is a poor predictor of gestational glucose tolerance and postpartum glycemic indices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gestational Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Edible Flowers of Tagetes erecta L. as Functional Ingredients: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Protective Effects on Caenorhabditis elegans
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122002
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Tagetes erecta L. has long been consumed for culinary and medicinal purposes in different countries. The aim of this study was to explore the potential benefits from two cultivars of T. erecta related to its polyphenolic profile as well as antioxidant and anti-aging [...] Read more.
Tagetes erecta L. has long been consumed for culinary and medicinal purposes in different countries. The aim of this study was to explore the potential benefits from two cultivars of T. erecta related to its polyphenolic profile as well as antioxidant and anti-aging properties. The phenolic composition was analyzed by LC-DAD-ESI/MSn. Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH·, and FRAP assays were performed in order to evaluate reducing antiradical properties. The neuroprotective potential was evaluated using the enzymes acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model to assess extract toxicity, antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced β-amyloid toxicity. Both extracts showed similar phenolic profiles and bioactivities. The main polyphenols found were laricitin and its glycosides. No acute toxicity was detected for extracts in the C. elegans model. T. erecta flower extracts showed promising antioxidant and neuroprotective properties in the different tested models. Hence, these results may add some information supporting the possibilities of using these plants as functional foods and/or as nutraceutical ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predictivity of Autoimmune Stigmata for Gluten Sensitivity in Subjects with Microscopic Enteritis: A Retrospective Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122001
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is an emerging gluten-related condition. We investigated whether the presence of autoimmune stigmata in a group of patients with clinical suspicion of NCGS and a histological picture of microscopic enteritis (ME) could be a predictive factor of NCGS. Patients [...] Read more.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is an emerging gluten-related condition. We investigated whether the presence of autoimmune stigmata in a group of patients with clinical suspicion of NCGS and a histological picture of microscopic enteritis (ME) could be a predictive factor of NCGS. Patients with ME were followed up by periodical examinations. At baseline, we collected data about previous clinical history, including autoimmune diseases. NCGS was diagnosed according to Salerno criteria; other causes of ME were diagnosed according to well-established protocols. Patients with celiac disease were excluded. Student’s and chi-square tests were used in univariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Sixty-three patients were included. Twenty-two had a final diagnosis of NCGS; the remaining 41 had non-gluten-related causes of ME. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis was higher among NCGS patients (40.1%) than in other ME (14.6%; p = 0.03). NCGS showed higher positivity rate for anti-gliadin (27.3% versus 2.5%; p = 0.006) and anti-nucleus (45.4% versus 12.2%; p = 0.005). Autoimmune thyroiditis had a non-significant trend (p = 0.06) for NCGS diagnosis, (HR = 2.4). Both anti-gliadin (HR = 2.4; p = 0.04) and anti-nucleus (HR = 2.7; p = 0.04) were directly associated with NCGS diagnosis. In conclusion, NCGS may have a cohort of autoimmune stigmata that can precede its diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Seafood Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake, and Life-Time Prevalence of Depression in the PREDIMED-Plus Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122000
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this analysis was to ascertain the type of relationship between fish and seafood consumption, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) intake, and depression prevalence. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Fish and seafood consumption and ω-3 PUFA intake [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this analysis was to ascertain the type of relationship between fish and seafood consumption, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) intake, and depression prevalence. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Fish and seafood consumption and ω-3 PUFA intake were assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Self-reported life-time medical diagnosis of depression or use of antidepressants was considered as outcome. Depressive symptoms were collected by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between seafood products and ω-3 PUFA consumption and depression. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between fish and long-chain (LC) ω-3 PUFA intake and depressive symptoms. Results: Out of 6587 participants, there were 1367 cases of depression. Total seafood consumption was not associated with depression. The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles of consumption of fatty fish were 0.77 (0.63–0.94), 0.71 (0.58–0.87), and 0.78 (0.64–0.96), respectively, and p for trend = 0.759. Moderate intake of total LC ω-3 PUFA (approximately 0.5–1 g/day) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depression. Conclusion: In our study, moderate fish and LC ω-3 PUFA intake, but not high intake, was associated with lower odds of depression suggesting a U-shaped relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish and Meat Consumption: Risks and Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle Positive Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and the Risk of Osteoporosis: Results from the KoGES_Health Examinee (HEXA) Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121999
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies have found that diet’s inflammatory potential is related to various diseases. However, little is known about its relationship with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and osteoporosis risk [...] Read more.
