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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 17, Issue 17 (September-1 2020) – 426 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Early feeding practices influence the development of children’s eating habits and growth, but [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Relationship in eHealth—A Pilot Study of Similarities and Differences between the Online Program Priovi and Therapists Treating Borderline Personality Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176436 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 506
Abstract
eHealth programs have been found to be effective in treating many psychological conditions. Regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), few programs have been tested; nevertheless, results are promising. The therapeutic alliance is an important factor predicting treatment outcome in BPD. However, we do not [...] Read more.
eHealth programs have been found to be effective in treating many psychological conditions. Regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), few programs have been tested; nevertheless, results are promising. The therapeutic alliance is an important factor predicting treatment outcome in BPD. However, we do not know yet to what extent BPD patients form a therapeutic alliance with an eHealth tool and how this relationship differs from the relationship with their human therapist. This study aims to address this question using priovi, an interactive schema therapy-based eHealth tool for BPD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore how patients perceived the therapeutic alliance with priovi and its differences compared to the alliance with their human therapist (N = 9). Interview data were analyzed following the procedures of qualitative content analysis. Additionally, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-SR) was administered in two versions (regarding the human therapist and priovi, N = 16) every three months during the treatment phase of one year. Results indicate that patients were able to form a good therapeutic relationship with priovi, but it differed from the relationship to their human therapist. Important categories were “priovi is helpful, supportive and always there” and “priovi is less flexible”. WAI ratings for the task subscale were high in both relationships but significantly higher in WAItherapist compared to WAIpriovi in two measurements (nine-months measurement: t = 2.76, df = 15, p = 0.015; twelve-months measurement: t = 3.44, df = 15, p = 0.004). These results indicate that BPD patients can form a functioning alliance with an eHealth program and that eHealth programs may be especially useful for psychoeducation and cognitive exercises. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing Delivery of Selected Public Health Operations via Essential Public Health Operation Framework
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176435 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Background: To assess the conduct of delivery of public health services at the municipal level in Denmark by applying services enlisted in the Essential Public Health Operation framework (EPHO) of WHO. Methods: We conducted individual qualitative interviews with key informants working with public [...] Read more.
Background: To assess the conduct of delivery of public health services at the municipal level in Denmark by applying services enlisted in the Essential Public Health Operation framework (EPHO) of WHO. Methods: We conducted individual qualitative interviews with key informants working with public health using a self-assessment survey tool in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of the interrelation or multidisciplinary work in Kolding Municipality. The developed self-assessment survey tool entailed questions about essential public health activities performed in a municipality. Results: The Municipality organizes and contributes to core service delivery EPHOs, namely health protection, health promotion, and disease prevention. It collaborates with the general practitioners and the Region of Southern Denmark, responsible for hospital care, to fulfill the selected EPHOs. Conclusions: To obtain a comprehensive picture of the organizations that deliver public health services within a municipality, it is necessary to conduct interviews with representatives from those organizations as well. Additionally, the results from this study can be used to improve the survey tool further and hereafter conduct a nationwide survey in Denmark, as well as other European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Performance, Anthropometrics and Functional Characteristics Influence the Intensity of Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain in Military Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176434 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Background: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a serious problem in Military Police Officers (MPO), which accounts for up to 45% of the sick leave rates. It has been assumed that the strength and the endurance of trunk flexor and extensor muscles are [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a serious problem in Military Police Officers (MPO), which accounts for up to 45% of the sick leave rates. It has been assumed that the strength and the endurance of trunk flexor and extensor muscles are CLPB key factors, but it is not known whether these attributes are related to pain intensity. It was aimed to determine whether the strength and endurance of trunk flexor and extensor muscles differ in MPO with no pain (CON; n = 24), moderate (MOD; n = 42), and severe (SEV; n = 37) nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods: The peak torque and endurance test of trunk flexor (PTF.BM−1) and extensor (PTE.BM−1) muscles were compared. A multiple regression analysis was used to identify pain intensity predictors in all groups (PAIN) and according to pain intensity (MOD and SEV). Results: The PTF.BM−1 was negatively related to pain and was a significant predictor, irrespective of pain intensity (PAIN). Conclusion: When pain intensity was considered the PTF.BM−1 and PTE.BM−1 explained the pain in the MOD, while the PTE.BM−1 and service time explained pain intensity in the SEV. Endurance of the flexor and extensor muscles was not related to pain intensity. These results indicated that training protocols must emphasize specific strengthening routines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Insomnia in Relation to Academic Performance, Self-Reported Health, Physical Activity, and Substance Use Among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176433 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Purpose: Insomnia affects up to one in four adolescents and has been shown to have a negative impact on their mental and physical health. This study aimed to investigate the association between insomnia, academic performance, self-reported health, physical activity, school start time, and [...] Read more.
