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Curr. Oncol., Volume 28, Issue 6 (December 2021) – 97 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Germline mutations in BRCA genes are a frequent molecular event in the most lethal type of epithelial ovarian cancer, high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). To date, little emphasis has been placed on the effects of cancer-causing BRCA1/2 mutations located in different domains of molecules on HGSC prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between the mutation location within BRCA genes and clinical outcome. After multivariate analysis of the 51-patient cohort, no significant association between the location or type of BRCA1/2 mutation and the PFS or OS was identified. Notably, significant PFS differences between carriers of identical mutations were detected. These outcome dissimilarities reinforce that the clinical course of HGSC is not solely determined by mutation location, suggesting a potential effect of other genetic abnormalities and risk factors. View this paper
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Review
Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Therapy of Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5480-5498; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060456 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is a common subtype of mature peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). As per the 2016 World Health Organization classification, AITL is now considered as a subtype of nodal T cell lymphoma with follicular helper T cells. The diagnosis [...] Read more.
Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) is a common subtype of mature peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). As per the 2016 World Health Organization classification, AITL is now considered as a subtype of nodal T cell lymphoma with follicular helper T cells. The diagnosis is challenging and requires a constellation of clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings. Significant progress in the molecular pathophysiology of AITL has been achieved in the past two decades. Characteristic genomic features have been recognized that could provide a potential platform for better diagnosis and future prognostic models. Frontline therapy for AITL was mainly depending on chemotherapy and the management of relapsed or refractory AITL is still unsatisfactory with a very poor prognosis. Upfront transplantation offers better survival. Novel agents have been introduced recently with promising outcomes. Several clinical trials of combinations using novel agents are underway. Herein, we briefly review recent advances in AITL diagnosis and the evolving treatment landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Article
Phase Ib Study of Atezolizumab Plus Interferon-α with or without Bevacizumab in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Other Solid Tumors
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5466-5479; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060455 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2002
Abstract
This Phase Ib study combined programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, with other immunomodulatory agents in locally advanced and metastatic solid tumors. Arms B-D evaluated atezolizumab plus interferon-α, with/without vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, bevacizumab, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other solid tumors. [...] Read more.
This Phase Ib study combined programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, with other immunomodulatory agents in locally advanced and metastatic solid tumors. Arms B-D evaluated atezolizumab plus interferon-α, with/without vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, bevacizumab, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other solid tumors. Arm B predominantly recruited patients with previously treated RCC or melanoma to receive atezolizumab plus interferon α-2b. Arm C investigated atezolizumab plus polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon α-2a in previously treated RCC. Arm D evaluated atezolizumab plus PEG-interferon α-2a and bevacizumab. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability; secondary objectives included clinical activity. Combination therapy was well tolerated, with safety profiles consistent with known risks of individual agents. The most frequent treatment-related toxicities were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The objective response rate (ORR) in arm B was 20.0% overall and 17.8% in patients with previously treated checkpoint inhibitor–naive RCC (n = 45). No responses were reported in arm C. The highest ORR in arm D was 46.7% in patients with treatment-naive RCC (n = 15). Data showed preliminary clinical activity and acceptable tolerability of atezolizumab plus interferon α-2b in patients with previously treated checkpoint inhibitor–naive RCC and of atezolizumab plus PEG-interferon α-2a and bevacizumab in patients with treatment-naive RCC. Full article
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Article
Understanding the Attitudes and Beliefs of Oncologists Regarding the Transitioning and Sharing of Survivorship Care
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5452-5465; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060454 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Transitioning survivorship care from oncologists to primary care physicians (PCPs) is a reasonable alternative to oncologist-led care. This study assessed oncologists’ attitudes and beliefs regarding sharing/transitioning survivorship care. A prospective survey of oncologists within a regional cancer program assessing self-reported barriers and facilitators [...] Read more.
Transitioning survivorship care from oncologists to primary care physicians (PCPs) is a reasonable alternative to oncologist-led care. This study assessed oncologists’ attitudes and beliefs regarding sharing/transitioning survivorship care. A prospective survey of oncologists within a regional cancer program assessing self-reported barriers and facilitators to sharing/transitioning survivorship care was disseminated. In total, 63% (n = 39) of surveyed oncologists responded. Patient preference (89%) and anxiety (84%) are key to transition of care decisions; reduced remuneration (95%) and fewer longitudinal relationships (63%) do not contribute. Oncologists agreed that more patients could be shared/transitioned. Barriers include treatment-related toxicities (82% agree), tumor-specific factors (60–90% agree) and perception of PCP willingness to participate in survivorship care (47% agree). Oncologists appear willing to share/transition more survivors to PCPs, though barriers exist that warrant further study. Understanding these issues is critical to developing policies supporting comprehensive survivorship care models that address both cancer and non-cancer health needs. The demonstrated feasibility of this project warrants a larger-scale survey of oncologists with respect to the transition of survivorship care to PCPs, to further inform effective interventions to support high-quality survivorship care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Survivorship Research, Practice and Policy)
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Review
Treatment Algorithm in Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: Updated Canadian Expert Consensus
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5434-5451; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060453 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5589
Abstract
Patients with cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) are at high risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding complications. Risks vary significantly between individuals based on cancer status, treatment, and other characteristics. To facilitate the evidence-based management of anticoagulant therapy in this patient population, [...] Read more.
Patients with cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) are at high risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding complications. Risks vary significantly between individuals based on cancer status, treatment, and other characteristics. To facilitate the evidence-based management of anticoagulant therapy in this patient population, a committee of 11 Canadian clinical experts updated a consensus-based algorithm for the acute and extended treatment of symptomatic and incidental CAT that was developed in 2018. Following a systematic review of the literature, updates to the algorithm were discussed during an online teleconference, and the algorithm was subsequently refined based on feedback from committee members. Clinicians using this treatment algorithm should consider bleeding risk, type of cancer, and drug–drug interactions, as well as patient and clinician preferences, in tailoring anticoagulation for patients with CAT. Anticoagulant therapy should be adapted as the patient’s cancer status and management change over time. Full article
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Article
Extent of Groin Dissection in Melanoma: A Mixed-Methods, Population-Based Study of Practice Patterns and Outcomes
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5422-5433; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060452 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Melanoma metastases to the groin are frequently managed by therapeutic lymph node dissection. Evidence is lacking regarding the extent of dissection required. Thus, we sought to describe practice patterns for the use of inguinal vs. ilioinguinal dissection, as well as the perioperative/oncologic outcomes [...] Read more.