Previous studies have found that diet’s inflammatory potential is related to various diseases. However, little is known about its relationship with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and osteoporosis risk in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Korea. This prospective cohort study included 159,846 participants (men 57,740; women 102,106) from South Korea with a mean follow-up of 7.9 years. The DII was calculated through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ (SQFFQ), and information on osteoporosis was self-reported by the participants. Analyses were performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Higher DII scores were associated with higher osteoporosis risk (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.12–1.58). In women, a higher DII score indicated a higher risk of osteoporosis (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11–1.59). However, a hazards ratio of similar magnitude in men was not significant (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.64–2.71). Post-menopausal women had higher risks of osteoporosis for higher DII scores (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.09–1.63), whereas among pre-menopausal women, the relationship was not statistically significant (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.87–2.21). Also, there was an increase in osteoporosis risk when the DII increased among women participants with irregular physical activity (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.17–2.01); however, there was no statistically significant increase in osteoporosis risk among women participants with regular physical activity (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.93–1.52). A more pro-inflammatory diet was significantly associated with higher osteoporosis risk in women. Given the similar magnitude of the hazards ratio, studies with sufficient numbers of men are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tectorigenin, a Flavonoid-Based Compound of Leopard Lily Rhizome, Attenuates UV-B-Induced Apoptosis and Collagen Degradation by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in Human Keratinocytes
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121998
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) light, a major risk factor for external skin photoaging, induces oxidative stress in skin. UV causes a breakdown of skin homeostasis by impairing the extracellular matrix and inducing cell death. Tectorigenin, a constituent of leopard lily (Belamcanda chinensis L.) rhizome, [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV) light, a major risk factor for external skin photoaging, induces oxidative stress in skin. UV causes a breakdown of skin homeostasis by impairing the extracellular matrix and inducing cell death. Tectorigenin, a constituent of leopard lily (Belamcanda chinensis L.) rhizome, has been reported to possess antioxidant, hair-darkening, and anti-inflammatory activities; however, the effect of tectorigenin on UV-B-induced skin damage is unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-skin-damage effects of tectorigenin against UV-B-stimulated oxidative stress in human keratinocytes. We irradiated HaCaT cells with UV-B (25 mJ/cm2), followed by treatment with tectorigenin for 24 h. We found that tectorigenin decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as glutathione and catalase. Furthermore, tectorigenin inhibited apoptosis by reducing caspase-3- and Bcl-2-associated protein-X levels, and increasing Bcl-2 protein levels. Tectorigenin also decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels and increased type 1 collagen levels, thus preventing collagen degradation. These data demonstrate that tectorigenin exerts anti-skin-damage effects in human keratinocytes by attenuating UV-B-induced hyper-oxidation, apoptosis, and collagen degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intake and Skin Health: Vitamin D and beyond)
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Open AccessArticle Chewing Difficulty Should be Included as a Geriatric Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121997
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Recent studies have noted an association between chewing difficulties and frailty. In a pilot survey of primary care needs of older people living in the community using automated methods, we examined the prevalence of chewing difficulties and the cross-sectional association with other geriatric [...] Read more.
Recent studies have noted an association between chewing difficulties and frailty. In a pilot survey of primary care needs of older people living in the community using automated methods, we examined the prevalence of chewing difficulties and the cross-sectional association with other geriatric syndromes, chronic diseases, and the use of hospital services. A brief multi-domain geriatric assessment was administered to 2259 men and women using a mobile device, the data uploaded to the cloud and analyzed. A total of 37.8% had chewing difficulties, which were associated with older age, poor vision, frailty, sarcopenia, memory complaints, low subjective well-being, incontinence, and stroke. The results suggest that chewing difficulties should be included as a geriatric syndrome and should be included in primary care screening of geriatric syndromes as well as chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Older Individuals' Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Association between Adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and Sleep Quality in College Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121996
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the association between adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide score) and sleep quality in Japanese college students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 Japanese college students aged 19–22 years in the eastern part [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate the association between adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide score) and sleep quality in Japanese college students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 Japanese college students aged 19–22 years in the eastern part of Gunma Prefecture to examine the association between the Food Guide score and sleep quality. A self-administered diet history questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to assess habitual dietary intake and sleep quality, respectively. In the fully adjusted model, the odds ratios for poor sleep quality in the middle and highest tertile categories of the Food Guide score were 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.18–1.37) and 0.30 (95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.84), respectively, compared with those in the lowest tertile category (p for trend = 0.033). A well-balanced diet may be associated with good sleep quality in Japanese college students. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nutrition in Ultra-Endurance: State of the Art
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121995
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
Athletes competing in ultra-endurance sports should manage nutritional issues, especially with regards to energy and fluid balance. An ultra-endurance race, considered a duration of at least 6 h, might induce the energy balance (i.e., energy deficit) in levels that could reach up to [...] Read more.