Purpose: Insomnia affects up to one in four adolescents and has been shown to have a negative impact on their mental and physical health. This study aimed to investigate the association between insomnia, academic performance, self-reported health, physical activity, school start time, and substance use among adolescents. Methods: A survey with a cross-sectional design was completed by adolescents (15–17 years old; n = 1504) in southern Sweden. The Minimal Insomnia Symptoms Scale (MISS) was used to operationalize insomnia. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between insomnia and self-reported health, failed school courses, substance use, school start time, family financial situation, screen time, and gender. Results: Insomnia (MISS ≥ 6) was associated with poor self-reported health (OR: 4.35), failed school courses (OR: 1.47), and use of alcohol and/or cigarettes (OR: 1.43). When the combined effect of self-reported health and physical activity were investigated, a combination of low physical activity (≤1 time/week) and poor self-reported health was strongly associated with insomnia (OR: 18.87). Conclusions: Insomnia was associated with other problems that in themselves are risk factors for poor health. This highlights the need for a holistic health-promoting approach to prevent insomnia, such as efforts to promote physical activity, school success, and the reduction of alcohol/cigarette use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Open AccessArticle
Perception of Menstrual Normality and Abnormality in Spanish Female Nursing Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176432 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Menstrual problems are usually taboo; and often, some, such as dysmenorrhea, are presumed normal. This study seeks to compare the menstrual characteristics and symptoms of female university students reporting self-perceived normality concerning their cycles and menstruation with those who perceive their menstruation as [...] Read more.
Menstrual problems are usually taboo; and often, some, such as dysmenorrhea, are presumed normal. This study seeks to compare the menstrual characteristics and symptoms of female university students reporting self-perceived normality concerning their cycles and menstruation with those who perceive their menstruation as being abnormal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 270 nursing students using a self-report questionnaire that included sociodemographic and gynecological issues, together with Visual Analog Scale, the Andersch and Milsom Scale, and the Spanish version of the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EuroQol-5D) to measure self-perceived health status. A bivariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test, linear trend chi-square, and Student’s t-test, and a multivariate analysis of stepwise binary logistic regression was performed to predict the perception of cycle abnormality. In total, 77.4% of participants displayed normality; however, in self-reporting of menstrual characteristics, 67.4% identified alterations. Young women suffering from menstrual dizziness were 1.997 (CI95% = 1.010–3.950; p = 0.047) more likely to manifest abnormal menstruation, 4.518 (CI95% = 1.239–16.477; p = 0.022) more likely if they suffered from Grade 3 menstrual pain, and 2.851 (CI95% = 1.399–5.809; p = 0.004) more likely if they perceived that menstruation interfered with their daily lives. Many menstrual changes and symptoms are still considered normal, making it difficult to identify and address these issues. Therefore, it is necessary to develop health policies and strategies to improve menstrual health literacy for increased knowledge and earlier diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obstetrics-Gynecology and Women's Health)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Wearing a Customized Mouthguard on Body Alignment and Balance Performance in Professional Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176431 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The present study examined the influence of a customized mouthguard on body alignment and balance performance in professional basketball players. Twenty-three professional male basketball players, aged 25.8 ± 8.6 years old, were voluntarily assigned to participate in three treatments, including no treatment (no [...] Read more.
The present study examined the influence of a customized mouthguard on body alignment and balance performance in professional basketball players. Twenty-three professional male basketball players, aged 25.8 ± 8.6 years old, were voluntarily assigned to participate in three treatments, including no treatment (no mouthguard), acute treatment (wearing a mouthguard), and repeated treatments (8 weeks follow-up). Body alignment status, such as spinal and pelvic posture and balance performance, were measured at each time point using a 3D Formetric III (Germany) and a postural control device (Posturomed 202, Germany), respectively. A repeated MANOVA analysis with a Bonferroni post hoc test was applied, and the adjusted p-value was set at 0.02. No significant treatment effect was observed in body alignment (p = 0.302). However, univariate analysis showed a significant difference in pelvic torsion, where it was decreased after acute and repeated mouthguard treatments compared to no treatment (p < 0.001). Kyphotic angle also increased significantly following 8 weeks of treatment compared to no treatment (p < 0.001) and acute treatment (p < 0.002). There was a significant treatment effect on balance performance (p < 0.001). Both static and dynamic balance performance improved following 8 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). Our study revealed that a customized mouthguard provides a benefit to balance performance. Notably, repeated treatment impacts on balance performance more than acute treatment. Although our findings did not show a significant effect on body alignment, some positive results, such as pelvic torsion and kyphotic angle, may provide substantial information for developing future longitudinal studies with large sample sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Modalities, Performance and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Getting the Perpetrator Incorporated and Prioritized in Homicide Investigations: The Development and Evaluation of a Case-Specific Element Library (C-SEL)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176430 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Homicide investigators in the digital era have access to an increasing amount of data and the processing of all persons of interest and pieces of evidence has become nearly impossible. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a case-specific element library (C-SEL) [...] Read more.
Homicide investigators in the digital era have access to an increasing amount of data and the processing of all persons of interest and pieces of evidence has become nearly impossible. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a case-specific element library (C-SEL) that can be used to incorporate and prioritize persons of interest in homicide investigations. In a survey, 107 experts in the field of criminal investigation assigned an initial score to the elements. Each element was extended with underlying factors that can be used to adjust the initial score based on the relevance and credibility of the source. A case study was conducted using three Dutch real-world cases to evaluate the methodology. The results look promising and are better than four methodologies currently used in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-criminology, Crime, and the Law)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Frustration of Psychological Needs on Addictive Behaviors in Mobile Videogamers—The Mediating Role of Use Expectancies and Time Spent Gaming
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176429 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Casual videogames (CVGs), played on smartphones, are becoming increasingly popular, especially among females and adults. Whereas the addictive potential of online (computer) videogames is well-established, there is yet insufficient evidence for Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in mobile gamers and for the mediating role [...] Read more.