Melanoma metastases to the groin are frequently managed by therapeutic lymph node dissection. Evidence is lacking regarding the extent of dissection required. Thus, we sought to describe practice patterns for the use of inguinal vs. ilioinguinal dissection, as well as the perioperative/oncologic outcomes of each procedure. A mixed-methods approach was employed to evaluate surgical practice patterns. A retrospective review of three multi-site databases was carried out, together with semi-structured interviews of melanoma surgeons. A total of 347 patients who underwent dissection were reviewed. The main indications stated for adding a “deep” ilioinguinal dissection were palpable or radiologically positive disease. There was no significant difference in complications, length of stay or lymphedema between patients having inguinal vs. ilioinguinal dissection, irrespective of method of diagnosis. There was also no significant difference in recurrence, cancer-specific survival or overall survival between groups. In conclusion, ilioinguinal dissection is a safe and well-tolerated procedure, with no significant added morbidity relative to an inguinal dissection. The indications for ilioinguinal dissection currently in use produce an appropriate deep node positivity rate and ilioinguinal dissection should continue to be used selectively. Randomized data are needed to clarify the impact of ilioinguinal dissection on regional control and survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
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Review
The Evolving Role of Immunotherapy in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5408-5421; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060451 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
The management of Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is complex and requires multidisciplinary input. Since the publication of the PACIFIC trial (consolidative durvalumab post concurrent chemotherapy and radiation in Stage III disease) which showed improved survival for patients in the immunotherapy [...] Read more.
The management of Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is complex and requires multidisciplinary input. Since the publication of the PACIFIC trial (consolidative durvalumab post concurrent chemotherapy and radiation in Stage III disease) which showed improved survival for patients in the immunotherapy arm, there has been much interest in the use of immunotherapy in the Stage III setting. In this review, we explore the biologic and clinical rationale for the use of immunotherapy in Stage III NSCLC, present previously published and upcoming data in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and concurrent realms of Stage III management, and discuss unanswered questions and challenges moving forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current State of Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer)
Case Report
Combination of Lenvatinib and Pembrolizumab as Salvage Treatment for Paucicellular Variant of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Case Report
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5401-5407; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060450 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but aggressive thyroid cancer, responsible for about 50% of all thyroid cancer-related deaths. During the last two decades, the development of a multimodal personalized approach resulted in an increased survival. Here, we present an unusual case [...] Read more.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but aggressive thyroid cancer, responsible for about 50% of all thyroid cancer-related deaths. During the last two decades, the development of a multimodal personalized approach resulted in an increased survival. Here, we present an unusual case of a 54-year old woman with a paucicellular metastatic ATC, a rare variant of ATC, who was treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. More than two years later, when the disease was rapidly growing, a combination of lenvatinib and pembrolizumab induced a partial tumor response of lung metastasis that persisted over 18 months. Paucicellular ATC may initially show a less aggressive behavior compared to other histological ATC variants. However, over the time, its clinical course can rapidly progress like common ATC. The combination of lenvatinib and pembrolizumab was effective as a salvage therapy for a long period of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Head and Neck Oncology)
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Commentary
Pivoting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Education in a Virtual Clinical World: The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5395-5400; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060449 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis may be attributed to misbeliefs by both patients and healthcare providers on the value and benefit of quitting smoking on treatment outcomes. The perceived myths and misconceptions about the relationship between smoking and cancer may be readily [...] Read more.
Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis may be attributed to misbeliefs by both patients and healthcare providers on the value and benefit of quitting smoking on treatment outcomes. The perceived myths and misconceptions about the relationship between smoking and cancer may be readily dispelled with the provision of practical and pertinent education. However, busy clinics as well as the rapid move to virtual care due to the COVID-19 pandemic present several challenges with the provision of smoking cessation education. Here, we describe how the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre implemented innovative solutions to improve the delivery of education during the COVID-19 pandemic to better support patients and healthcare providers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Cessation after a Cancer Diagnosis)
Article
Optimal Breast Density Characterization Using a Three-Dimensional Automated Breast Densitometry System
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5384-5394; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060448 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Dense breasts are a risk factor for breast cancer. Assessment of breast density is important and radiologist-dependent. We objectively measured mammographic density using the three-dimensional automatic mammographic density measurement device Volpara™ and examined the criteria for combined use of ultrasonography (US). Of 1227 [...] Read more.
Dense breasts are a risk factor for breast cancer. Assessment of breast density is important and radiologist-dependent. We objectively measured mammographic density using the three-dimensional automatic mammographic density measurement device Volpara™ and examined the criteria for combined use of ultrasonography (US). Of 1227 patients who underwent primary breast cancer surgery between January 2019 and April 2021 at our hospital, 441 were included. A case series study was conducted based on patient age, diagnostic accuracy, effects of mammography (MMG) combined with US, size of invasion, and calcifications. The mean density of both breasts according to the Volpara Density Grade (VDG) was 0–3.4% in 2 patients, 3.5–7.4% in 55 patients, 7.5–15.4% in 173 patients, and ≥15.5% in 211 patients. Breast density tended to be higher in younger patients. Diagnostic accuracy of MMG tended to decrease with increasing breast density. US detection rates were not associated with VDG on MMG and were favorable at all densities. The risk of a non-detected result was high in patients without malignant suspicious calcifications. Supplementary use of US for patients without suspicious calcifications on MMG and high breast density, particularly ≥25.5%, could improve the breast cancer detection rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
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Review
Pathological Features and Prognostication in Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5356-5383; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060447 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2935
Abstract
The prognostication of colorectal cancer (CRC) has traditionally relied on staging as defined by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging classifications. However, clinically, there appears to be differences in survival patterns independent of [...] Read more.
