Special Issue "Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pilar Serra-Añó
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiotherapy, Clinical Biomechanics Unit research, (UBIC) University of Valencia, 46010, Valencia, Spain
Interests: biomechanics; movement disorders; physical activity and exercise and pain
Prof. Dr. Marta Inglés de la Torre
Website
Guest Editor
Freshage Research Group. Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, CIBERFES-ISCIII, INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: ageing-related diseases; frailty; physical therapy; therapeutic exercise; pain
Prof. Dr. Xavier García-Massó
Website
Guest Editor
Departament de Didàctica de l’Expressió Musical, Plàstica i Corporal, University of Valencia, 46021 Valencia, Spain
Interests: motor control and learning on children and adolescents
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On behalf of IJERPH, we are organizing a Special Issue on the effects of physical exercise as a therapeutic approach to improve performance and health. IJERPH is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes manuscripts and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to the website: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

One of the most powerful resources to maintain or improve quality of life is physical exercise. Therapeutic exercise is the systematic and planned execution of body movements, postures and physical activities, so that the patient can i) correct or prevent alterations; ii) improve, restore, or enhance physical functioning; iii) prevent or reduce health risk factors, and iiii) optimize their overall health, fitness or feeling of well-being. Thus, physical exercise-based therapeutic programs should be specifically prescribed and supervised when the target population presents any injury, disease or pathology.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to the impact of therapeutic exercise on any condition, for example, its effects on improving the cardiovascular or respiratory system, repairing or avoiding comorbidities of nervous system diseases, resolving acute or chronic injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and benefiting emotional status. Included studies may also address potential considerations depending on specific factors (i.e., age, sex) or specific purposes (i.e., time to return to work after injury) Studies analyzing factors to improve adherence to therapeutic exercise programs will be also considered, as will studies that objectify the impact of therapeutic exercise in different areas such as biomechanics, physiology, or image techniques. The listed keywords include a few of the many possible subject areas.

Prof. Dr. Pilar Serra-Añó
Prof. Dr. Marta Inglés de la Torre
Prof. Dr. Xavier García-Massó
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Therapeutic exercise
  • Public health
  • Quality of life
  • Well-being
  • Functionality
  • Physical activity
  • Physical exercise
  • Sports
  • Leisure time
  • Pathology
  • Disease
  • Injury
  • Aging
  • Prevention
  • Promotion

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of a Physical Therapeutic Exercise Programme for Caregivers of Dependent Patients: A Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial from Spanish Primary Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207359 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
Female family caregivers (FFCs) constitute one of the basic supports of socio-health care for dependence in developed countries. The care provided by FFCs may impact their physical and mental health, negatively affecting their quality of life. In order to alleviate the consequences of [...] Read more.
Female family caregivers (FFCs) constitute one of the basic supports of socio-health care for dependence in developed countries. The care provided by FFCs may impact their physical and mental health, negatively affecting their quality of life. In order to alleviate the consequences of providing care on FFCs, the Spanish Public Health System has developed the family caregiver care programme (FCCP) to be applied in primary care (PC) centres. The effectiveness of this programme is limited. To date, the addition of a physical therapeutic exercise (PTE) programme to FCCP has not been evaluated. A randomised multicentre clinical trial was carried out in two PC centres of the Spanish Public Health System. In total, 68 FFCs were recruited. The experimental group (EG) performed the usual FCCP (4 sessions, 6 h) added to a PTE programme (36 sessions in 12 weeks) whereas the control group performed the usual FCCP performed in PC. The experimental treatment improved quality of life (d = 1.17 in physical component summary), subjective burden (d = 2.38), anxiety (d = 1.52), depression (d = 1.37) and health-related physical condition (d = 2.44 in endurance). Differences between the groups (p < 0.05) were clinically relevant in favour of the EG. The experimental treatment generates high levels of satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Children’s Single-Leg Landing Movement Capability Analysis According to the Type of Sport Practiced
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176414 - 03 Sep 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: Understanding children’s motor patterns in landing is important not only for sport performance but also to prevent lower limb injury. The purpose of this study was to analyze children’s lower limb joint angles and impact force during single-leg landings (SLL) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Understanding children’s motor patterns in landing is important not only for sport performance but also to prevent lower limb injury. The purpose of this study was to analyze children’s lower limb joint angles and impact force during single-leg landings (SLL) in different types of jumping sports using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). (2) Methods: Thirty children (53.33% girls, M = 10.16 years-old, standard deviation (SD) = 1.52) divided into three groups (gymnastics, volleyball and control) participated in the study. The participants were asked to do SLLs with the dominant lower limb (barefoot) on a force plate from a height of 25 cm. The vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and lower limb joint angles were assessed. SPM{F} one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and SPM{t} unpaired t-tests were performed during the landing and stability phases. (3) Results: A significant main effect was found in the landing phase of jumping sport practice in GRF and joint angles. During the stability phase, this effect was exhibited in ankle and knee joint angles. (4) Conclusions: Evidence was obtained of the influence of practicing a specific sport in childhood. Child volleyball players performed SLL with lower impact force and higher knee flexion than child gymnasts. Training in specific jumping sports (i.e., volleyball and gymnastics) could affect the individual capacity to adapt SLL execution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Virtual Reality versus Exercise on Pain, Functional, Somatosensory and Psychosocial Outcomes in Patients with Non-specific Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165950 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Virtual reality (VR) applied to patients with neck pain is a promising intervention to produce positive effects when used alone or combined with exercise. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to compare the effects of VR versus exercise treatment on [...] Read more.
