Special Issue "Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pete Driezen
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology and School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Interests: tobacco control; population health; health policy; health policy evaluation; health geography; small area estimation
Dr. Rashid Ahmed
Website
Guest Editor
College of Nursing and Professional Disciplines, University of North Dakota, ‎Grand Forks, ND, USA
Interests: survival analysis; missing data; population health; health economics; sampling design; hierarchical model; generalized linear mixed model

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on “Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control” in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Globally, tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable death, killing half of all users. Many adult smokers began smoking before the age of 18, although recent data indicate that smoking initiation among young adults has become common. Moreover, it is difficult for addicted smokers to quit, and existing studies suggest that smokers often require more than 10 attempts before achieving successful cessation. Initiatives designed to prevent the uptake of smoking and nicotine addiction among youth and young adults, as well as those that enable successful cessation among addicted smokers, are key components of a multi-pronged strategy required to end the tobacco epidemic. For this Special Issue, we welcome a broad range of studies examining smoking prevention from these two perspectives. In particular, we welcome original research articles or systematic reviews that focus on the following:

  1. The natural history of smoking uptake and/or nicotine addiction among youths, including studies of (a) cigarette smoking and other smoked products (e.g., bidis, water pipe), (b) smokeless tobacco products, and (c) newer nicotine-containing products, such as e-cigarettes, JUUL, and heated tobacco products.
  2. Intervention studies designed to prevent youths from starting to use smoked or smokeless tobacco, as well as studies designed to prevent nicotine addiction that may result from novel nicotine-containing products (e.g., e-cigarettes, JUUL, and heated tobacco products). A broad range of intervention studies is welcome (e.g., school-based intervention studies, evaluation studies, or community intervention trials).
  3. Smoking cessation studies among adult smokers, including studies of novel approaches to smoking cessation. Of special interest are studies that demonstrate the potential efficacy of using vaporized nicotine products, including e-cigarettes, as a type of nicotine replacement for addicted smokers who want to quit.

This Special Issue is open to any studies from all countries, but studies from low- and middle-income countries are of particular interest. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possible topics.

Conflicts of interest/funding:

Authors should note that IJERPH will not consider for publication papers reporting work that is funded, in whole or in part, by a tobacco company or tobacco industry organization or affiliate or papers written by authors who accept tobacco industry or affiliate funding. Other sources of funding, particularly from e-cigarette- or pharmaceutical-related interests should be fully disclosed. The full policy is available here: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/12/2831/htm.

Dr. Pete Driezen
Dr. Rashid Ahmed
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Youth and young adults
  • Adult smokers
  • Smoking initiation
  • Nicotine addiction and uptake
  • Vaporized nicotine products (e-cigarettes, JUUL)
  • Alternative tobacco products (hookah, water pipe, smokeless tobacco)
  • Tobacco use prevention
  • Smoking cessation
  • Nicotine replacement therapy
  • Evaluation studies
  • Randomized controlled trials
  • Community intervention trials
  • Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Adolescent Tobacco Exposure in 31 Latin American Cities before and after the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207423 - 12 Oct 2020
Abstract
Our objective was to describe the prevalence and changes in tobacco use and tobacco control policies in Latin American countries and cities before and after ratification of the 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Country-level tobacco policy data came from reports on [...] Read more.
Our objective was to describe the prevalence and changes in tobacco use and tobacco control policies in Latin American countries and cities before and after ratification of the 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Country-level tobacco policy data came from reports on the global tobacco epidemic (World Health Organization, 2007–2014). Global Youth Tobacco Survey data, 2000–2011, came from six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru), 31 cities and 132,065 students. Pre- and post-FCTC prevalence and relative changes were estimated. All countries showed improvements in tobacco control policies but Mexico and Peru showed the smallest improvements. In general, adolescents reduced their tobacco use, reported less exposure to smoking at home, more tobacco education, and more retailer refusals to sell them cigarettes. Adolescents reported smaller reductions in secondhand smoke exposure outside the home and no change in exposure to tobacco media/promotions. Pre-FCTC prevalence and relative changes during the post-FCTC period were more heterogeneous across cities than across countries. Despite overall improvements in tobacco policies and the decline in exposure to tobacco, policies related to media/promotions and secondhand smoke need strengthening. There was wide variation in adolescent exposure to tobacco between cities (within countries), which suggested major heterogeneity of policy implementation at the local level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Illicit Tobacco in Lithuania: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197291 - 06 Oct 2020
Abstract
Taxation policies are the most cost-effective measure to reduce overall tobacco consumption. However, cigarettes in Lithuania are among the cheapest in the European Union. The threat of the illicit trade is often used to compromise evidence-based policies, pricing policies particularly. The aim of [...] Read more.
