Special Issue "Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Physiology"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Natalie Luscombe-Marsh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIRO Nutrition & Health Program, SAHMRI Building, North Terrace, Adelaide
Interests: Nutritional physiology; gastrointestinal mechanisms related to food intake and glycaemic control; dietary patterns for cardiometabolic health, malnutrition and frailty in older adults
Dr. Iain A. Brownlee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIRO Nutrition & Health Program, SAHMRI Building, North Terrace, Adelaide SA5000, Australia
Interests: whole grains; dietary fibre; gastrointestinal physiology; human intervention studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The long-term consequences of dietary habit on the gut could affect the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Despite this, the parameters of what constitutes “normal” gastrointestinal physiology in humans remain poorly understood. The aim of the current Special Issue is to bring together original articles and reviews that help to understand the complex interplay between dietary intake and the parameters of gastrointestinal function.

The expected focus of original studies and review articles may include but is not limited to:

  • Human studies, or in vitro, in vivo or in silico experimental studies relevant to modelling human gastrointestinal physiology.
  • Acute and long-term dietary intake (including whole diets, foods, essential and non-essential nutrients) that could affect gastrointestinal physiology.
  • Processes of macronutrient digestion and/or nutrient absorption along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Objective or qualitative physiological factors affecting food intake, such as oral health status, taste, gastrointestinal chemo- or mechanosensation and satiety.
  • Signalling pathways between the gastrointestinal tract and other organs in the body.
  • The relationship between dietary intake with gastrointestinal motility, epithelial structure and function, processes of mucosal defence or exocrine and endocrine secretions of the gut and its accessory organs.
  • Consideration of the interplay of the large intestinal microbiota with different dietary factors and/or parameters of gastrointestinal function and dysfunction.

Dr. Natalie Luscombe-Marsh
Dr. Iain A. Brownlee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gastrointestinal health
  • Gut motility
  • Digestion
  • Gastrointestinal signalling
  • Gastrointestinal secretion
  • Large intestinal microbiota

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Lipolytic Activity of Whole-Saliva and Site-Specific Secretions from the Oral Cavity of Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010191 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is currently unclear how the process of fat digestion occurs in the mouth of humans. This pilot study therefore aimed to quantify the levels of lipolytic activity at different sites of the mouth and in whole saliva. Samples of whole saliva and [...] Read more.
It is currently unclear how the process of fat digestion occurs in the mouth of humans. This pilot study therefore aimed to quantify the levels of lipolytic activity at different sites of the mouth and in whole saliva. Samples of whole saliva and from 4 discrete sites in the oral cavity were collected from 42 healthy adult participants. All samples were analyzed for lipolytic activity using two different substrates (olive oil and the synthetic 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6’-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR)). Bland–Altman analyses suggested that the two assays gave divergent results, with 91% and 23% of site-specific and 40% and 26% of whole-saliva samples testing positive for lipolytic activity, respectively. Non-parametric multiple comparisons tests highlighted that median (IQR) of lipolytic activity (tested using the olive oil assay) of the samples from the parotid 20.7 (11.7–31.0) and sublingual 18.4 (10.6–47.2) sites were significantly higher than that of whole saliva 0.0 (0.0–35.7). In conclusion, lipolysis appears to occur in the oral cavity of a proportion of individuals. These findings give a preliminary indication that lipolytic agent activity in the oral cavity may be substrate-specific but do not discount that the enzyme is from sources other than oral secretions (e.g., microbes, gastric reflux). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Physiology)
Open AccessArticle
Intraduodenal Administration of L-Valine Has No Effect on Antropyloroduodenal Pressures, Plasma Cholecystokinin Concentrations or Energy Intake in Healthy, Lean Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010099 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Whey protein is rich in the branched-chain amino acids, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine. Thus, branched-chain amino acids may, at least in part, mediate the effects of whey to reduce energy intake and/or blood glucose. Notably, 10 g of either L-leucine or L-isoleucine, administered [...] Read more.
Whey protein is rich in the branched-chain amino acids, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine. Thus, branched-chain amino acids may, at least in part, mediate the effects of whey to reduce energy intake and/or blood glucose. Notably, 10 g of either L-leucine or L-isoleucine, administered intragastrically before a mixed-nutrient drink, lowered postprandial blood glucose, and intraduodenal infusion of L-leucine (at a rate of 0.45 kcal/min, total: 9.9 g) lowered fasting blood glucose and reduced energy intake from a subsequent meal. Whether L-valine affects energy intake, and the gastrointestinal functions involved in the regulation of energy intake, as well as blood glucose, in humans, is currently unknown. We investigated the effects of intraduodenally administered L-valine on antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma cholecystokinin, blood glucose and energy intake. Twelve healthy lean men (age: 29 ± 2 years, BMI: 22.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2) were studied on 3 separate occasions in randomised, double-blind order. Antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma cholecystokinin, blood glucose, appetite perceptions and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during 90-min intraduodenal infusions of L-valine at 0.15 kcal/min (total: 3.3 g) or 0.45 kcal/min (total: 9.9 g), or 0.9% saline (control). Energy intake from a buffet-meal immediately after the infusions was quantified. L-valine did not affect antral, pyloric (mean number; control: 14 ± 5; L-Val-0.15: 21 ± 9; L-Val-0.45: 11 ± 4), or duodenal pressures, plasma cholecystokinin (mean concentration, pmol/L; control: 3.1 ± 0.3; L-Val-0.15: 3.2 ± 0.3; L-Val-0.45: 3.0 ± 0.3), blood glucose, appetite perceptions, symptoms or energy intake (kcal; control: 1040 ± 73; L-Val-0.15: 1040 ± 81; L-Val-0.45: 1056 ± 100), at either load (p > 0.05 for all). In conclusion, intraduodenal infusion of L-valine, at loads that are moderately (3.3 g) or substantially (9.9 g) above World Health Organization valine requirement recommendations, does not appear to have energy intake- or blood glucose-lowering effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Physiology)
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