Athletes competing in ultra-endurance sports should manage nutritional issues, especially with regards to energy and fluid balance. An ultra-endurance race, considered a duration of at least 6 h, might induce the energy balance (i.e., energy deficit) in levels that could reach up to ~7000 kcal per day. Such a negative energy balance is a major health and performance concern as it leads to a decrease of both fat and skeletal muscle mass in events such as 24-h swimming, 6-day cycling or 17-day running. Sport anemia caused by heavy exercise and gastrointestinal discomfort, under hot or cold environmental conditions also needs to be considered as a major factor for health and performance in ultra-endurance sports. In addition, fluid losses from sweat can reach up to 2 L/h due to increased metabolic work during prolonged exercise and exercise under hot environments that might result in hypohydration. Athletes are at an increased risk for exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) and limb swelling when intake of fluids is greater than the volume lost. Optimal pre-race nutritional strategies should aim to increase fat utilization during exercise, and the consumption of fat-rich foods may be considered during the race, as well as carbohydrates, electrolytes, and fluid. Moreover, to reduce the risk of EAH, fluid intake should include sodium in the amounts of 10–25 mmol to reduce the risk of EAH and should be limited to 300–600 mL per hour of the race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Energy Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview Lactose Intolerance, Dairy Avoidance, and Treatment Options
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121994
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Lactose intolerance refers to symptoms related to the consumption of lactose-containing dairy foods, which are the most common source for this disaccharide. While four causes are described, the most common is the genetically-determined adult onset lactose maldigestion due to loss of intestinal lactase [...] Read more.
Lactose intolerance refers to symptoms related to the consumption of lactose-containing dairy foods, which are the most common source for this disaccharide. While four causes are described, the most common is the genetically-determined adult onset lactose maldigestion due to loss of intestinal lactase governed by control of the gene by a 14,000 kb promoter region on chromosome 2. Gastrointestinal symptoms from lactose have expanded to include systemic effects and have also been confounded by other food intolerances or functional gastrointestinal disorders. Partly because lactose maldigestion is often interpreted as lactose intolerance (symptoms), focus of therapy for these symptoms starts with lactose restriction. However, withholding of dairy foods completely is not appropriate due to a more favorable impact on health. Industrial efforts to substitute with plant-based products is not completely successful at this time. This narrative article reviews the complexities of the perception of lactose intolerance, its epidemiology, and pathogenesis. Treatments are discussed, including the inappropriateness of dairy avoidance. In conjunction, effects of dairy products on 19 common diseases are reviewed. Different methods of treatment, lactose-reduced products, plant-based dairy substitutes, adaptation, prebiotics, exogenous lactase, probiotics, and some other dietary interventions are further discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactose Intolerance Update)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Effect of Resistant Starch on Food Intake, Appetite and Satiety in Overweight/Obese Males
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121993
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Several studies have linked increased intake of dietary fibre to improvement in the management of body weight. Dietary fibre from resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have an impact on food intake in normal weight individuals, but its role in obesity is [...] Read more.
Several studies have linked increased intake of dietary fibre to improvement in the management of body weight. Dietary fibre from resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have an impact on food intake in normal weight individuals, but its role in obesity is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of RS on appetite, satiety and postprandial metabolism in overweight/obese subjects. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, overweight/obese healthy males consumed a test breakfast and lunch containing either 48 g RS or a placebo. Postprandial qualitative appetite, glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 were measured every 30 min for 7 h. Energy intake values from an ad libitum dinner and for a 24-h period were assessed. Acute consumption of RS at breakfast/lunch significantly reduced the energy intake at the ad libitum dinner (p = 0.017). No significant effect over 24 h or qualitative feelings of satiety were observed. Significant treatment × time effects were found for postprandial glucose (p = 0.004) for RS compared to placebo, with a trend for higher C-peptide concentrations following RS. The postprandial insulin and GLP-1 responses were not significantly different. RS may indeed have short-term beneficial effects in obese individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview A Narrative Review of Childhood Picky Eating and Its Relationship to Food Intakes, Nutritional Status, and Growth
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121992
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
A main characteristic of children perceived as picky eaters is their tendency to avoid certain foods or food groups. The goal of this narrative review is to provide an overview of published studies that have examined whether picky eating in childhood is in [...] Read more.