Background: Virtual reality (VR) applied to patients with neck pain is a promising intervention to produce positive effects when used alone or combined with exercise. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to compare the effects of VR versus exercise treatment on pain intensity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM), temporal summation (TS) and functional and somatosensory outcomes in patients with non-specific chronic neck pain (NS-CNP). Methods: A single-blinded, randomized clinical trial was carried out. A total sample of 44 patients with NS-CNP was randomized into a VR treatment group or neck exercises group. The intervention consisted of two treatment sessions per week, for four weeks and eight sessions. Four measurement moments (at baseline, immediately, 1 month, and 3 months after intervention) were considered. Pain intensity, CPM, TS, functional and somatosensory outcomes were measured. Results: Statistically significant differences were revealed for time factor (F = 16.40, p < 0.01, ηp2 = 0.28) and group*time interaction for kinesiophobia (F = 3.89, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.08) showing post-hoc differences in favor of the VR group at 3 months (p < 0.05, d = 0.65). Significant effects were shown for time factor (p < 0.05) but not for the group*time interaction (p > 0.05) for pain intensity, rotation range of motion (ROM), Neck Disability Index, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, left side pressure pain threshold (PPT) and anxiety. Statistically significant differences were not found for time factor (p > 0.05) and neither in group*time interaction (p > 0.05) for CPM, TS, right side PPT, flexo-extension and lateral-flexion ROM. Conclusions: Kinesiophobia was the only outcome that showed differences between VR and exercise at 3 months. Nevertheless, pain intensity, CPM, TS, ROM, neck disability, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, PPT and anxiety did not show differences between both interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessCommunication
Voluntary Physical Exercise Reduces Motor Dysfunction and Hampers Tumor Cell Proliferation in a Mouse Model of Glioma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165667 - 05 Aug 2020
Abstract
Currently, high-grade gliomas are the most difficult brain cancers to treat and all the approved experimental treatments do not offer long-term benefits regarding symptom improvement. Epidemiological studies indicate that exercise decreases the risk of brain cancer mortality, but a direct relationship between physical [...] Read more.
Currently, high-grade gliomas are the most difficult brain cancers to treat and all the approved experimental treatments do not offer long-term benefits regarding symptom improvement. Epidemiological studies indicate that exercise decreases the risk of brain cancer mortality, but a direct relationship between physical exercise and glioma progression has not been established so far. Here, we exploited a mouse model of high-grade glioma to directly test the impact of voluntary physical exercise on the tumor proliferation and motor capabilities of affected animals. We report that exposing symptomatic, glioma-bearing mice to running wheels (i) reduced the proliferation rate of tumors implanted in the motor cortex and (ii) delayed glioma-induced motor dysfunction. Thus, voluntary physical exercise might represent a supportive intervention that complements existing neuro-oncologic therapies, contributing to the preservation of functional motor ability and counteracting the detrimental effects of glioma on behavioral output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Cervical Stabilization Exercise Program for Pain, Disability, and Physical Impairments in University Violinists with Nonspecific Neck Pain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155430 - 28 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cervical stabilization exercises are frequently used to reduce pain, maximize function, and improve physical impairments for people with nonspecific neck pain. We conducted a single arm study to evaluate the effects of a home-based cervical stabilization exercise program for university violin players with [...] Read more.