The prognostication of colorectal cancer (CRC) has traditionally relied on staging as defined by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging classifications. However, clinically, there appears to be differences in survival patterns independent of stage, suggesting a complex interaction of stage, pathological features, and biomarkers playing a role in guiding prognosis, risk stratification, and guiding neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. Histological features such as tumour budding, perineural invasion, apical lymph node involvement, lymph node yield, lymph node ratio, and molecular features such as MSI, KRAS, BRAF, and CDX2 may assist in prognostication and optimising adjuvant treatment. This study provides a comprehensive review of the pathological features and biomarkers that are important in the prognostication and treatment of CRC. We review the importance of pathological features and biomarkers that may be important in colorectal cancer based on the current evidence in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
Case Report
Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumour: A Case with Genetic Linkage to a Child Born over Seventeen Years Prior, Successfully Treated with Surgery and Pembrolizumab
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5346-5355; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060446 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumours are rare neoplasms showing differentiation towards the chorion leave-type intermediate cytotrophoblast, with only a handful of cases being reported in the literature. These tumours are slow-growing and are typically confined to the uterus for extended periods of time. While the [...] Read more.
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumours are rare neoplasms showing differentiation towards the chorion leave-type intermediate cytotrophoblast, with only a handful of cases being reported in the literature. These tumours are slow-growing and are typically confined to the uterus for extended periods of time. While the pathogenesis is unclear, they are thought to arise from a remnant intermediate trophoblast originating from prior normal pregnancies or, less frequently, gestational trophoblastic tumours. A protracted time period between the gestational event and tumour development is typical. This case describes a 49-year-old previously healthy female who presented with a completely asymptomatic uterine mass, discovered incidentally during a routine gynaecological assessment. The pathological analysis of the hysterectomy specimen confirmed an epithelioid trophoblastic tumour, involving the uterus and cervix. This is a rare gynaecological tumour. A comparative short tandem repeat analysis revealed genetic similarities to a previous healthy gestation seventeen years prior. She was successful treated with adjuvant pembrolizumab, with no evidence of disease recurrence to date. Full article
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Article
Delivery of Virtual Care in Oncology: Province-Wide Interprofessional Consensus Statements Using a Modified Delphi Process
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5332-5345; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060445 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Virtual cancer care (i.e., teleoncology) was rapidly adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic to meet the needs of patients with cancer. However, there is a paucity of guidance for clinicians regarding virtual cancer care. We sought to develop consensus-based statements to guide the optimal [...] Read more.
Virtual cancer care (i.e., teleoncology) was rapidly adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic to meet the needs of patients with cancer. However, there is a paucity of guidance for clinicians regarding virtual cancer care. We sought to develop consensus-based statements to guide the optimal provision of virtual care for clinicians caring for patients with cancer, using a modified Delphi consensus process with a 29-member panel consisting of an interprofessional group of clinicians caring for patients with cancer and patient representatives. The consensus process consisted of two rounds and one synchronous final consensus meeting. At the end of the modified Delphi process, 62 of 62 statements achieved consensus. Fifty-seven statements reached consensus in the first round of the process. Concerns regarding the ability to convey difficult news virtually and maintaining similar standards as in-person care without disproportionate strain on clinicians and patients were addressed in the consensus process. We achieved interprofessional consensus on virtual cancer care practices. Further research examining the impact of virtual cancer care on person-centred and clinical outcomes are needed to inform practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Full article
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Brief Report
Feasibility on the Use of Radiomics Features of 11[C]-MET PET/CT in Central Nervous System Tumours: Preliminary Results on Potential Grading Discrimination Using a Machine Learning Model
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5318-5331; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060444 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Background/Aim: Nowadays, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks and could be useful for the new concept of precision medicine in order to help physicians in the choice of therapeutic strategies for brain tumours. Previous data suggest that, in [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: Nowadays, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks and could be useful for the new concept of precision medicine in order to help physicians in the choice of therapeutic strategies for brain tumours. Previous data suggest that, in the central nervous system (CNS) tumours, amino acid PET may more accurately demarcate the active disease than paramagnetic enhanced MRI, which is currently the standard method of evaluation in brain tumours and helps in the assessment of disease grading, as a fundamental basis for proper clinical patient management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of ML on 11[C]-MET PET/CT scan images and to propose a radiomics workflow using a machine-learning method to create a predictive model capable of discriminating between low-grade and high-grade CNS tumours. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, fifty-six patients affected by a primary brain tumour who underwent 11[C]-MET PET/CT were selected from January 2016 to December 2019. Pathological examination was available in all patients to confirm the diagnosis and grading of disease. PET/CT acquisition was performed after 10 min from the administration of 11C-Methionine (401–610 MBq) for a time acquisition of 15 min. 11[C]-MET PET/CT images were acquired using two scanners (24 patients on a Siemens scan and 32 patients on a GE scan). Then, LIFEx software was used to delineate brain tumours using two different semi-automatic and user-independent segmentation approaches and to extract 44 radiomics features for each segmentation. A novel mixed descriptive-inferential sequential approach was used to identify a subset of relevant features that correlate with the grading of disease confirmed by pathological examination and clinical outcome. Finally, a machine learning model based on discriminant analysis was used in the evaluation of grading prediction (low grade CNS vs. high-grade CNS) of 11[C]-MET PET/CT. Results: The proposed machine learning model based on (i) two semi-automatic and user-independent segmentation processes, (ii) an innovative feature selection and reduction process, and (iii) the discriminant analysis, showed good performance in the prediction of tumour grade when the volumetric segmentation was used for feature extraction. In this case, the proposed model obtained an accuracy of ~85% (AUC ~79%) in the subgroup of patients who underwent Siemens tomography scans, of 80.51% (AUC 65.73%) in patients who underwent GE tomography scans, and of 70.31% (AUC 64.13%) in the whole patients’ dataset (Siemens and GE scans). Conclusions: This preliminary study on the use of an ML model demonstrated to be feasible and able to select radiomics features of 11[C]-MET PET with potential value in prediction of grading of disease. Further studies are needed to improve radiomics algorithms to personalize predictive and prognostic models and potentially support the medical decision process. Full article