A main characteristic of children perceived as picky eaters is their tendency to avoid certain foods or food groups. The goal of this narrative review is to provide an overview of published studies that have examined whether picky eating in childhood is in fact associated with measurable differences in food and/or nutrient intakes and growth. While picky eaters appear to consume less vegetables compared to non-picky eaters, no consistent differences were observed for the intakes of other food groups or the intakes of energy, macronutrients and dietary fiber. Although, in some studies, picky eaters had lower intakes of certain vitamins and minerals, the levels consumed generally exceeded the recommended values, suggesting nutritional requirements are being met. No consistent relationship between childhood picky eating and growth status was observed, although significant differences in body weight/growth between picky and non-picky eaters were most discernible in studies where multiple defining criteria were used to identify picky eating. The research area would benefit from the adoption of a uniform definition of picky eating. More longitudinal assessments are also required to understand the long-term impact of picky eating on nutritional status and growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 Prevents Blue Light-Induced Inflammation and Degeneration in the Retina
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121991
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa are leading causes of blindness and share a pathological feature, which is photoreceptor degeneration. To date, the lack of a potential treatment to prevent such diseases has raised great concern. Photoreceptor degeneration can be accelerated by excessive [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa are leading causes of blindness and share a pathological feature, which is photoreceptor degeneration. To date, the lack of a potential treatment to prevent such diseases has raised great concern. Photoreceptor degeneration can be accelerated by excessive light exposure via an inflammatory response; therefore, anti-inflammatory agents would be candidates to prevent the progress of photoreceptor degeneration. We previously reported that a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 (L. paracasei KW3110), activated macrophages suppressing inflammation in mice and humans. Recently, we also showed that intake of L. paracasei KW3110 could mitigate visual display terminal (VDT) load-induced ocular disorders in humans. However, the biological mechanism of L. paracasei KW3110 to retain visual function remains unclear. In this study, we found that L. paracasei KW3110 activated M2 macrophages inducing anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in vitro using bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages. We also show that IL-10 gene expression was significantly increased in the intestinal immune tissues 6 h after oral administration of L. paracasei KW3110 in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intake of L. paracasei KW3110 suppressed inflammation and photoreceptor degeneration in a murine model of light-induced retinopathy. These results suggest that L. paracasei KW3110 may have a preventive effect against degrative retinal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Open AccessArticle Per-Arnt-Sim Kinase (PASK) Deficiency Increases Cellular Respiration on a Standard Diet and Decreases Liver Triglyceride Accumulation on a Western High-Fat High-Sugar Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121990
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Diabetes and the related disease metabolic syndrome are epidemic in the United States, in part due to a shift in diet and decrease in physical exercise. PAS kinase is a sensory protein kinase associated with many of the phenotypes of these diseases, including [...] Read more.
Diabetes and the related disease metabolic syndrome are epidemic in the United States, in part due to a shift in diet and decrease in physical exercise. PAS kinase is a sensory protein kinase associated with many of the phenotypes of these diseases, including hepatic triglyceride accumulation and metabolic dysregulation in male mice placed on a high-fat diet. Herein we provide the first characterization of the effects of western diet (high-fat high-sugar, HFHS) on Per-Arnt-Sim kinase mice (PASK−/−) and the first characterization of both male and female PASK−/− mice. Soleus muscle from the PASK−/− male mice displayed a 2-fold higher oxidative phosphorylation capacity than wild type (WT) on the normal chow diet. PASK−/− male mice were also resistant to hepatic triglyceride accumulation on the HFHS diet, displaying a 2.7-fold reduction in hepatic triglycerides compared to WT mice on the HFHS diet. These effects on male hepatic triglyceride were further explored through mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. The absence of PAS kinase was found to affect many of the 44 triglycerides analyzed, preventing hepatic triglyceride accumulation in response to the HFHS diet. In contrast, the female mice showed resistance to hepatic triglyceride accumulation on the HFHS diet regardless of genotype, suggesting the effects of PAS kinase may be masked. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential Application of Ixeris dentata in the Prevention and Treatment of Aging-Induced Dry Mouth
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121989
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Dry mouth is a common complaint among the elderly population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract on aging-induced dry mouth. We used young (two months) and aged (20 months) SD rats in our study. [...] Read more.