Casual videogames (CVGs), played on smartphones, are becoming increasingly popular, especially among females and adults. Whereas the addictive potential of online (computer) videogames is well-established, there is yet insufficient evidence for Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in mobile gamers and for the mediating role of some mechanisms involved. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the frustration of psychological needs on mobile videogamers’ addictive behavior as well as the role of cognitions (game-use expectancies) and behaviors (time spent playing) through a hypothesized serial mediation model, while controlling for important correlates, such as game genre, age, gender and payment during play. A total of 471 mobile game users (211 males) with an average age of 21.73 replied to an online survey containing sociodemographic and game variables, the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS), the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF) and a slightly modified version of the Internet Use Expectancies Scale (IUES). The results corroborate the negative effects of need frustration on IGD among mobile gamers and clarify the role of time spent playing and game-use expectancies in the development of IGD, highlighting the important role of cognitions in this relationship. We conclude that both the time spent playing and game-use expectancies should be important targets for clinical interventions, even though they are not included in the diagnostic criteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Opioid Pain Medication Prescription for Chronic Pain in Primary Care Centers: The Roles of Pain Acceptance, Pain Intensity, Depressive Symptoms, Pain Catastrophizing, Sex, and Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176428 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Background: Psychological factors of patients may influence physicians’ decisions on prescribing opioid analgesics. However, few studies have sought to identify these factors. The present study had a double objective: (1) To identify the individual factors that differentiate patients who had been prescribed [...] Read more.
Background: Psychological factors of patients may influence physicians’ decisions on prescribing opioid analgesics. However, few studies have sought to identify these factors. The present study had a double objective: (1) To identify the individual factors that differentiate patients who had been prescribed opioids for the management of chronic back pain from those who had not been prescribed opioids and (2) to determine which factors make significant and independent contributions to the prediction of opioid prescribing. Methods: A total of 675 patients from four primary care centers were included in the sample. Variables included sex, age, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and pain acceptance. Results: Although no differences were found between men and women, participants with chronic noncancer pain who were prescribed opioids were older, reported higher levels of pain intensity and depressive symptoms, and reported lower levels of pain-acceptance. An independent association was found between pain intensity and depressive symptoms and opioid prescribing. Conclusions: The findings suggest that patient factors influence physicians’ decisions on prescribing opioids. It may be useful for primary care physicians to be aware of the potential of these factors to bias their treatment decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Flexibility and Adjustment to Chronic Pain)
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Open AccessArticle
Needs, Aggravation, and Degree of Burnout in Informal Caregivers of Patients with Chronic Cardiovascular Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176427 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
This study aimed to answer three main questions with respect to home caregivers for people with cardiovascular disease: (1) Are the needs of home caregivers being met (and at what level)?; (2) what is the level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment [...] Read more.
This study aimed to answer three main questions with respect to home caregivers for people with cardiovascular disease: (1) Are the needs of home caregivers being met (and at what level)?; (2) what is the level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment of home caregivers?; (3) what sociodemographic variables of home caregivers are related to unmet needs and level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment? The study used the Camberwell Modified Needs Assessment questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. This study reports on 161 informal home caregivers of patients with cardiovascular disease. We found that younger caregivers were less likely to report unmet needs (p = 0.011), and showed lower rates of burnout on depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. In addition, caregivers who worked more often reported higher levels of met needs (p = 0.022), and showed lower rates of burnout on depersonalization (p = 0.005) and emotional exhaustion (p = 0.018). Subjects residing in urban areas were more likely to report unmet needs (p = 0.007), and showed higher rates of burnout on emotional exhaustion (p = 0.006). Older caregivers who are unemployed and reside in cities should be offered programs to determine their unmet needs and to receive support. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Enforcement Capabilities on the Effectiveness of Public Assessment on Occupational Safety
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176426 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
(1) Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enforcement capabilities on the efficacy of two public interventions to improve occupational safety in olive mills. (2) Method: The difference in efficacy was evaluated by comparing the risks detected in [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enforcement capabilities on the efficacy of two public interventions to improve occupational safety in olive mills. (2) Method: The difference in efficacy was evaluated by comparing the risks detected in two groups in an initial assessment (with visits in the 2006–2008 period) to the risks detected in a later assessment, either after an intervention by Authorized Technicians with enforcement capabilities or after an intervention by Technical Advisors without enforcement capabilities (2011–2013). The assessments identified risks in the companies, according to a specific risk map for olive oil mill enterprises. (3) Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the comparison of the risk reductions of the two groups, with regard to the initial assessment. The greatest reductions in risk were found in the companies that received interventions by Authorized Technicians with enforcement capabilities, in the sections of individual protection equipment and the storage of dangerous products. (4) Conclusion: Interventions by Authorized Technicians with enforcement capabilities are more effective than interventions by Technical Advisors without enforcement capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Knowledge for a Better Occupational Health and Safety Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Psychosocial Influence of Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome in Daily Life of Patients: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176425 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 422