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Article
A Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Outcomes and Prognostic Factors in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Osteosarcoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5304-5317; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060443 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in both children and adults. Despite introduction of intensive multimodal treatment with chemotherapy and surgery, outcomes are still poor, especially for patients with metastatic disease and adults. Hence, there is an ongoing need for better [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in both children and adults. Despite introduction of intensive multimodal treatment with chemotherapy and surgery, outcomes are still poor, especially for patients with metastatic disease and adults. Hence, there is an ongoing need for better prognostic markers and outcome data to inform management decisions in both the adult and pediatric setting. Here, we retrospectively analyzed 112 patients with bone osteosarcoma treated at two large adult and pediatric tertiary academic centers between 1989 and 2019. Patients were divided into an adult (≥18 years) and pediatric (<18 years) cohort for comparison. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of outcomes in pediatric and adult patients, with a specific focus on the role of methotrexate when added to a combination of doxorubicin-cisplatin; the prognostic value of tumor necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; and outlining any differences in outcomes between adults and pediatric patients that could inform clinical management. Adult patients treated with methotrexate-doxorubicin-cisplatin and those treated with doxorubicin-cisplatin had similar 5-year PFS (26%, 95%CI: 45.5%–10% vs. 50%, 95%CI: 69.6%–26.2%, p = 0.1) and 5-year OS (63%, 95%CI: 82%–34%, vs. 78%, 95%CI: 90.6%–52.6%, p = 0.5). In the adult cohort, there was no difference between patients with ≥90% necrosis and <90% necrosis in either 5-year PFS (42%, 95%CI: 71.1%–11.3% vs. 38%, 95%CI: 57.7%–18.2%, p = 0.4) or 5-year OS (85%, 95%CI: 97.8%–33.4% vs. 56%, 95%CI: 76.8%–27.6%, p = 0.4). In the pediatric cohort, compared to patients with <90% necrosis, those with ≥90% necrosis had significantly better 5-year PFS (30%, 95%CI: 49.3%–14.1% vs. 55%, 95%CI: 73.9%–38.5%, p = 0.003) and 5-year OS (64%, 95%CI: 80.8%–41.1% vs. 78%, 95%CI: 92%–60.9%, p = 0.04). Adult and pediatric patients had similar 5-year OS (69%, 95%CI: 83.2%–49.8% vs. 73%, 95%CI: 83.2%–59.3%, p = 0.8) and 5-year PFS (37%, 95%CI: 52.4%–22.9% vs. 43%, 95%CI: 56.2%–30.4% p = 0.3) even though the proportion of patients with ≥90% necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was higher for children compared to adults (60.3% vs. 30%, OR: 3.54, 95%CI: 1.38–8.46, p = 0.006). In conclusion, in adult patients, the addition of methotrexate to doxorubicin and cisplatin did not correlate with a significant survival benefit, questioning the therapeutic value of methotrexate overall. Our study confirms the prognostic utility of percent tumor necrosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric patients but not in adult patients. Lastly, this is one of the few reported studies where patients with osteosarcoma younger and older than 18 years had similar PFS and OS. Full article
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Case Report
Carcinosarcoma, a Rare Malignant Neoplasm of the Pancreas
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5295-5303; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060442 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Carcinosarcoma of the pancreas is a rare entity with poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of pancreatic carcinosarcoma in a 68-year-old male patient who underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy for a unilocular cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. Histologically, the lesion showed [...] Read more.
Carcinosarcoma of the pancreas is a rare entity with poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of pancreatic carcinosarcoma in a 68-year-old male patient who underwent a pancreatoduodenectomy for a unilocular cystic mass in the head of the pancreas. Histologically, the lesion showed a biphasic tumor with a carcinoma component and a spindle cell sarcomatous component, which were intimately intermingled. Most of the carcinoma components are well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with small areas of moderately to poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. The sarcomatous component is a high-grade highly cellular spindle cell tumor with frequent mitosis and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the carcinomatous component was positive for epithelial markers and cyclin D1, and the sarcomatous component was negative for these markers while positive for vimentin, p16, and DOG1 with patchy positivity for S100. Other markers, including SOX10, CD117, Melan A, HMB45, actin, desmin, myogenin, beta-catenin, TLE1, and p53, were negative in both components. Molecular studies demonstrated that the tumor was microsatellite stable. Whole exome next generation sequencing analysis was performed and no pathogenic alterations in the genes were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Health and Budget Impact of Liquid-Biopsy-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profile (CGP) Testing in Tissue-Limited Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (aNSCLC) Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5278-5294; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060441 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Molecular genetic testing using tissue biopsies can be challenging for patients due to unfavorable tumor sites, the invasive nature of a tissue biopsy, and the added time of booking a repeat biopsy (re-biopsy). Centers in Canada have found insufficient tissue [...] Read more.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Molecular genetic testing using tissue biopsies can be challenging for patients due to unfavorable tumor sites, the invasive nature of a tissue biopsy, and the added time of booking a repeat biopsy (re-biopsy). Centers in Canada have found insufficient tissue rates to be approximately 10%, and even among successful biopsies, insufficient DNA in tissue samples is approximately 16%, triggering the lengthy process of re-biopsies. Using aNSCLC as an example, this study sought to characterize the health and budget impact of alternative liquid-biopsy(LBx)-based comprehensive genomic profile (CGP) testing in tissue-limited patients (TL-LBx-CGP) from a Canadian publicly funded healthcare perspective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An economic model was developed to estimate the incremental cost and life-years gained as a population associated with adopting TL-LBx-CGP. The eligible patient population was modeled using a top-down epidemiological approach based on the published literature and expert clinician input. Treatment allocation was modeled based on biomarker prevalence in the published literature, and the availability of funded therapies. Costs included molecular testing, as well as drug, administrative, and supportive costs, and relevant health data included median overall survival and median progression-free survival data. RESULTS: Incorporation of TL-LBx-CGP demonstrated an overall impact of $14.7 million with 168 life-years gained to the Canadian publicly funded healthcare system in the 3-year time horizon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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Article
Real-World Data on Treatment Management and Outcomes of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Greece (The EpOCa Study)
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5266-5277; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060440 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
New treatment modalities have been recently introduced in the management of ovarian cancer (OC). Herein, we sought to investigate their implementation in routine clinical practice and examine the real-world management of OC in Greece. EpOCa was a non-interventional, multicenter, retrospective study in patients [...] Read more.