Dry mouth is a common complaint among the elderly population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract on aging-induced dry mouth. We used young (two months) and aged (20 months) SD rats in our study. Using water as the vehicle, IXD extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was given via oral gavage to the young and aged rats for eight weeks. We found that the salivary flow rate relative to the submandibular gland weight was differently influenced by IXD extract treatment. IXD extract augmented the submandibular gland acinar cells, which are depleted during aging. In addition, the decreased salivary alpha-amylase, inositol triphosphate receptor, and aquaporin-5 in the aging rats were upregulated by IXD treatment. Free radical-induced oxidative stress in the aging rats was also alleviated in the IXD-treated group. The formation of high molecular weight complexes of protein disulfide isomerase, decreased expression of an ER chaperone (GRP78), and increased ER stress response (ATF-4, CHOP and p-JNK) in aging rats was regulated with IXD treatment, and eventually increased salivary secretions from the aging submandibular glands. These are the first data to suggest that IXD extract might ameliorate aging-associated oral dryness by regulating the ER environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prudent-Active and Fast-Food-Sedentary Dietary-Lifestyle Patterns: The Association with Adiposity, Nutrition Knowledge and Sociodemographic Factors in Polish Teenagers—The ABC of Healthy Eating Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121988
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
A holistic approach to understanding the relationship between diet, lifestyle and obesity is a better approach than studying single factors. This study presents the clustering of dietary and lifestyle behaviours to determine the association of these dietary-lifestyle patterns (DLPs) with adiposity, nutrition knowledge, [...] Read more.
A holistic approach to understanding the relationship between diet, lifestyle and obesity is a better approach than studying single factors. This study presents the clustering of dietary and lifestyle behaviours to determine the association of these dietary-lifestyle patterns (DLPs) with adiposity, nutrition knowledge, gender and sociodemographic factors in teenagers. The research was designed as a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. The sample consisted of 1549 Polish students aged 11–13 years. DLPs were identified with cluster analysis. Logistic regression modelling with adjustment for confounders was applied. Three dietary-lifestyle patterns were identified: Prudent-Active (29.3% of the sample), Fast-food-Sedentary (13.8%) and notPrudent-notFast-food-lowActive (56.9%). Adherence to Prudent-Active pattern (reference: notPrudent-notFast-food-lowActive) was 29% or 49% lower in 12-year-old or 13-year-old teenagers than in 11-year-old teenagers, respectively, and higher by 57% or 2.4 times in the middle or the upper tertile than the bottom tertile of the nutrition knowledge score. To the contrary, adherence to Fast-food-Sedentary (reference: notPrudent-notFast-food-lowActive) was lower by 41% or 58% in the middle or the upper tertile than the bottom tertile of the nutrition knowledge score, respectively. In Prudent-Active, the chance of central obesity (waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5) was lower by 47% and overweight/obesity was lower by 38% or 33% (depending on which standard was used: International Obesity Task Force, 2012: BMI (body mass index)-for-age ≥ 25 kg/m2 or Polish standards, 2010: BMI-for-age ≥ 85th percentile) when compared with the notPrudent-notFast-food-lowActive pattern. In Fast-food-Sedentary, the chance of central obesity was 2.22 times higher than the Prudent-Active pattern. The study identified a set of characteristics that decreased the risk of general and central adiposity in teenagers, which includes health-promoting behaviours related to food, meal consumption and lifestyle. Avoiding high-energy dense foods is insufficient to prevent obesity, if physical activity and the consumption frequency of health-promoting foods are low and breakfast and a school meal are frequently skipped. The results highlight the importance of the nutrition knowledge of teenagers in shaping their health-promoting dietary habits and active lifestyle to decrease adiposity risk and negative aspects of lower family affluence which promotes unhealthy behaviours, both related to diet and lifestyle. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Major Depression: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121987
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Whether vitamin D insufficiency is a contributing cause of depression remains unclear. We assessed whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentrations, the clinical marker of vitamin D status, were associated with major depression using Mendelian randomization. We used summary statistics data for six single-nucleotide [...] Read more.
