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Metabolomics and Microbiomes as Potential Tools to Evaluate the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet

1
Division of Food Sciences and Nutrition, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
2
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
IDISNA, Navarra Health Research Institute, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
6
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBER Obn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
7
Diabetes Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010207
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet)
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PDF [1394 KB, uploaded 22 January 2019]
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Abstract

The approach to studying diet–health relationships has progressively shifted from individual dietary components to overall dietary patterns that affect the interaction and balance of low-molecular-weight metabolites (metabolome) and host-enteric microbial ecology (microbiome). Even though the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recognized as a powerful strategy to improve health, the accurate assessment of exposure to the MedDiet has been a major challenge in epidemiological and clinical studies. Interestingly, while the effects of individual dietary components on the metabolome have been described, studies investigating metabolomic profiles in response to overall dietary patterns (including the MedDiet), although limited, have been gaining attention. Similarly, the beneficial effects of the MedDiet on cardiometabolic outcomes may be mediated through gut microbial changes. Accumulating evidence linking food ingestion and enteric microbiome alterations merits the evaluation of the microbiome-mediated effects of the MedDiet on metabolic pathways implicated in disease. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the current evidence from observational and clinical trials involving the MedDiet by (1) assessing changes in the metabolome and microbiome for the measurement of diet pattern adherence and (2) assessing health outcomes related to the MedDiet through alterations to human metabolomics and/or the microbiome. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; metabolomics; microbiome Mediterranean diet; metabolomics; microbiome
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Jin, Q.; Black, A.; Kales, S.N.; Vattem, D.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Sotos-Prieto, M. Metabolomics and Microbiomes as Potential Tools to Evaluate the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet. Nutrients 2019, 11, 207.

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