Taxation policies are the most cost-effective measure to reduce overall tobacco consumption. However, cigarettes in Lithuania are among the cheapest in the European Union. The threat of the illicit trade is often used to compromise evidence-based policies, pricing policies particularly. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of illicit cigarette consumption in Lithuania and identify the main characteristics of illicit cigarette smokers. The national cross-sectional survey with direct observation of the latest purchased pack of cigarettes was conducted between August and September 2019. In total, 1050 smokers aged ≥18 were interviewed face-to-face. The illicit share of the total consumption of cigarettes per year was 10.7% with 9.7% of smokers showing or describing illicit cigarette packs compared to 17% reported by industry-funded studies. Older smokers, smokers with lower education and heavy smokers were more likely to regularly purchase illicit cigarettes. The average price of an illicit pack was almost two times lower than licit. Although the illicit trade of tobacco products is a serious policy challenge, the threat of an increase in illicit trade should not delay tobacco taxation improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Fatherhood and Smoking Problems in Indonesia: Exploration of Potential Protective Factors for Men Aged 18–49 Years from the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196965 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background: Despite the sustained high prevalence of smoking among Indonesian adult men, little is known about possible protective factors in this group. This study examined the relationship between key characteristics of masculinity (e.g., fatherhood status, being the main breadwinner or sole provider for [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the sustained high prevalence of smoking among Indonesian adult men, little is known about possible protective factors in this group. This study examined the relationship between key characteristics of masculinity (e.g., fatherhood status, being the main breadwinner or sole provider for the family) and current smoking behaviours (smoking status and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD)) among Indonesian men aged 18–49 years. Methods: In total, 2540 Indonesian men aged 18–49 participated in the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence, 2012. Fatherhood status was categorised into three groups: nonfathers, new fathers and more experienced fathers. The association between fatherhood status and current smoking, as well as fatherhood status and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), was estimated by employing logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions, respectively. Results: Socioeconomic factors were associated with smoking behaviour among Indonesian adult men. The odds of smoking among new fathers and more experienced fathers were 2.3 (95% CI: 1.09–4.79) and 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.08–2.17) higher compared with nonfathers, respectively. Men who had a shared income with their partner or received income from their parents smoked 13% (95% CI 0.79–0.95) and 11% fewer CPD (95% CI 0.79–0.99) compared with men who were the main breadwinner, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, fatherhood represents an aspect of traditionally masculine roles, offering a new perspective for looking at smoking problems in Indonesia. Other key aspects of traditional masculinity characteristics, the breadwinner role, occupation and sources of family income had significant associations with smoking status and CPD. Men smoked fewer CPD as fathers and when sharing the financial responsibility for their family equally with their spouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reducing Socioeconomic Disparities in Comprehensive Smoke-Free Rules among Households with Children: A Pilot Intervention Implemented through a National Cancer Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186787 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
Most households with a smoker do not implement comprehensive smoke-free rules (smoke-free homes and cars), and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure remains prevalent among children and low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. This pilot project aimed to assess implementation feasibility and impact of an intervention designed [...] Read more.