Whether vitamin D insufficiency is a contributing cause of depression remains unclear. We assessed whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentrations, the clinical marker of vitamin D status, were associated with major depression using Mendelian randomization. We used summary statistics data for six single-nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated with S-25OHD concentrations in the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) consortium and the corresponding data for major depression (n = 59,851 cases and 113,154 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genetically predicted S-25OHD concentrations were not associated with major depression. The odds ratio per genetically predicted one standard deviation decrease in S-25OHD concentrations was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.97–1.08; p = 0.44). The results of this study indicate that genetically lowered S-25OHD concentrations are not associated with increased risk of developing major depression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Serum Nutrient Levels and Aging Effects on Periodontitis
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121986
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Periodontal disease damages tissues as a result of dysregulated host responses against the chronic bacterial biofilm insult and approximately 50% of US adults >30 years old exhibit periodontitis. The association of five blood nutrients and periodontitis were evaluated due to our previous findings [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease damages tissues as a result of dysregulated host responses against the chronic bacterial biofilm insult and approximately 50% of US adults >30 years old exhibit periodontitis. The association of five blood nutrients and periodontitis were evaluated due to our previous findings regarding a potential protective effect for these nutrients in periodontal disease derived from the US population sampled as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Data from over 15,000 subjects was analyzed for blood levels of cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, folate, vitamin D, and vitamin E, linked with analysis of the presence and severity of periodontitis. Moderate/severe disease patients had lower cis-β-carotene levels across all racial/ethnic groups and these decreased levels in moderate/severe periodontitis were exacerbated with age. β-cryptoxanthin demonstrated lower levels in severe disease patients across the entire age range in all racial/ethnic groups. Folate differences were evident across the various age groups with consistently lower levels in periodontitis patients >30 years and most pronounced in females. Lower levels of vitamin D were consistently noted across the entire age range of patients with a greater difference seen in females with periodontitis. Finally, an analytical approach to identify interactions among these nutrients related to age and periodontitis showed interactions of vitamin D in females, and folate with race in the population. These findings suggest that improving specific nutrient intake leading to elevated blood levels of a combination of these protective factors may provide a novel strategy to affect the significant increase in periodontitis that occurs with aging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Contents in Muscle and Edible Organs of Australian Prime Lambs Grazing Lucerne and Cocksfoot Pastures
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121985
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
The enhancement of health-beneficial omega-3 long–chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) contents in the muscle, liver, heart, and kidney of Australian prime lambs through pasture grazing and supplementation with oil infused pellets was investigated. Forty-eight first-cross prime lambs were randomly [...] Read more.
The enhancement of health-beneficial omega-3 long–chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) contents in the muscle, liver, heart, and kidney of Australian prime lambs through pasture grazing and supplementation with oil infused pellets was investigated. Forty-eight first-cross prime lambs were randomly assigned into a split-plot design with pasture type as the main plot effect and pellet supplementation as a sub-plot effect in a feeding trial that lasted for nine weeks. The n-3 LC-PUFA content in Longissimus dorsi muscle of all lambs was well above the 30 mg threshold for “omega-3 source” nutrition claim under the Australian Food Standards and Guidelines. Pasture type impacted the fatty acid contents in muscle, heart, and kidney of prime lambs. Lambs grazing cocksfoot grass only had high 18:3n-3 (ALA) and n-3 LC-PUFA contents (67.1 mg/100 g and 55.2 mg/100 g, respectively) in the Longissimus dorsi muscle, which was not significantly different (p > 0.8990) from the contents of lambs grazing only lucerne. Supplementation of pellets with or without oil infusion to grazing lambs generally decreased the ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA contents and increased the n-6/n-3 ratio in the Longissimus dorsi muscle. The fatty acid content in the internal organs of grazing lambs was also affected by pellet supplementation. The liver and kidney of grazing lambs were both “good sources” (60 mg/100 g) of omega-3. The cocksfoot grass showed considerable potential for producing healthy, premium quality meat with high contents of n-3 and n-3 LC-PUFA, which may consequently enhance the omega-3 intake of Australian lamb consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Human Health)
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