Cervical stabilization exercises are frequently used to reduce pain, maximize function, and improve physical impairments for people with nonspecific neck pain. We conducted a single arm study to evaluate the effects of a home-based cervical stabilization exercise program for university violin players with nonspecific neck pain who frequently assume an asymmetrical neck posture and activate their superficial cervical flexors to stabilize the violin. Twenty violin players with nonspecific neck pain from university symphony orchestras participated in this study. All participants received assessments twice before the intervention and once immediately after a 6-week cervical stabilization exercise program. No significant differences were found between the two pretests before the intervention. After the intervention, the Numeric Rating Scale, the Neck Disability Index, the craniocervical flexion test, muscle endurance tests, cervical range of motion (all directions except flexion) tests, and cervicocephalic relocation tests (flexion and left rotation) showed improvements. The forward head posture indicated by the craniovertebral angle also slightly improved. The results of this single arm study suggest that cervical stabilization exercise is feasible and has the potential to improve physical health for collegiate violin players with nonspecific neck pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise Levels and Preferences in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155351 - 24 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background: Despite the benefits related to physical exercise, large numbers of cancer patients are not sufficiently active. Methods: To investigate exercise levels and preferences in cancer patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 392 cancer outpatients who anonymously completed [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the benefits related to physical exercise, large numbers of cancer patients are not sufficiently active. Methods: To investigate exercise levels and preferences in cancer patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 392 cancer outpatients who anonymously completed a questionnaire investigating general and medical characteristics, and expressed willingness to participate in exercise programs. Current exercise levels were estimated with the Leisure Score Index (LSI). Results: Most patients (93%) were insufficiently active but 80% declared an interest in exercise programs. Patients preferred oncologist-instructed programs and specified particular exercise needs. Multivariate logistic regression showed that willingness to exercise was associated with education (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.15–3.04 beyond age 14 years vs. up to 14 years) and current physical activity (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.92–3.63 for sweat-inducing activity >2 times/week vs. <1 time/week). Patients given chemotherapy were less inclined to exercise (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23–0.86) than those who did not. LSI was lower if cancer stage was advanced (β: -0.36; 95% CI: −0.75 to −0.02) than if it was in remission. High LSI was also associated with longer education, lower BMI, and longer time after diagnosis. Conclusion: Cancer patients are insufficiently active but are willing to participate in personalized exercise programs. Information from this survey may help in designing personalized interventions so these patients will achieve sufficient exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Improves Respiratory Muscle Function and Functional Capacity in Children with Congenital Heart Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124328 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
Critical surgical and medical advances have shifted the focus of congenital heart disease (CHD) patients from survival to achievement of a greater health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL is influenced, amongst other factors, by aerobic capacity and respiratory muscle strength, both of which [...] Read more.
Critical surgical and medical advances have shifted the focus of congenital heart disease (CHD) patients from survival to achievement of a greater health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL is influenced, amongst other factors, by aerobic capacity and respiratory muscle strength, both of which are reduced in CHD patients. This study evaluates the influence of a cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program (CPRP) on respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity. Fifteen CHD patients, ages 12 to 16, with reduced aerobic capacity in cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were enrolled in a CPRP involving strength and aerobic training for three months. Measurements for comparison were obtained at the start, end, and six months after the CPRP. A significant improvement of inspiratory muscle strength was evidenced (maximum inspiratory pressure 21 cm H2O, 23%, p < 0.01). The six-minute walking test showed a statistically and clinically significant rise in walked distance (48 m, p < 0.01) and a reduction in muscle fatigue (1.7 out of 10 points, p = 0.017). These results suggest CPRP could potentially improve respiratory muscle function and functional capacity, with lasting results, in children with congenital heart disease, but additional clinical trials must be conducted to confirm this finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Functional Activities in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease Using a Simple and Reliable Smartphone-Based Procedure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114123 - 09 Jun 2020