Most households with a smoker do not implement comprehensive smoke-free rules (smoke-free homes and cars), and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure remains prevalent among children and low-socioeconomic status (SES) populations. This pilot project aimed to assess implementation feasibility and impact of an intervention designed to increase smoke-free rules among socioeconomically disadvantaged households with children. The pilot was implemented through Minnesota’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). NBCCEDPs provide cancer prevention services to low-income individuals experiencing health disparities. We successfully utilized and adapted the Smoke-Free Homes Program (SFHP) to address comprehensive smoke-free rules among households with children. We used two recruitment methods: (a) direct mail (DM) and (b) opportunistic referral (OR) by patient navigators in the NBCCEDP call center. We used descriptive statistics to assess implementation outcomes and hierarchical logistic regression models (HLM) to assess change in smoke-free rules and SHS exposure over the study period. There was no comparison group, and HLM was used to examine within-person change. A total of 64 participants were recruited. Results showed 83% of participants were recruited through DM. OR had a high recruitment rate, and DM recruited more participants with a low response rate but higher retention rate. Among recruited participants with data (n = 47), smoke-free home rules increased by 50.4 percentage points during the study period (p < 0.001). Among recruited participants who had a vehicle (n = 38), smoke-free car rules increased by 37.6 percentage points (p < 0.01) and comprehensive smoke-free rules rose 40.9 percentage points (p < 0.01). Home SHS exposure declined, and within-person increase in smoke-free home rules was significantly related to less home SHS exposure (p < 0.05). It is feasible to adapt and implement the evidence-based SFHP intervention through a national cancer program, but the current pilot demonstrated recruitment is a challenge. DM produced a low response rate and therefore OR is the recommended recruitment route. Despite low recruitment rates, we conclude that the SFHP can successfully increase comprehensive smoke-free rules and reduce SHS exposure among socioeconomically disadvantaged households with children recruited through a NBCCEDP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Objective Facts or Misleading Hype? Associations between Features of E-Cigarette Marketing and Sales on a Chinese E-Commerce Platform
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186711 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly advertised and marketed in China in recent years. This study examined the practice and impact of e-cigarette online marketing on a major retail website—Tmall.com. Methods: Data were obtained by crawling 449 online pages of [...] Read more.
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly advertised and marketed in China in recent years. This study examined the practice and impact of e-cigarette online marketing on a major retail website—Tmall.com. Methods: Data were obtained by crawling 449 online pages of e-cigarette marketing. Content analysis was conducted to summarize the marketing practices for four types of e-cigarettes, and multilevel modeling (MLM) was implemented to explore factors predictive of the online sales of the products. Results: The sales volume of e-cigarettes ranged from 0 to 28,169, with the price per item varying from RMB 218.1 ($31.84) to RMB 385.5 ($56.29). Fruit (44.3%, n = 199), mint (33%, n = 148) and cream/sugar/ice (29.4%, n = 132) were the three flavors most often listed for sale online. Moreover, 63.4% (n = 285) of e-cigarette ads emphasized the role of the products as an aid to quit smoking. Nice taste (75.1%), big vapor (65.7%), high capacity batteries (67.9%), fashionable models (61.3%), discounted price (49.7%), and suitability for gifting (45.9%) were the most frequently touted product features in online ads. Type of e-cigarettes, diversity of products, number of online comments, and location of manufacturers were significantly associated with sales volume. Conclusions: Online marketing of e-cigarettes was common on one of China’s leading e-commerce websites. Sellers employed advertising strategies targeting a wide range of potential consumers—from youth to the elderly. Stricter regulations of online marketing for e-cigarettes should be enforced in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Slovakia and in Finland: Two Different Worlds
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186661 - 13 Sep 2020
Abstract
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) developed by the State Parties to the World Health Organization was ratified in Slovakia in 2004 and in Finland in 2005. The aim of this study was to explore and compare compliance with the FCTC in [...] Read more.
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) developed by the State Parties to the World Health Organization was ratified in Slovakia in 2004 and in Finland in 2005. The aim of this study was to explore and compare compliance with the FCTC in Finland and Slovakia. This is a two-country comparative study of tobacco control policy based on implementation of the FCTC in Slovakia and Finland. Compliance with the FCTC was measured similarly in Slovakia and Finland in terms of their institutional structure supporting a smoking free environment and implementation of selected articles of the FCTC. In Finland the responsibilities for anti-tobacco policy are clearly assigned. Slovakia does not have specifically responsible institutions. Finland has a clear plan for achieving the goal of a smoking-free country based on empirical evidence. Slovakia meets only the minimum standard resulting from its commitment as ratified in the FCTC and data are out of date or missing completely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Do Daily Compensatory Health Beliefs Predict Intention to Quit and Smoking Behavior? A Daily Diary Study during Smoking Cessation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176419 - 03 Sep 2020
Abstract
Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are a means to cope with motivational conflicts between intended health goals and the temptation for an unhealthy behavior. As CHBs can fluctuate on a daily basis, this study examined how daily CHBs are associated with daily intention to [...] Read more.
Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are a means to cope with motivational conflicts between intended health goals and the temptation for an unhealthy behavior. As CHBs can fluctuate on a daily basis, this study examined how daily CHBs are associated with daily intention to quit smoking and daily number of cigarettes smoked before and after a quit date at the between- and within-person level. The study comprised a prospective longitudinal design and investigated 83 women and 83 men for 32 consecutive days during an ongoing joint self-set quit attempt. Daily CHBs varied from day to day and between individuals. At the between-person level, higher women’s mean CHBs were associated with lower intention (b = −0.23, p = 0.04) and at the 10% level with more cigarettes smoked after the quit date (rate ratio (RR) = 1.92, p = 0.07). At the within-person level, women’s higher than usual CHBs were unrelated to intention to quit, but were related to less smoking before (RR = 0.96, p = 0.03) and at the 10% level after the quit date (RR = 0.91, p = 0.09). A marginally positive association between daily CHBs and smoking at the within-person level emerged for men. The negative effect of daily CHBs at the between-person level on smoking seems to unfold after the quit attempt and for women only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Perceptions, Predictors of and Motivation for Quitting among Smokers from Six European Countries from 2016 to 2018: Findings from EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176263 - 28 Aug 2020
Abstract
The European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) was introduced in 2016 in an effort to decrease prevalence of smoking and increase cessation in the European Union (EU). This study aimed to explore quitting behaviours, motivation, reasons and perceptions about quitting, as well as predictors [...] Read more.
The European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) was introduced in 2016 in an effort to decrease prevalence of smoking and increase cessation in the European Union (EU). This study aimed to explore quitting behaviours, motivation, reasons and perceptions about quitting, as well as predictors (reported before the TPD implementation) associated with post-TPD quit status. A cohort study was conducted involving adult smokers from six EU countries (n = 3195). Data collection occurred pre-(Wave 1; 2016) and post-(Wave 2; 2018) TPD implementation. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses of weighted data were conducted. Within this cohort sample, 415 (13.0%) respondents reported quitting at Wave 2. Predictors of quitting were moderate or high education, fewer cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, a past quit attempt, lower level of perceived addiction, plans for quitting and the presence of a smoking-related comorbidity. Health concerns, price of cigarettes and being a good example for children were among the most important reasons that predicted being a quitter at Wave 2. Our findings show that the factors influencing decisions about quitting may be shared among European countries. European policy and the revised version of TPD could emphasise these factors through health warnings and/or campaigns and other policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Improved Documentation of Electronic Cigarette Use in an Electronic Health Record
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165908 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can affect patient health and clinical care. However, the current documentation of e-cigarette use in the electronic health records (EHR) is inconsistent. This report outlines how the ambulatory clinical practices of a large U.S. hospital system optimized [...] Read more.
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can affect patient health and clinical care. However, the current documentation of e-cigarette use in the electronic health records (EHR) is inconsistent. This report outlines how the ambulatory clinical practices of a large U.S. hospital system optimized its electronic health records (EHR) framework to better record e-cigarettes used by patients. The new EHR section for e-cigarette information was implemented for outpatient appointments. During a 30-week evaluation period post-implementation, 638,804 patients (12 yrs and older) completed ambulatory appointments within the health system; of these, the new section contained e-cigarette use information for 37,906 (6%) patients. Among these patients, 1005 (2.7%) were identified as current e-cigarette users (current every day or current some day e-cigarette use), 941 (2.5%) were reported as former e-cigarette users, and 35,960 (94%) had never used e-cigarettes. A separate EHR section to document e-cigarette use is feasible within existing clinical practice models. Utilization of the new section was modest in routine clinical practice, indicating the need for more intensive implementation strategies that emphasize the health effects of e-cigarette use, and how consistent ascertainment could improve clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Smokers’ and Nonsmokers’ Receptivity to Smoke-Free Policies and Pro- and Anti-Policy Messaging in Armenia and Georgia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155527 - 30 Jul 2020
Abstract
Garnering support for smoke-free policies is critical for their successful adoption, particularly in countries with high smoking prevalence, such as Armenia and Georgia. In 2018, we surveyed 1456 residents (ages 18–64) of 28 cities in Armenia (n = 705) and Georgia ( [...] Read more.