New treatment modalities have been recently introduced in the management of ovarian cancer (OC). Herein, we sought to investigate their implementation in routine clinical practice and examine the real-world management of OC in Greece. EpOCa was a non-interventional, multicenter, retrospective study in patients with advanced epithelial OC. The primary outcome was to estimate the proportions of the different treatment regimens used per line of therapy, while progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the key secondary endpoints. A total of 154 patients were enrolled in the study, among whom, 40% were tested for BRCA mutations and 30% were found to be positive. Nearly 90% of patients underwent debulking surgery at diagnosis, with few operations being also recorded upon relapse. Platinum-based chemotherapy (CT) was predominantly used in the first line with half of patients also receiving angiogenesis inhibitor (AI), while non-platinum-based CT was preferred in later lines. The median PFS was 18.2 and 8.8 months in the first- and second-line setting, respectively, whereas the median OS was approximately 50 months. Our study adds to the available, but limited, real world data on the management of ovarian cancer providing evidence regarding the applied treatment strategies and outcomes of patients in Greece. Full article
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Article
Salvage Surgical Resection after Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Newly Diagnosed Brain Metastasis
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5255-5265; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060439 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of salvage surgical resection (SSR) after stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS/fSRT) for newly diagnosed brain metastasis. Methods: Between November 2009 and May 2020, 318 consecutive patients with 1114 brain metastases were treated [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of salvage surgical resection (SSR) after stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS/fSRT) for newly diagnosed brain metastasis. Methods: Between November 2009 and May 2020, 318 consecutive patients with 1114 brain metastases were treated with SRS/fSRT for newly diagnosed brain metastasis at our hospital. During this study period, 21 of 318 patients (6.6%) and 21 of 1114 brain metastases (1.9%) went on to receive SSR after SRS/fSRT. Three patients underwent multiple surgical resections. Twenty-one consecutive patients underwent twenty-four SSRs. Results: The median time from initial SRS/fSRT to SSR was 14 months (range: 2–96 months). The median follow-up after SSR was 17 months (range: 2–78 months). The range of tumor volume at initial SRS/fSRT was 0.12–21.46 cm3 (median: 1.02 cm3). Histopathological diagnosis after SSR was recurrence in 15 cases, and radiation necrosis (RN) or cyst formation in 6 cases. The time from SRS/fSRT to SSR was shorter in the recurrence than in the RNs and cyst formation, but these differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.067). The median survival time from SSR and from initial SRS/fSRT was 17 and 74 months, respectively. The cases with recurrence had a shorter survival time from initial SRS/fSRT than those without recurrence (p = 0.061). Conclusions: The patients treated with SRS/fSRT for brain metastasis need long-term follow-up. SSR is a safe and effective treatment for the recurrence, RN, and cyst formation after SRS/fSRT for brain metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
The Role of Farnesoid X Receptor in Accelerated Liver Regeneration in Rats Subjected to ALPPS
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5240-5254; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060438 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Background: the role of bile acid (BA)-induced farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) signaling in liver regeneration following associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) was investigated in a rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats underwent portal vein ligation (PVL) ( [...] Read more.
Background: the role of bile acid (BA)-induced farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) signaling in liver regeneration following associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) was investigated in a rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats underwent portal vein ligation (PVL) (n = 30) or ALPPS (n = 30). Animals were sacrificed pre-operatively and at 24, 48, 72, or 168 h after intervention. Regeneration rate, Ki67 index, hemodynamic changes in the hepatic circulation, and BA levels were assessed. Transcriptome analysis of molecular regulators involved in the Fxr signaling pathway, BA transport, and BA production was performed. Results: ALLPS induced more extensive liver regeneration (p < 0.001) and elevation of systemic and portal BA levels (p < 0.05) than PVL. The mRNA levels of proteins participating in hepatic Fxr signaling were comparable between the intervention groups. More profound activation of the intestinal Fxr pathway was observed 24 h after ALPPS compared to PVL. Conclusion: Our study elaborates on a possible linkage between BA-induced Fxr signaling and accelerated liver regeneration induced by ALPPS in rats. ALPPS could trigger liver regeneration via intestinal Fxr signaling cascades instead of hepatic Fxr signaling, thereby deviating from the mechanism of BA-mediated regeneration following one-stage hepatectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
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Review
The Challenge to the Pathologist of PD-L1 Expression in Tumor Cells of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer—An Overview
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5227-5239; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060437 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
In recent years, the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been fundamentally changed by immunotherapy where the immune system is reactivated using anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibition. With this, the immunohistological detection of PD-L1 has become [...] Read more.