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to functional impairment. In order to monitor the progression of the disease and to implement individualized therapeutic approaches, functional assessments are paramount. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PD [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to functional impairment. In order to monitor the progression of the disease and to implement individualized therapeutic approaches, functional assessments are paramount. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PD on balance, gait, turn-to-sit and sit-to-stand by means of a single short-duration reliable test using a single inertial measurement unit embedded in a smartphone device. Study participants included 29 individuals with mild-to moderate PD (PG) and 31 age-matched healthy counterparts (CG). Functional assessment with FallSkip® included postural control (i.e., Medial-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) displacements), gait (Vertical (V) and Medial-Lateral (ML) ranges), turn-to-sit (time) and sit-to-stand (power) tests, total time and gait reaction time. Our results disclosed a reliable procedure (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.58–0.92). PG displayed significantly larger ML and AP displacements during the postural test, a decrease in ML range while walking and a longer time needed to perform the turn-to-sit task than CG (p < 0.05). No differences between groups were found for V range, sit-to-stand test, total time and reaction time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, people with mild-to-moderate PD exhibit impaired postural control, altered gait strategy and slower turn-to-sit performance than age-matched healthy people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Intensity Physical Exercise Improves Pain Catastrophizing and Other Psychological and Physical Aspects in Women with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3634; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103634 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread pain and other physical and psychological features. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of a low-intensity physical exercise (PE) program, combining endurance training and coordination, on psychological aspects (i.e., pain catastrophizing, [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread pain and other physical and psychological features. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of a low-intensity physical exercise (PE) program, combining endurance training and coordination, on psychological aspects (i.e., pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, stress), pain perception (i.e., pain acceptance, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and quality of life and physical conditioning (i.e., self-perceived functional capacity, endurance and functional capacity, power and velocity) in women with FM. For this purpose, a randomized controlled trial was carried out. Thirty-two women with FM were randomly allocated to a PE group (PEG, n = 16), performing an eight-week low-intensity PE program and a control group (CG, n = 16). Pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression, stress, pain acceptance, PPT, quality of life, self-perceived functional capacity, endurance and functional capacity, power, and velocity were assessed before and after the intervention. We observed a significant improvement in all studied variables in the PEG after the intervention (p < 0.05). In contrast, the CG showed no improvements in any variable, which further displayed poorer values for PPT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a low-intensity combined PE program, including endurance training and coordination, improves psychological variables, pain perception, quality of life, and physical conditioning in women with FM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of an Acute Pilates Program under Hypoxic Conditions on Vascular Endothelial Function in Pilates Participants: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072584 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the effects of an acute Pilates program under hypoxic vs. normoxic conditions on the metabolic, cardiac, and vascular functions of the participants. Ten healthy female Pilates experts completed a 50-min tubing Pilates program under normoxic conditions (N trial) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the effects of an acute Pilates program under hypoxic vs. normoxic conditions on the metabolic, cardiac, and vascular functions of the participants. Ten healthy female Pilates experts completed a 50-min tubing Pilates program under normoxic conditions (N trial) and under 3000 m (inspired oxygen fraction = 14.5%) hypobaric hypoxia conditions (H trial) after a 30-min exposure in the respective environments on different days. Blood pressure, branchial ankle pulse wave velocity, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the branchial artery were measured before and after the exercise. Metabolic parameters and cardiac function were assessed every minute during the exercise. Both trials showed a significant increase in FMD; however, the increase in FMD was significantly higher after the H trial than that after the N trial. Furthermore, FMD before exercise was significantly higher in the H trial than in the N trial. In terms of metabolic parameters, minute ventilation, carbon dioxide excretion, respiratory exchange ratio, and carbohydrate oxidation were significantly higher but fat oxidation was lower during the H trial than during the N trial. In terms of cardiac function, heart rate was significantly increased during the H trial than during the N trial. Our results suggested that, compared to that under normoxic conditions, Pilates exercise under hypoxic conditions led to greater metabolic and cardiac responses and also elicited an additive effect on vascular endothelial function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Vibration Rolling with and without Dynamic Muscle Contraction on Ankle Range of Motion, Proprioception, Muscle Strength and Agility in Young Adults: A Crossover Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010354 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Vibration rolling (VR) has emerged as a self-myofascial release (SMR) tool to aid exercise performance when warming up. However, the benefits of VR on exercise performance when combined with dynamic muscle contraction are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Vibration rolling (VR) has emerged as a self-myofascial release (SMR) tool to aid exercise performance when warming up. However, the benefits of VR on exercise performance when combined with dynamic muscle contraction are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of the combination