Garnering support for smoke-free policies is critical for their successful adoption, particularly in countries with high smoking prevalence, such as Armenia and Georgia. In 2018, we surveyed 1456 residents (ages 18–64) of 28 cities in Armenia (n = 705) and Georgia (n = 751). We examined support for cigarette and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/heated tobacco product (HTP) smoke-free policies in various locations and persuasiveness of pro- and anti-policy messaging. Participants were an average age of 43.35, 60.5% female, and 27.3% current smokers. Nonsmokers versus smokers indicated greater policy support for cigarette and ENDS/HTP and greater persuasiveness of pro-policy messaging. Armenians versus Georgians generally perceived pro- and anti-policy messaging more persuasive. In multilevel linear regression, sociodemographics (e.g., female) and tobacco use characteristics (e.g., smoking less frequently, higher quitting importance) correlated with more policy support. Greatest policy support was for healthcare, religious, government, and workplace settings; public transport; schools; and vehicles carrying children. Least policy support was for bar/restaurant outdoor areas. The most compelling pro-policy message focused on the right to clean air; the most compelling anti-policy message focused on using nonsmoking sections. Specific settings may present challenges for advancing smoke-free policies. Messaging focusing on individual rights to clean air and health may garner support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking Cessation in Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Results from the 2015 National Adult Tobacco Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144953 - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cigarette smoking represents a major public health problem in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study aims to examine factors associated with cigarette smoking cessation attempts and intention to quit. Data were from the Lao National Adult Tobacco Survey that consisted of [...] Read more.
Cigarette smoking represents a major public health problem in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study aims to examine factors associated with cigarette smoking cessation attempts and intention to quit. Data were from the Lao National Adult Tobacco Survey that consisted of 7562 participants ≥15 years old. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations, adjusted for sex, age groups, education level, income per day, and smoking frequency. Results show that past quit attempts were associated with visiting a healthcare provider in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.74, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.28–2.35), home smoking bans (AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 2.13–14.33), noticing media-based messages informing the dangers of smoking or encouraging quitting (AOR: 3.25, 95% CI: 2.28–4.63), noticing health warnings on cigarette packages in the past 30 days (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI: 2.21–5.03), and believing that smoking is seriously harmful to their health (AOR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.24–9.57). The Lao PDR government should continue implementing tobacco control policies that demonstrated associations with cessation attempts or intention to quit, such as smoke-free environments and required health warnings on cigarette packages. Tobacco cessation treatment programs are pressingly needed in Lao PDR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Specific Relapse Predictors: Could Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Smoking Cessation Be Improved?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124317 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
Relapse remains a frequent and complex phenomenon that is not yet well understood. An under-researched area of study that may provide relevant information concerns the assessment of specific post-treatment variables, rather than the composite measures commonly used to predict smoking relapse. The current [...] Read more.
Relapse remains a frequent and complex phenomenon that is not yet well understood. An under-researched area of study that may provide relevant information concerns the assessment of specific post-treatment variables, rather than the composite measures commonly used to predict smoking relapse. The current study sought to examine the effects of post-treatment smoking-related variables, including withdrawal symptomatology, abstinence self-efficacy, and smoking urgency in negative-affect situations and smoking relapse at the 3 month follow-up. The sample comprised 130 participants who achieved abstinence for at least 24 h through a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Regression analysis was conducted for both composite measures and specific subscales and items. Data showed that composite measures of tobacco withdrawal, self-efficacy, and smoking urgency in negative-affect situations were not significant predictors of smoking relapse. However, the analysis including subscales, and specific items showed that lower self-efficacy in negative-affect-related situations (OR = 1.36) and three withdrawal symptoms—irritability/frustration/anger (OR = 2.99), restlessness/impatience (OR = 1.87), and craving (OR = 2.31)—were significant predictors of relapse. These findings offer new insights into the role of different smoking-related post-treatment variables in short-term relapse. Considering and specifically targeting these variables after achieving abstinence may potentially contribute to reducing smoking relapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Graphic Health Warning Types on the Intention to Quit Smoking
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093267 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
Anti-smoking advertisements are widely used to demonstrate to smokers the harm of smoking, and graphic health warnings (GHWs) are expected to have a positive effect on the intention to quit smoking. This study investigated which type of GHW (health-related threat (H-GHW) vs. social [...] Read more.