Abstract
(1) Background: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders causing pain, fatigue, and disabilities; it has several implications for patients who suffer from this disease. The major clinical manifestations of EDS include joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and generalized conjunctive tissue [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders causing pain, fatigue, and disabilities; it has several implications for patients who suffer from this disease. The major clinical manifestations of EDS include joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and generalized conjunctive tissue fragility. This research aims to explore their perceptions and experiences about the phycological and social spheres. (2) Methods: Semistructured interviews were carried out. Participants were encouraged to talk about issues related to their disease by asking open-ended questions in one to one interview. The interview guide included questions to identify the syndrome’s influence on the social and psychological life of patients All interviews were audio recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed using the phenomenological theoretical framework. The method of analysis was the thematic interpreting of perspectives and approaches. (3) Results: 31 individuals were proposed to participate in this study. Five patients refused to participate, so a total of 26 interviews were performed. Six themes ((1) Pain and its consequences on a daily basis; (2) The need to name the problem: the diagnosis; (3) Restructuring leisure and social relationships; (4) Limitations due to economic conditions; (5) Psychological impact of the disease situation; (6) Professional limitations) and four subthemes ((1) The value of partner support; (2) The weather influence on social plans; (3) Physical exercise and illness; (4) Support groups) emerged from the data. (4) Conclusions: This study revealed the impact of the syndrome on the social and daily life of patients, and not only in a physical level, but also in a psychological and social approach. These findings allow healthcare providers to know more about this disease in order to support and give advice to patients about the changes they will have to make. Full article
Open AccessReview
Risk Perception of Air Pollution: A Systematic Review Focused on Particulate Matter Exposure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176424 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The adverse health effects of exposure to air pollutants, notably to particulate matter (PM), are well-known, as well as the association with measured or estimated concentration levels. The role of perception can be relevant in exploring effects and pollution control actions. The purpose [...] Read more.
The adverse health effects of exposure to air pollutants, notably to particulate matter (PM), are well-known, as well as the association with measured or estimated concentration levels. The role of perception can be relevant in exploring effects and pollution control actions. The purpose of this study was to explore studies that analyse people’s perception, together with the measurement of air pollution, in order to elucidate the relationship between them. We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In March 2020, PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were explored in an attempt to search for studies published from 2000 to 2020. The review included 38 studies, most of which were conducted in China (n = 13) and the United States (n = 11) and published over the last four years (n = 26). Three studies were multicenter investigations, while five articles were based on a national-level survey. The air quality (AQ) was assessed by monitoring stations (n = 24) or dispersion models (n = 7). Many studies were population questionnaire-based, air monitoring and time-series studies, and web-based investigations. A direct association between exposure and perception emerged in 20 studies. This systematic review has shown that most of the studies establish a relationship between risk perception measurement. A broad spectrum of concepts and notions related to perception also emerged, which is undoubtedly an indicator of the wealth of available knowledge and is promising for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research about Risk Perception in the Environmental Health Domain)
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Open AccessReview
Increasing Rural Recruitment and Retention through Rural Exposure during Undergraduate Training: An Integrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176423 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Objectives: Ensuring nationwide access to medical care challenges health systems worldwide. Rural exposure during undergraduate medical training is promising as a means for overcoming the shortage of physicians outside urban areas, but the effectiveness is widely unknown. This integrative review assesses the effects [...] Read more.
Objectives: Ensuring nationwide access to medical care challenges health systems worldwide. Rural exposure during undergraduate medical training is promising as a means for overcoming the shortage of physicians outside urban areas, but the effectiveness is widely unknown. This integrative review assesses the effects of rural placements during undergraduate medical training on graduates’ likelihood to take up rural practice. Methods: The paper presents the results of a longitudinal review of the literature published in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and elsewhere on the measurable effects of rural placements and internships during medical training on the number of graduates in rural practice. Results: The combined database and hand search identified 38 suitable primary studies with rather heterogeneous interventions, endpoints and results, mostly cross-sectional and control studies. The analysis of the existing evidence exhibited predominantly positive but rather weak correlations between rural placements during undergraduate medical training and later rural practice. Beyond the initial scope, the review underpinned rural upbringing to be the strongest predictor for rural practice. Conclusions: This review confirms that rural exposure during undergraduate medical training to contributes to recruitment and retention in nonurban settings. It can play a role within a broader strategy for overcoming the shortage of rural practitioners. Rural placements during medical education turned out to be particularly effective for rural-entry students. Given the increasing funding being directed towards medical schools to produce graduates that will work rurally, more robust high-quality research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Remote Health Workforce)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Contact Lens Disinfection by Combining Disinfectant with Visible Light Irradiation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176422 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Multiple use contact lenses have to be disinfected overnight to reduce the risk of infections. However, several studies demonstrated that not only microorganisms are affected by the disinfectants, but also ocular epithelial cells, which come into contact via residuals at reinsertion of the [...] Read more.