of VR with dynamic muscle contraction (DVR), VR, and static stretching (SS) during warm-up on range of motion (ROM), proprioception, muscle strength of the ankle, and agility in young adults. In this crossover design study, 20 recreationally active adults without musculoskeletal disorders completed three test sessions in a randomized order, with 48 h of rest between each session. Participants completed one warm-up intervention and its measurements on the same day; different warm-up interventions and measurements were performed on each of the three days. The measurements included ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion ROM, ankle joint proprioception, muscle strength, and agility. After DVR and VR intervention, ankle dorsiflexion ROM (both DVR and VR, p < 0.001), plantarflexion ROM (both DVR and VR, p < 0.001), plantar flexor muscle strength (DVR, p = 0.007; VR, p < 0.001), and agility (DVR, p = 0.016; VR, p = 0.007) significantly improved; after SS intervention, ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion ROM (dorsiflexion, p < 0.001; plantar flexion, p = 0.009) significantly improved, but muscle strength and agility were not enhanced. Compared with SS, DVR and VR significantly improved ankle plantar flexor muscle strength (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, DVR significantly improved ankle dorsiflexion compared with VR (p < 0.001) and SS (p < 0.001). In conclusion, either DVR, VR, or SS increased ankle ROM, but only DVR and VR increased muscle strength and agility. In addition, DVR produced considerable increases in ankle dorsiflexion. These findings may have implications for warm-up prescription and implementation in both rehabilitative and athletic practice settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Resistance Exercise on Glycated Hemoglobin and Functional Performance in Older Patients with Comorbid Diabetes Mellitus and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010224 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is significantly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the effects of two resistance exercise approaches on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and function performance. Enrolled were 70 older patients with both T2DM and knee OA. The dynamic group [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is significantly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the effects of two resistance exercise approaches on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and function performance. Enrolled were 70 older patients with both T2DM and knee OA. The dynamic group performed resistance exercises with an elastic resistance band. The isometric group underwent isometric contraction exercises. After the 12-week intervention, a significant within-group improvement (all p < 0.001) was observed for the chair stand test (CST; 10.8%, vs. 7.1%), timed up and go (TUG) test (12.6% vs. 7.6%), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) physical function subscale (62.3% vs. 36.1%), and overall WOMAC (54.5% vs. 34.5%) in the dynamic and isometric group, respectively. In addition, in terms of between-group differences, the dynamic group had significant improvements in CST (p = 0.011), TUG (p < 0.001), WOMAC physical function subscale (p = 0.033), and overall WOMAC (p = 0.036) scores compared with the isometric group. However, no significant change in HbA1c was observed in either group. In conclusion, the dynamic resistance exercise significantly improved muscle strength, dynamic balance, and physical function in this comorbid population; however, there was no notable difference in change in HbA1c among different resistance exercises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity Monitoring and Acceptance of a Commercial Activity Tracker in Adult Patients with Haemophilia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203851 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) is highly beneficial for people with haemophilia (PWH), however, studies that objectively monitor the PA in this population are scarce. This study aimed to monitor the daily PA and analyse its evolution over time in a cohort of PWH using [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) is highly beneficial for people with haemophilia (PWH), however, studies that objectively monitor the PA in this population are scarce. This study aimed to monitor the daily PA and analyse its evolution over time in a cohort of PWH using a commercial activity tracker. In addition, this work analyses the relationship between PA levels, demographics, and joint health status, as well as the acceptance and adherence to the activity tracker. Twenty-six PWH were asked to wear a Fitbit Charge HR for 13 weeks. According to the steps/day in the first week, data were divided into two groups: Active Group (AG; ≥10,000 steps/day) and Non-Active Group (NAG; <10,000 steps/day). Correlations between PA and patient characteristics were studied using the Pearson coefficient. Participants’ user experience was analysed with a questionnaire. The 10,000 steps/day was reached by 57.7% of participants, with 12,603 (1525) and 7495 (1626) being the mean steps/day of the AG and NAG, respectively. In general, no significant variations (p > 0.05) in PA levels or adherence to wristband were produced. Only the correlation between very active minutes and arthropathy was significant (r = −0.40, p = 0.045). Results of the questionnaire showed a high level of satisfaction. In summary, PWH are able to comply with the PA recommendations, and the Fitbit wristband is a valid tool for a continuous and long-term monitoring of PA. However, by itself, the use of a wristband is not enough motivation to increase PA levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Tolerability and Muscle Activity of Core Muscle Exercises in Chronic Low-back Pain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193509 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Most of the studies evaluating core muscle activity during exercises have been conducted with healthy participants. The objective of this study was to compare core muscle activity and tolerability of a variety of dynamic and isometric exercises in patients with non-specific low back [...] Read more.