Anti-smoking advertisements are widely used to demonstrate to smokers the harm of smoking, and graphic health warnings (GHWs) are expected to have a positive effect on the intention to quit smoking. This study investigated which type of GHW (health-related threat (H-GHW) vs. social threat (S-GHW)) is more effective. Two types of GHWs for tobacco were shown to 28 daily smokers and 25 non-smokers while measuring their eye movements using an eye tracker. The time spent fixating on the GHWs was measured as an index of attentional bias. Participants were also asked to evaluate the unpleasantness of the images. They stated their intention to quit smoking in response to each image in a separate session. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the effects of psychosocial factors on the intention to quit smoking in smokers and the intention to remain as non-smokers in the non-smokers. Both smokers and non-smokers reported greater unpleasantness and cessation intentions in response to H-GHWs than to S-GHWs. Non-smokers found both types of GHWs more unpleasant than smokers did. No differences were found in gaze fixation on GHWs between the two groups. When smokers viewed S-GHWs, the intention to quit smoking was greater as they felt more unpleasant. For non-smokers, the intention to remain non-smokers was greater when they felt more unpleasant and when the attention to H-GHWs was lower. Different psychological factors in anti-smoking advertisements are involved in the intention to quit smoking in smokers and to maintain a non-smoking status in non-smokers. Different approaches should be used according to the types of warning (e.g., warnings emphasizing a negative influence on others or on their own health) in anti-smoking campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) in China: Evidence from Citywide Representative Surveys from Five Chinese Cities in 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072541 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
China is the largest cigarette consuming country in the world. The emergence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in China may have important implications for the Chinese tobacco market. Unfortunately, research on ENDS in China, while growing, is still limited. This study was [...] Read more.
China is the largest cigarette consuming country in the world. The emergence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in China may have important implications for the Chinese tobacco market. Unfortunately, research on ENDS in China, while growing, is still limited. This study was designed to examine the awareness and use of ENDS among adult urban residents in China. Data from five citywide representative surveys conducted in 2017–2018 were used. Percentages of residents who had ever heard of, ever used, or used ENDS in the past 30 days among all residents and smokers were estimated, in total and by demographic characteristics. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted associations between awareness and use of ENDS and individual-level demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES). Overall, 51.3% had ever heard, 4.8% ever used, and 0.9% used ENDS in the past 30 days. Men, young adults, those with high levels of education, and current smokers were more likely to be aware of and use ENDS. Among smokers, 67.8% had ever heard, 17.1% ever used, and 3.9% used ENDS in the past 30 days, respectively. Young adult smokers and smokers with high levels of education were more likely to be aware of and use ENDS. Our study results on ENDS awareness and use patterns and associated factors in China provide important evidence to inform research and policies related to ENDS manufacture, marketing, and sales in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Smoking Cessation and Vaping Cessation Attempts among Cigarette Smokers and E-Cigarette Users in Central and Eastern Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010028 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Our aim is to assess the smoking cessation and vaping cessation activity, including quit attempts and willingness to quit among university students in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as to investigate personal characteristics associated with smoking cessation and vaping cessation attempts. Data [...] Read more.