In recent years, the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been fundamentally changed by immunotherapy where the immune system is reactivated using anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibition. With this, the immunohistological detection of PD-L1 has become one of the most important predictive biomarkers, leading pathologists to play a central role in the immuno-oncological therapy decisions. This has brought them the challenge of requiring the knowledge of relevant checkpoint inhibitors (CI), different PD-L1 scores and cut-offs as well as the choice of the right tissues and controls. Their involvement is also required in the careful validation of both clinical trial assays (CTAs) and laboratory developed tests (LDTs), in addition to the internal and external quality assessment and the interpretation and scoring of the staining based on specialist training. After the training of tumor proportion score (TPS) scoring in NSCLC, pathologists show a high level of concordance, with some variation between different cut-offs. Since not all patients benefit from immunotherapy, further research is needed to validate new predictive markers and optimize existing ones. In this context, these studies focus on a combination of PD-L1 and molecular signatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current State of Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer)
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Article
Experiences and Perceptions of Older Adults with Lower-Risk Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer about Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Endocrine Therapy: A Patient Survey
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5215-5226; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060436 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Older patients with lower-risk hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer are frequently offered both radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine therapy (ET) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). A survey was performed to assess older patients’ experiences and perceptions regarding RT and ET, and participation interest in de-escalation [...] Read more.
Older patients with lower-risk hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer are frequently offered both radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine therapy (ET) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). A survey was performed to assess older patients’ experiences and perceptions regarding RT and ET, and participation interest in de-escalation trials. Of the 130 patients approached, 102 eligible patients completed the survey (response rate 78%). The median age of respondents was 74 (interquartile range 71–76). Most participants (71%, 72/102) received both RT and ET. Patients felt the role of RT and ET, respectively, was to: reduce ipsilateral tumor recurrence (91%, 90/99 and 62%, 61/99) and improve survival (56%, 55/99 and 49%, 49/99). More patients had significant concerns regarding ET (66%, 65/99) than RT (39%, 37/95). When asked which treatment had the most negative effect on their quality of life, the results showed: ET (35%, 25/72), RT (14%, 10/72) or both (8%, 6/72). Participants would rather receive RT (57%, 41/72) than ET (43%, 31/72). Forty-four percent (44/100) of respondents were either, “not comfortable” or “not interested” in participating in potential de-escalation trials. Although most of the adjuvant therapy de-escalation trials evaluate the omission of RT, de-escalation studies of ET are warranted and patient centered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Care for Older Adults with Cancer)
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Systematic Review
Probiotics Evaluation in Oncological Surgery: A Systematic Review of 36 Randomized Controlled Trials Assessing 21 Diverse Formulations
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5192-5214; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060435 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
Background: Objectives were to evaluate probiotics safety and efficacy in oncological surgery. Methods: Systematic review methodology guided by Cochrane, PRISMA, SWiM, and CIOMS. Protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018086168). Results: 36 RCTs (on 3305 participants) and 6 nonrandomized/observational studies were included, mainly on digestive [...] Read more.
Background: Objectives were to evaluate probiotics safety and efficacy in oncological surgery. Methods: Systematic review methodology guided by Cochrane, PRISMA, SWiM, and CIOMS. Protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018086168). Results: 36 RCTs (on 3305 participants) and 6 nonrandomized/observational studies were included, mainly on digestive system cancers. There was evidence of a beneficial effect on preventing infections, with 70% of RCTs’ (21/30) direction of effect favoring probiotics. However, five RCTs (17%) favored controls for infections, including one trial with RR 1.57 (95% CI: 0.79, 3.12). One RCT that changed (balanced) its antibiotics protocol after enrolling some participants had mortality risk RR 3.55 (95% CI: 0.77, 16.47; 7/64 vs. 2/65 deaths). The RCT identified with the most promising results overall administered an oral formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 + Lactobacillus plantarum + Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 + Saccharomyces boulardii. Methodological quality appraisals revealed an overall substantial risk-of-bias, with only five RCTs judged as low risk-of-bias. Conclusions: This large evidence synthesis found encouraging results from most formulations, though this was contrasted by potential harms from a few others, thus validating the literature that “probiotics” are not homogeneous microorganisms. Given microbiome developments and infections morbidity, further high-quality research is warranted using those promising probiotics identified herein. Full article
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Article
Real-World Pattern of Treatment and Clinical Outcomes of EGFR-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Single Academic Centre in Quebec
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5179-5191; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060434 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The discovery of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of EGFR mutant (EGFRm) metastatic NSCLC is regarded as a landmark in lung cancer. EGFR-TKIs have now become a standard first-line treatment for EGFRm NSCLC. The aim of this retrospective cohort study [...] Read more.
The discovery of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of EGFR mutant (EGFRm) metastatic NSCLC is regarded as a landmark in lung cancer. EGFR-TKIs have now become a standard first-line treatment for EGFRm NSCLC. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to describe real-world patterns of treatment and treatment outcomes in patients with EGFRm metastatic NSCLC who received EGFR-TKI therapy outside of clinical trials. One hundred and seventy EGFRm metastatic NSCLC patients were diagnosed and initiated on first-line TKI therapy between 2004 and 2018 at the Peter Brojde Lung Cancer Centre in Montreal. Following progression of the disease, 137 (80%) patients discontinued first-line treatment. Moreover, 80/137 (58%) patients received second-line treatment, which included: EGFR-TKIs, platinum-based, or single-agent chemotherapy. At the time of progression on first-line treatment, 73 patients were tested for the T790M mutation. Moreover, 30/73 (41%) patients were found to be positive for the T790M mutation; 62/80 patients progressed to second-line treatment and 20/62 were started on third-line treatment. The median duration of treatment was 11.5 (95% CI; 9.62–13.44) months for first-line treatment, and 4.4 (95% CI: 1.47–7.39) months for second-line treatment. Median OS from the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease was 23.5 months (95% CI: 16.9–30.1) and median OS from the initiation of EGFR-TKI was 20.6 months (95% CI: 13.5–27.6). We identified that ECOG PS ≤ 2, presence of exon 19 deletion mutation, and absence of brain metastases were associated with better OS. A significant OS benefit was observed in patients treated with osimertinib in second-line treatment compared to those who never received osimertinib. Overall, our retrospective observational study suggests that treatment outcomes in EGFRm NSCLC in real-world practice, such as OS and PFS, reflect the result of RCTs. However, given the few observational studies on real-world treatment patterns of EGFR-mutant NSCLC, this study is important for understanding the potential impact of EGFR-TKIs on survival outside of clinical trials. Further real-world studies are needed to characterize patient outcomes for emerging therapies, including first-line osimertinib use and combination of osimertinib with chemotherapy and potential future combination of osimertinib and novel anticancer drug, outside of a clinical trial setting. Full article
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Article
Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (Caelyx®) as Adjuvant Treatment in Early-Stage Luminal B-like Breast Cancer: A Feasibility Phase II Trial
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5167-5178; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060433 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy for Luminal B-like breast cancers usually includes anthracycline-based regimens. However, some patients are reluctant to receive chemotherapy because of side-effects, especially alopecia, and ask for a “less intensive” or personalized approach. Patients and methods: We conducted a phase II feasibility [...] Read more.
Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy for Luminal B-like breast cancers usually includes anthracycline-based regimens. However, some patients are reluctant to receive chemotherapy because of side-effects, especially alopecia, and ask for a “less intensive” or personalized approach. Patients and methods: We conducted a phase II feasibility trial to evaluate pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD, Caelyx®) as adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who received surgery for pT1–3, any N, and luminal B-like early-stage breast cancer (EBC) candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy were included. PLD was administered intravenously at 20 mg/m2 biweekly for eight courses. Endocrine therapy was given according to menopausal status. Trastuzumab was administered in HER2-positive disease. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the feasibility of this regimen, defined as the ability of a patient to achieve a relative dose intensity (RDI) of at least 85% of the eight cycles of treatment. Secondary endpoints included adverse events (AEs), tolerability, breast cancer-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results: From March 2016 to July 2018, 63 patients were included in the trial. Median age was 49 years (range: 33–76), with mostly pre- and peri-menopausal (65%) and stage I–II (94%). Only 5% of patients had HER2-positive EBC. Median RDI was 100% (range: 12.5–100%; interquartile range, IQR: 87.5–100%). The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was 84% (95% confidence interval, CI: 73–92%). Overall, 55 out of 63 enrolled patients completed treatment (87%, 95% CI: 77–94%). Most common AEs were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (12.2%), fatigue (10.4%), and mucositis (8.5%). Only 13% of patients had G3 AEs. None had alopecia. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years (range: 0.3–4.7) two distant events were observed, and all patients were alive at the date of last visit. Conclusions: The trial successfully met its primary endpoint: the regimen was feasible and well tolerated and could be considered for further evaluation as a treatment option for patients with contraindications to standard anthracyclines or requiring a personalized, less intensive approach. Full article
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Article
Examining the Landscape of Prognostic Factors and Clinical Outcomes for Cancer Control
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5155-5166; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060432 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Prognostic factors have important utility in various aspects of cancer surveillance, including research, patient care, and cancer control programmes. Nevertheless, there is heterogeneity in the collection of prognostic factors and outcomes data globally. This study aimed to investigate perspectives on the utility and [...] Read more.
Prognostic factors have important utility in various aspects of cancer surveillance, including research, patient care, and cancer control programmes. Nevertheless, there is heterogeneity in the collection of prognostic factors and outcomes data globally. This study aimed to investigate perspectives on the utility and application of prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in cancer control programmes. A qualitative phenomenology approach using expert interviews was taken to derive a rich description of the current state and future outlook of cancer prognostic factors and clinical outcomes. Individuals with expertise in this work and from various regions and institutions were invited to take part in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Four areas related to infrastructure and funding challenges were identified by participants, including (1) data collection and access; (2) variability in data reporting, coding, and definitions; (3) limited coordination among databases; and (4) conceptualization and prioritization of meaningful prognostic factors and outcomes. Two areas were identified regarding important future priorities for cancer control: (1) global investment and intention in cancer surveillance and (2) data governance and exchange globally. Participants emphasized the need for better global collection of prognostic factors and clinical outcomes data and support for standardized data collection and data exchange practices by cancer registries. Full article
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Perspective
A Review on Splenic Diffuse Red Pulp Small B-Cell Lymphoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5148-5154; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060431 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) is a rare disease, representing <1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The most common clinical manifestations include splenomegaly, lymphocytosis, and hemocytopenia. A diagnosis of SDRPL can be challenging, as it shares multiple clinical and laboratory [...] Read more.
Splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) is a rare disease, representing <1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The most common clinical manifestations include splenomegaly, lymphocytosis, and hemocytopenia. A diagnosis of SDRPL can be challenging, as it shares multiple clinical and laboratory features with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and HCL variant (HCL-v). Obtaining splenic tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis. In the cases where splenic tissue is not available, diagnosis can be established by a review of peripheral blood and bone marrow studies. SDRPL is characterized by a diffuse involvement of the splenic red pulp by monomorphous small-to-medium sized mature B lymphocytes effacing the white pulp. The characteristic immunophenotype is positive for CD20, DBA.44 (20 to 90%), and IgG, and typically negative for CD5, CD10, CD23, cyclin D1, CD43, annexin A1, CD11c, CD25, CD123, and CD138. The Ki-67 proliferative index is characteristically low. Cyclin D3 is expressed in the majority of SDRPL in contrast with other types of small B-cell lymphomas, thus facilitating the recognition of this disease. There is no standard treatment regimen for SDRPL. Initial treatment options include splenectomy, rituximab monotherapy, or a combination of both. Chemoimmunotherapy should be considered in patients with advanced disease at baseline or progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Cell Lymphoma in the Spleen)
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Review
CD5-Negative, CD10-Negative Low-Grade B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Spleen
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5124-5147; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060430 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
CD5-negative, CD10-negative low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (CD5-CD10-LPD) of the spleen comprise a fascinating group of indolent, neoplastic, mature B-cell proliferations that are essential to accurately identify but can be difficult to diagnose. They comprise the majority of B-cell LPDs primary to the spleen, [...] Read more.