Most of the studies evaluating core muscle activity during exercises have been conducted with healthy participants. The objective of this study was to compare core muscle activity and tolerability of a variety of dynamic and isometric exercises in patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). 13 outpatients (average age 52 years; all with standing or walking work in their current or latest job) performed 3 consecutive repetitions at 15-repetition maximum during different exercises in random order. Surface electromyography was recorded for the rectus abdominis; external oblique and lumbar erector spinae. Patients rated tolerability of each exercise on a 5-point scale. The front plank with brace; front plank and modified curl-up can be considered the most effective exercises in activating the rectus abdominis; with a median normalized EMG (nEMG) value of 48% (34–61%), 46% (26–61%) and 50% (28–65%), respectively. The front plank with brace can be considered the most effective exercise in activating the external oblique; with a nEMG of 77% (60–97%). The squat and bird-dog exercises are especially effective in activing the lumbar erector spinae; with nEMG of 40% (24–87%) and 29% (27–46%), respectively. All the exercises were well tolerated; except for the lateral plank that was mostly non-tolerated. In conclusion; the present study provides a variety of dynamic and isometric exercises; where muscle activity values and tolerability can be used as guide to design evidence-based exercise programs for outpatients with NSCLBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Coach Encouragement on the Psychophysiological and Performance Responses of Young Tennis Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183467 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the effects of coach encouragement during the on-court tennis training drills (OTDs) on the psychophysiological and performance responses of young tennis players. Twenty-five young male tennis players (14.0 ± 0.3 years of age) performed six bouts of each [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the effects of coach encouragement during the on-court tennis training drills (OTDs) on the psychophysiological and performance responses of young tennis players. Twenty-five young male tennis players (14.0 ± 0.3 years of age) performed six bouts of each of the four common OTDs; Star, Suicide, Box and Big X (30:60 s; 1:2 work to rest ratio). The heart rate (HR) and total distance covered were monitored using two portable multivariable integrated 10 Hz GPS monitoring devices during all OTDs, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE-10) and short form Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) values were determined after each OTDs bout. The results demonstrated that OTDs with coach encouragement induced significantly higher psychophysiological and performance responses compared to OTDs without coach encouragement (p < 0.05). The results of this study confirm that coach encouragement improves the intensity, performance and physical enjoyment level during OTDs. These findings might inform training practices in youth tennis players in order to improve tennis performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Anthropometric, Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Benefits of the High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate, Low-Intensity or Control for Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224524 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training compared with no intervention and other types of training interventions for people with Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that used high-interval intensity training to improve [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training compared with no intervention and other types of training interventions for people with Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that used high-interval intensity training to improve anthropometric, cardiopulmonary and metabolic conditions were conducted. The search was performed during October–December 2017 using the databases PubMed, Web of Science and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. A total of 10 articles were included in this meta-analysis. After statistical analysis, favorable results were obtained for high-Intensity Interval Training compared with control (non-intervention): [Weight: Standardized mean difference (SMD) = −2.09; confidence interval (CI) 95%: (−3.41; −0.78); body-mass index: SMD = −3.73; CI 95%: (−5.53; −1.93); systolic blood pressure: SMD = −4.55; CI 95%: (−8.44; −0.65); VO2max: SMD = 12.20; CI 95%: (0.26; 24.14); HbA1c: SMD = −3.72; CI 95%: (−7.34; −0.10)], moderate intensity continuous training: [body-mass index: SMD = −0.41; CI 95%: (−0.80; −0.03); VO2max: SMD = 1.91; CI 95%: (0.18; 3.64)], and low intensity training: [Weight: SMD = −2.06; CI 95%: (−2.80; −1.31); body-mass index: SMD = −3.04; CI 95%: (−5.16; −0.92); systolic blood pressure: SMD = −2.17; CI 95%: (−3.93; −0.41); HbA1c: SMD = −1.58; CI 95%: (−1.84; −1.33)]. The results show that high-intensity interval training can be a useful strategy in order to improve anthropometric, cardiopulmonary and metabolic parameters in people with Type 2 diabetes. Despite this, it could be essential to clarify and unify criteria in the intervention protocols, being necessary new lines of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise as a Therapeutic Resource)
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