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A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Hormones, and Liver Markers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

1
Department of Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull HU3 2JZ, UK
2
Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology, and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
3
Department of Pathology, Sidra Medical and Research Centre, Doha PO Box 26999, Qatar
4
Gastroenterology Research Department, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull HU3 2JZ, UK
5
Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull HU3 2JZ, UK
6
Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar, Education City, Doha PO Box 24144, Qatar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010188
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroid Hormones and Human Health)
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Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic-fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Vitamin D supplementation may exert positive effects on liver biochemistry in patients with NAFLD; however, its effects on PCOS are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study explored the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, glucose levels, insulin levels, the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hormones (free androgen index (FAI), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and liver markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hyaluronic acid (HA), N-terminal pro-peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), tissue inhibitor of metallo-proteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score). Forty women with PCOS were recruited and randomized to vitamin D (3200 IU) or placebo daily for 3 months. All outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 months follow-up (FU). Greater increases in vitamin D levels were shown in the supplementation group (vitamin D, baseline: 25.6 ± 11.4 nmol/L, FU: 90.4 ± 19.5 nmol/L vs. placebo, baseline: 30.9 ± 11.1 nmol/L, FU: 47.6 ± 20.5 nmol/L, p < 0.001). Between groups comparisons (% baseline change) revealed significant differences in ALT (p = 0.042) and a weak effect indicating a greater reduction in the HOMA-IR in the vitamin D group (p = 0.051). No further between group differences were seen in other cardiovascular risk factor, liver markers, or hormones. This study supports beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on liver markers and modest improvements in insulin sensitivity in vitamin D deficient women with PCOS. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome; vitamin D; liver markers; cardiovascular risk factors; hormones polycystic ovary syndrome; vitamin D; liver markers; cardiovascular risk factors; hormones
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Javed, Z.; Papageorgiou, M.; Deshmukh, H.; Kilpatrick, E.S.; Mann, V.; Corless, L.; Abouda, G.; Rigby, A.S.; Atkin, S.L.; Sathyapalan, T. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Hormones, and Liver Markers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Nutrients 2019, 11, 188.

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