Multiple use contact lenses have to be disinfected overnight to reduce the risk of infections. However, several studies demonstrated that not only microorganisms are affected by the disinfectants, but also ocular epithelial cells, which come into contact via residuals at reinsertion of the lens. Visible light has been demonstrated to achieve an inactivation effect on several bacterial and fungal species. Combinations with other disinfection methods often showed better results compared to separately applied methods. We therefore investigated contact lens disinfection solutions combined with 405 nm irradiation, with the intention to reduce the disinfectant concentration of ReNu Multiplus, OptiFree Express or AOSept while maintaining adequate disinfection results due to combination benefits. Pseudomonads, staphylococci and E. coli were studied with disk diffusion assay, colony forming unit (cfu) determination and growth delay. A log reduction of 4.49 was achieved for P. fluorescens in 2 h for 40% ReNu Multiplus combined with an irradiation intensity of 20 mW/cm2 at 405 nm. For AOSept the combination effect was so strong that 5% of AOSept in combination with light exhibited the same result as 100% AOSept alone. Combination of disinfectants with visible violet light is therefore considered a promising approach, as a reduction of potentially toxic ingredients can be achieved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation Associated with Fat Mass and Weight Status in Youth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176421 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
(1) Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and weight-related outcomes in youth, controlling for weight-related behaviors. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood SED, weight status, and fat mass in a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and weight-related outcomes in youth, controlling for weight-related behaviors. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood SED, weight status, and fat mass in a diverse sample of youth, before and after controlling for physical activity and diet. (2) Methods: The sample included 828 youth from the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids study. Neighborhood SED was expressed as an index score at the census tract of residence. Height, weight, and body composition were measured and used to calculate fat mass index (FMI) and weight status. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (min/h) were measured via accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed via the Block Food Screener for Kids. Multilevel regression models were employed to examine these relationships. (3) Results: Neighborhood SED was significantly associated with FMI and weight status before and after controlling for MVPA, sedentary behavior, and diet. Notably, youth residing in the most deprived neighborhoods had significantly higher FMI and were 30% more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.03–1.65). (4) Conclusions: Greater neighborhood SED was consistently and significantly associated with higher fat mass index and increased likelihood of overweight/obesity among youth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Supports and Physical Activity among Youth)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Application of the Safe-by-Design Concept in Crop Breeding Innovation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176420 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 283
Abstract
The present paper proposes the application of the safe-by-design concept to crop breeding innovation with the aim to accommodate safety considerations for new agricultural food and feed products. Safe-by-design can be implemented in all stages of the innovation cycle of agricultural products, from [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes the application of the safe-by-design concept to crop breeding innovation with the aim to accommodate safety considerations for new agricultural food and feed products. Safe-by-design can be implemented in all stages of the innovation cycle of agricultural products, from the early stages of research and development towards the post-market stage. Our proposed application of safe-by-design can be part of “responsible research and innovation” concepts, because they share features such as risk prevention strategies and a participatory approach. Early awareness of potential safety issues can guide the development of agricultural products towards safe options, both at the process and product level, and thus may help to reduce extensive pre-market assessment studies that might otherwise be needed further downstream for regulatory product approval. Here, it is discussed how the proposed safe-by-design approach can be introduced into the development of safe food crops using emerging technologies, such as gene editing and synthetic biology, and how this may help to safeguard the safety of our food and feed supply in the light of the ongoing global innovations in agricultural crop breeding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Do Daily Compensatory Health Beliefs Predict Intention to Quit and Smoking Behavior? A Daily Diary Study during Smoking Cessation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176419 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are a means to cope with motivational conflicts between intended health goals and the temptation for an unhealthy behavior. As CHBs can fluctuate on a daily basis, this study examined how daily CHBs are associated with daily intention to [...] Read more.
Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are a means to cope with motivational conflicts between intended health goals and the temptation for an unhealthy behavior. As CHBs can fluctuate on a daily basis, this study examined how daily CHBs are associated with daily intention to quit smoking and daily number of cigarettes smoked before and after a quit date at the between- and within-person level. The study comprised a prospective longitudinal design and investigated 83 women and 83 men for 32 consecutive days during an ongoing joint self-set quit attempt. Daily CHBs varied from day to day and between individuals. At the between-person level, higher women’s mean CHBs were associated with lower intention (b = −0.23, p = 0.04) and at the 10% level with more cigarettes smoked after the quit date (rate ratio (RR) = 1.92, p = 0.07). At the within-person level, women’s higher than usual CHBs were unrelated to intention to quit, but were related to less smoking before (RR = 0.96, p = 0.03) and at the 10% level after the quit date (RR = 0.91, p = 0.09). A marginally positive association between daily CHBs and smoking at the within-person level emerged for men. The negative effect of daily CHBs at the between-person level on smoking seems to unfold after the quit attempt and for women only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Suicide Prevention Program for the Energy Sector
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176418 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 430
Abstract
There is evidence indicating that traditionally male-dominated occupations are associated with greater risk of suicide. In Australia, MATES in Construction was developed as an occupational health initiative to prevent suicides in the industry. The program has recently been applied to the energy industry; [...] Read more.