CD5-negative, CD10-negative low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (CD5-CD10-LPD) of the spleen comprise a fascinating group of indolent, neoplastic, mature B-cell proliferations that are essential to accurately identify but can be difficult to diagnose. They comprise the majority of B-cell LPDs primary to the spleen, commonly presenting with splenomegaly and co-involvement of peripheral blood and bone marrow, but with little to no involvement of lymph nodes. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is one of the prototypical, best studied, and most frequently encountered CD5-CD10-LPD of the spleen and typically involves white pulp. In contrast, hairy cell leukemia, another well-studied CD5-CD10-LPD of the spleen, involves red pulp, as do the two less common entities comprising so-called splenic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable: splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia variant. Although not always encountered in the spleen, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder consisting of a dual population of both clonal B-cells and plasma cells and the frequent presence of the MYD88 L265P mutation, is another CD5-CD10-LPD that can be seen in the spleen. Distinction of these different entities is possible through careful evaluation of morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular features, as well as peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens. A firm understanding of this group of low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is necessary for accurate diagnosis leading to optimal patient management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Cell Lymphoma in the Spleen)
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Review
Métis Peoples and Cancer: A Scoping Review of Literature, Programs, Policies and Educational Material in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5101-5123; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060429 - 04 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2646
Abstract
Much of the existing Indigenous cancer research focuses on First Nation populations or reports on pan-Indigenous data that include First Nations, Métis, and Inuit metrics together, which fails to capture the distinct lived realities, experiences of colonialism, and culture of each Indigenous group. [...] Read more.
Much of the existing Indigenous cancer research focuses on First Nation populations or reports on pan-Indigenous data that include First Nations, Métis, and Inuit metrics together, which fails to capture the distinct lived realities, experiences of colonialism, and culture of each Indigenous group. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize existing knowledge on cancer among Métis peoples in Canada, offering direction to researchers, institutions, and policymakers for future actions that enhance Métis-specific cancer surveillance and cancer care. We searched Embase, Medline, iPortal, and Proquest Theses and Dissertations databases, Google Scholar and Google, alongside ten websites relevant to cancer and Métis peoples. Two reviewers gathered 571 records. After screening, 77 records were included. Data show that Métis peoples experience higher behavioral risk factors, lower screening participation, higher cancer incidence for some cancers, and higher mortality rates compared to the non-Indigenous population. Existing research is piece-meal and researchers emphasize that there is inadequate Métis-specific cancer data. There is a need for targeted, Peoples-specific cancer control interventions to reduce these health inequities and a coordinated, Peoples-specific approach to cancer research. These efforts must involve collaboration among Métis Nations and organizations, provincial governments and agencies, researchers, and policymakers. Full article
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Review
Management of Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer from a Multidisciplinary Perspective: Current Position of the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary (SOGUG) Working Group
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5084-5100; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060428 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1802
Abstract
This review presents challenges and recommendations on different aspects related to the management of patients with localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), which were discussed by a group of experts of a Spanish Oncology Genitourinary (SOGUG) Working Group within the framework of the Genitourinary [...] Read more.
This review presents challenges and recommendations on different aspects related to the management of patients with localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), which were discussed by a group of experts of a Spanish Oncology Genitourinary (SOGUG) Working Group within the framework of the Genitourinary Alliance project (12GU). It is necessary to clearly define which patients are candidates for radical cystectomy and which are candidates for undergoing bladder-sparing procedures. In older patients, it is necessary to include a geriatric assessment and evaluation of comorbidities. The pathological report should include a classification of the histopathological variant of MIBC, particularly the identification of subtypes with prognostic, molecular and therapeutic implications. Improvement of clinical staging, better definition of prognostic groups based on molecular subtypes, and identification of biomarkers potentially associated with maximum benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy are areas for further research. A current challenge in the management of MIBC is improving the selection of patients likely to be candidates for immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors in the neoadjuvant setting. Optimization of FDG-PET/CT reliability in staging of MIBC and the selection of patients is necessary, as well as the design of prospective studies aimed to compare the value of different imaging techniques in parallel. Full article
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Article
A Randomized Trial Comparing 3- versus 4-Monthly Cardiac Monitoring in Patients Receiving Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(6), 5073-5083; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28060427 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Purpose: The optimal frequency for cardiac monitoring of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients receiving trastuzumab-based therapy for early breast cancer (EBC) is unknown. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing 3- versus 4-monthly cardiac monitoring. Patients and Method: Patients scheduled to [...] Read more.
Purpose: The optimal frequency for cardiac monitoring of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients receiving trastuzumab-based therapy for early breast cancer (EBC) is unknown. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing 3- versus 4-monthly cardiac monitoring. Patients and Method: Patients scheduled to receive trastuzumab-containing cancer therapy for EBC with normal (>53%) baseline LVEF were randomized to undergo LVEF assessments every 3 or 4 months. The primary outcome was the change in LVEF from baseline. Secondary outcomes included the rate of cardiac dysfunction (defined as a decrease in the LVEF of ≥10 percentage points, to a value <53%), delays in or discontinuation of trastuzumab therapy, and cardiology referral. Results: Of the 200 eligible and enrolled patients, 100 (50%) were randomized to 3-monthly and 100 (50%) to 4-monthly cardiac monitoring. Of these patients, 98 and 97 respectively underwent at least one cardiac scan. The estimated mean difference in LVEF from baseline was −0.94% (one-sided 95% lower bound: −2.14), which exceeded the pre-defined non-inferiority margin of −4%. There were also no significant differences between the two study arms for any of the secondary endpoints. The rate of detection of cardiac dysfunction was 16.3% (16/98) and 12.4% (12/97) in the 3- and 4-monthly arms, respectively (95% CI: 4.0 [−5.9, 13.8]). Conclusions: Cardiac monitoring every 4 months was deemed non-inferior to that every 3 months in patients with HER2-positive EBC being treated with trastuzumab-based therapy. Given its costs and inconvenience, cardiac monitoring every 4 months should be considered standard practice. Registration: NCT02696707, 18 February 2016. Full article
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