There is evidence indicating that traditionally male-dominated occupations are associated with greater risk of suicide. In Australia, MATES in Construction was developed as an occupational health initiative to prevent suicides in the industry. The program has recently been applied to the energy industry; however, little is known regarding exposure to suicide and suicide prevention interventions in this sector. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of MATES in Energy general awareness training (GAT), and estimate the prevalence of recent suicidal ideation and exposure to suicidal behaviors in workers. A before and after design was used to examine the effectiveness of GAT training. Data were collected from 4887 participants undertaking GAT training at energy sites across Queensland, Australia. In total, 2% (97) of participants reported recent suicidal thoughts, 65% of participants reported they had known someone who had attempted suicide, and 69% had known someone who died by suicide. Significant improvements were found on all suicide literacy items after GAT training. Younger people were more likely to be positively affected by the intervention. The results indicate that the MATES in Energy program is successfully transitioning from the construction industry, and offers the first empirically supported suicide intervention tailored to the energy sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Expanded National Health Insurance Coverage of Dentures and Dental Implants on Dental Care Utilization among Older Adults in South Korea: A Study Based on the Korean Health Panel Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176417 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
In South Korea, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) began its coverage of dentures and dental implants for older people in 2012 and 2014, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the impact of these policies on dental care utilization among people aged 65 [...] Read more.
In South Korea, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) began its coverage of dentures and dental implants for older people in 2012 and 2014, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the impact of these policies on dental care utilization among people aged 65 years or older according to their sociodemographic characteristics. Data were collected from the Korea Health Panel Survey (KHP; years 2012 and 2015). The statistical significance of the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and the use of outpatient dental care, denture, and dental implant were analyzed. Results showed an increase of 5.7%, 1.4%, and 2.8% in the use of outpatient dental care, denture, and dental implant, respectively, over the course of three years. Including dentures increased its use by 2.5–3.7 times among people aged 70 years or older. Including dental implants alleviated the disparities among older adults based on age groups and duration of education, except those among uneducated people; however, it caused inequity according to household income. Some Korean older adults remain neglected from the benefits of the expanded NHIS. Therefore, older adults’ access to dental care should be enhanced by the implementation of policies to promote oral health care utilization, dental prosthetic services, and older adults’ insurance coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Health)
Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Toxic Efficacy of Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Transformed by Sphingobium quisquiliarum
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176416 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant in crude oils and refined petroleum products and are considered as major contributors to the toxicity of spilled oils. In this study, the microbial degradation of model (alkylated) PAHs (i.e., phenanthrene, 3-methylphenanthrene, 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene (36DMPhe), pyrene, and [...] Read more.
Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant in crude oils and refined petroleum products and are considered as major contributors to the toxicity of spilled oils. In this study, the microbial degradation of model (alkylated) PAHs (i.e., phenanthrene, 3-methylphenanthrene, 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene (36DMPhe), pyrene, and 1-methylpyrene (1MP)) by the bacterium Sphingobium quisquiliarum EPA505, a known degrader of PAHs, was studied. To evaluate the toxic potential of the metabolic products, reaction mixtures containing metabolites of 36DMPhe and 1MP were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their effects on the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri were evaluated. Although the luminescence inhibition of 36DMPhe and 1MP at their solubility levels was not observed, inhibition was observed in their metabolite fractions at the solubility limit of their parent molecule. This indicates that initial biotransformation increases the toxicity of alkylated PAHs because of the increased solubility and/or inherent toxicity of metabolites. Qualitative analysis of the metabolite fractions suggested that mono-oxidation of the methyl group is the main metabolic pathway of 36DMPhe and 1MP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Personal and Environmental Contributors to Sedentary Behavior of Older Adults in Independent and Assisted Living Facilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176415 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes and unhealthy aging. Older adults are the most sedentary age group, and decreasing sitting time represents an intervention target for improving health. Determinants of sedentary behavior have been examined in older adults living in their [...] Read more.
Sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes and unhealthy aging. Older adults are the most sedentary age group, and decreasing sitting time represents an intervention target for improving health. Determinants of sedentary behavior have been examined in older adults living in their own homes, yet less is known about sedentary behavior of older adults in residential care facilities. The purpose of this study was to explore factors contributing to sedentary behavior among residents of independent and assisted living facilities. We conducted eight focus groups with residents (n = 44) and semi-structured interviews with staff (n = 6) across four living facilities. Audio recordings were transcribed and analyzed using an iterative, inductive approach. Three salient themes were identified. Residents and staff both viewed sedentary behavior negatively unless it was in the context of social engagement. Additionally, fear of falling was discussed as a significant contributor to sedentary behavior. Finally, residents felt the community living environment contributed to their sedentary behavior while staff did not. Our findings provide valuable insight for designing targeted interventions for older adults in residential facilities and suggest thinking beyond the individual and considering environmental influences on sedentary behavior in the residential care setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sedentary Behaviour and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Children’s Single-Leg Landing Movement Capability Analysis According to the Type of Sport Practiced
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176414 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 395
Abstract
(1) Background: Understanding children’s motor patterns in landing is important not only for sport performance but also to prevent lower limb injury. The purpose of this study was to analyze children’s lower limb joint angles and impact force during single-leg landings (SLL) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Understanding children’s motor patterns in landing is important not only for sport performance but also to prevent lower limb injury. The purpose of this study was to analyze children’s lower limb joint angles and impact force during single-leg landings (SLL) in different types of jumping sports using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). (2) Methods: Thirty children (53.33% girls, M = 10.16 years-old, standard deviation (SD) = 1.52) divided into three groups (gymnastics, volleyball and control) participated in the study. The participants were asked to do SLLs with the dominant lower limb (barefoot) on a force plate from a height of 25 cm. The vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and lower limb joint angles were assessed. SPM{F} one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and SPM{t} unpaired t-tests were performed during the landing and stability phases. (3) Results: A significant main effect was found in the landing phase of jumping sport practice in GRF and joint angles. During the stability phase, this effect was exhibited in ankle and knee joint angles. (4) Conclusions: Evidence was obtained of the influence of practicing a specific sport in childhood. Child volleyball players performed SLL with lower impact force and higher knee flexion than child gymnasts. Training in specific jumping sports (i.e., volleyball and gymnastics) could affect the individual capacity to adapt SLL execution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Listening to Hospital Personnel’s Narratives during the COVID-19 Outbreak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176413 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 406
Abstract
Healthcare workers (HCWs) facing the COVID-19 pandemic are required to deal with unexpectedly traumatic situations, concern about contamination, and mounting patient deaths. As a means to address the changing needs of our hospital’s HCWs, we conducted a narrative analysis study in the early [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) facing the COVID-19 pandemic are required to deal with unexpectedly traumatic situations, concern about contamination, and mounting patient deaths. As a means to address the changing needs of our hospital’s HCWs, we conducted a narrative analysis study in the early stages of the covid-19 outbreak. A focus group of medical experts, conducted as the initial step, recommended that a bottom-up research tool be used for exploring HCWs’ traumatic experiences and needs. We therefore conducted 450 semi-structured in-depth interviews with hospital personnel. The interviews were based on Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs model, and the narratives were analyzed by applying the Listening Guide methodology. The interviewees expressed a need for physical and psychological security in the battle against Covid-19, in addition to the need for attachment and meaning. Importantly, we also found that the interview itself may serve as a therapeutic tool. In light of our findings, we recommended changes in hospital practices, which were subsequently implemented. Further research on HCWs’ traumatic experiences and needs will provide evidence-based knowledge and may enable novel approaches in the battle against Covid-19. To conclude, the knowledge generated by listening to HCWs’ narratives may provide suitable support programs for professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salutogenesis and Coping: Ways to Overcome Stress and Conflicts)
Open AccessArticle
Naturalistic Driving Study in Brazil: An Analysis of Mobile Phone Use Behavior while Driving
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176412 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Mobile phone use (MPU) while driving is an important road safety challenge worldwide. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) emerged as one of the most sophisticated methodologies to investigate driver behavior; however, NDS have not been implemented in low- or middle-income countries. The aim of [...] Read more.
Mobile phone use (MPU) while driving is an important road safety challenge worldwide. Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) emerged as one of the most sophisticated methodologies to investigate driver behavior; however, NDS have not been implemented in low- or middle-income countries. The aim of this research is to investigate MPU while driving and compare the results to those reported in international studies. An analysis of 61.32 h and 1350 km driven in Curitiba (Brazil) showed that MPU lasted for an average of 28.51 s (n = 627) and occurred in 58.71% of trips (n = 201) with an average frequency of 8.37 interactions per hour (n = 201). The proportion of the trip time using a mobile phone was 7.03% (n = 201), and the average instantaneous speed was 12.77 km/h (n = 627) while using the phone. Generally, drivers spent less time on more complex interactions and selected a lower speed when using the phone. MPU was observed more during short duration than longer trips. Drivers in this study engaged in a larger number of MPU compared to drivers from Netherlands and the United States; and the percentage of trip time with MPU was between North American and European values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prejudice and Feeling of Threat towards Syrian Refugees: The Moderating Effects of Precarious Employment and Perceived Low Outgroup Morality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176411 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Refugees frequently experience traumatic situations that result in the deterioration of their psychological well-being. In addition, perceived prejudice and discrimination against them by the host society can worsen their mental health. In this research study, using a Spanish sample, prejudice towards Syrian refugees [...] Read more.
Refugees frequently experience traumatic situations that result in the deterioration of their psychological well-being. In addition, perceived prejudice and discrimination against them by the host society can worsen their mental health. In this research study, using a Spanish sample, prejudice towards Syrian refugees is analyzed taking into account feeling of threat (realistic or symbolic), precarious employment, and perceived outgroup morality. Using a total of 365 participants, our results reveal that individuals feel more prejudice towards refugees when the former scored higher in realistic threat and symbolic threat, were in a highly precarious situation of employment and perceived refugees as being more immoral. Furthermore, it was found that persons who scored high in realistic threat and at the same time were in a situation of precarious employment, were those who displayed greater prejudice. The results likewise pointed to individuals who scored high in symbolic threat and in outgroup morality as being those who felt greater rejection towards the refugees. Accordingly, our results confirm the importance of feeling of threat in relation to prejudice, and highlight two important moderating factors: precarious employment and perceived outgroup morality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health and Wellbeing of Migrant Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Just World Beliefs and Life Satisfaction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176410 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 272
Abstract
An important and often unexplored factor shaping life satisfaction is one’s perception of the world as a “just” place. The “just world hypothesis” is predicated on the idea that the world works as a place where people get what they merit, an idea [...] Read more.
An important and often unexplored factor shaping life satisfaction is one’s perception of the world as a “just” place. The “just world hypothesis” is predicated on the idea that the world works as a place where people get what they merit, an idea that often serves as a means for people to rationalize injustices. The research addressing just world beliefs has expanded into a four-factor model that categorizes just world beliefs for self and others into subcategories of distributive and procedural justice. Distributive justice involves evaluations of the fairness of outcomes, allocations, or distribution of resources, while procedural concerns evaluations of the fairness of decision processes, rules, or interpersonal treatment. This study explored the relationship between the four just world beliefs subscales and overall satisfaction with life and examined their associations with demographic variables including ethnicity, age, gender, religion, and social class. The relationships of demographic factors with justice beliefs and life satisfaction generally yielded very small effect sizes. However, respondents who identified themselves as middle and upper class reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those who identified themselves as lower class, with a medium effect size. Consistent with the results of earlier research, regressing life satisfaction on the four justice beliefs subscales indicated that the two self-subscales (distributive and procedural) were significantly predictive of life satisfaction, but the two other subscales (distributive and procedural) were not. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parents’ Perceptions Regarding the Implementation of a Physical Therapy Stimulation Program for Children with Disabilities in Bolivia: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176409 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore how parents of children with neuromotor disorders in the department of Chuquisaca (Bolivia) perceive attendance to a physical therapy stimulation program and the expectations they place on the therapy and professional care provided to their [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore how parents of children with neuromotor disorders in the department of Chuquisaca (Bolivia) perceive attendance to a physical therapy stimulation program and the expectations they place on the therapy and professional care provided to their children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the parents, related to their role in supporting the recommended exercise program for the child, generating topics such as benefits of the therapy for the child, impact on the family, and role of the project in terms of therapy and the physical therapists providing treatment, including both positive and negative aspects of the overall process. This study revealed the importance of understanding the feelings of families receiving intervention under a pioneering program in Bolivia for the detection and treatment of children with neuromotor disorders. Being able to access these types of services provides them with extensive personal, social, and economic support. Knowing their concerns, desires, and demands will allow us to continue to improve and offer the best care for children and families. The professionals involved should also be encouraged to develop effective teaching techniques to promote the inclusion of parents in the stimulation program. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strength Conditioning Program to Prevent Adductor Muscle Strains in Football: Does it Really Help Professional Football Players?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176408 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Coaches at the professional level are often concerned about negative side effects from testing and intensive resistance training periods, and they are not willing to base their training prescriptions on data obtained from semiprofessional or amateur football players. Consequently, the purpose of this [...] Read more.
Coaches at the professional level are often concerned about negative side effects from testing and intensive resistance training periods, and they are not willing to base their training prescriptions on data obtained from semiprofessional or amateur football players. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability and effectiveness of two adductor injury active prevention programs using the adductor/abductor ratio and deficit between legs, on the basis of adduction–abduction power output during the exercises proposed, in professional football players. Forty-eight professional football players undertook complementary strength training for the adductor and abductor muscles in their dominant and non-dominant legs, once or twice a week throughout the playing season. The volume of the session was determined by the adductor/abductor ratio and the deficit between legs in the last session training measured. The number and severity of muscle injuries per 1000 h of exposure were recorded. Both prevention programs showed a very low rate of adductor injury (0.27 and 0.07 injuries/1000 h) with mild-to-moderate severity, maintaining a balance in percentage asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant legs for adductor (10.37%) and in the adductor/abductor ratio (0.92) in top professional football players throughout the season. The strength conditioning program proposed can help to prevent adductor muscle injuries in top professional football players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Sport Sciences: Training and Injury Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Social Network Sites to Boost Savoring: Positive Effects on Positive Emotions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176407 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Research has demonstrated that positive interventions (PIs) can be effective in enhancing well-being. Our study used Facebook to conduct a PI based on savoring. Sixty-one university students in Taiwan were randomly assigned to undergo a three-week savoring PI, and 61 participants were assigned [...] Read more.
Research has demonstrated that positive interventions (PIs) can be effective in enhancing well-being. Our study used Facebook to conduct a PI based on savoring. Sixty-one university students in Taiwan were randomly assigned to undergo a three-week savoring PI, and 61 participants were assigned to a no-treatment control group. The results showed significantly enhanced positive affect in the treatment group compared to the control group, in both a post-test and a final follow-up, but no significant differences between the two groups in negative affect. The treatment group also displayed significantly lower depression in the post-test, which was not maintained at the follow-up. These results indicate that, for university students, a savoring intervention via Facebook can be an effective way of enhancing positive emotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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