Our aim is to assess the smoking cessation and vaping cessation activity, including quit attempts and willingness to quit among university students in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as to investigate personal characteristics associated with smoking cessation and vaping cessation attempts. Data were collected by questionnaire which included 46 questions on cigarette and e-cigarette use. Questionnaires were obtained from 14,352 university students (aged 20.9 ± 2.4 years; cooperation rate of 72.2%). For the purposes of this analysis, only data from exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 1716), exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 129), and dual users (216) were included. Of all cigarette smokers, 51.6% had previously tried to quit smoking and 51.5% declared a willingness to quit cigarette smoking in the near future. Among all e-cigarette users only 13.9% had ever tried to quit using the e-cigarette and 25.2% declared a willingness to give up using e-cigarette in the near future. The majority of the group did not use pharmacotherapy to quit cigarette (87.5%) or e-cigarette (88.9%) use. Our results indicate that while most university students have some desire to quit conventional smoking, those who use e-cigarettes do not have the same desire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Cigarette Affordability and Cigarette Consumption among Adult and Elderly Chinese Smokers: Evidence from A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234832 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
China is in the midst of an epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which has increasingly accounted for a growing share of disease burden, due in part to China’s ongoing rapid socioeconomic changes and population aging. Smoking, the second leading health risk factors associated [...] Read more.
China is in the midst of an epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which has increasingly accounted for a growing share of disease burden, due in part to China’s ongoing rapid socioeconomic changes and population aging. Smoking, the second leading health risk factors associated with NCDs in China, disproportionately affects the old population more than their younger counterparts. Using survey data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), this study evaluated the impact of changes in cigarette affordability on smoking behavior among middle-aged and elderly (age 45 and older) smokers. Self-reported cigarette price and disposable income were used to calculate cigarette affordability. Cigarette consumption was measured using the number of cigarettes smoked per day reported by the survey respondents. The correlation between cigarette affordability and cigarette consumption was estimated using generalized estimating equations adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, geolocations, and cigarette price tiers, as well as year fixed effects. The estimated overall conditional cigarette affordability elasticity of demand was –0.165, implying a 10% decrease in cigarette affordability would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption by 1.65%. The cigarette affordability responsiveness differs by demographics, socioeconomic status, geolocations, and cigarette price tiers. This study provides evidence that tax/price policies that reduce cigarette affordability could lead to a decrease in cigarette consumption among middle-aged and elderly smokers in China. Smoke-free laws, as well as minimum price regulations, may be needed to compliment excise tax policy to target specific smoking subgroups whose cigarette consumption is less sensitive to changes in cigarette affordability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Predictors of Smoking among Gambian Men: A Cross-Sectional National WHO STEP Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234719 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the world, with a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence and predictors of smoking among Gambian men using nationally representative data. [...] Read more.
Background: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the world, with a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence and predictors of smoking among Gambian men using nationally representative data. Methods: Data was collected in 2010 from a random, nationally representative sample of 4111 adults aged 25–64 years (78% response rate) using the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise cross-sectional survey methods. Our analyses focused on men with valid information on smoking status (n = 1766) because of the low prevalence of smoking among women (1%). Results: The prevalence of current smoking among men was 31.4% (95% CI: 27.2–35.9). The median age of starting smoking was 19 years; 25% started before the age of 18 years and 10% started aged 8–10 years. Rural residence, underweight, and hypertension were significantly associated with smoking. Conclusion: The study reveals a high prevalence of smoking among Gambian men. It is evident that cigarettes are obtained by minors in The Gambia, as a high proportion of current smokers started at a young age. Advice and support to quit smoking should be extended to all smokers regardless of their age and whether or not they have any underlying health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
How the New European Union’s (Pictorial) Tobacco Health Warnings Influence Quit Attempts and Smoking Cessation: Findings from the 2016–2017 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Surveys
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214260 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In 2016, the Netherlands was required to introduce new European Union (EU)’s (pictorial) tobacco health warnings. Our objective was to describe the pathways through which the new EU tobacco health warnings may influence quit attempts and smoking cessation among Dutch smokers. Longitudinal data [...] Read more.
In 2016, the Netherlands was required to introduce new European Union (EU)’s (pictorial) tobacco health warnings. Our objective was to describe the pathways through which the new EU tobacco health warnings may influence quit attempts and smoking cessation among Dutch smokers. Longitudinal data from 2016 and 2017 from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey were used. Smokers who participated in both surveys were included (N = 1017). Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the hypothesized pathways. Health warning salience was positively associated with more health worries (β = 0.301, p < 0.001) and a more positive attitude towards quitting (β = 0.180, p < 0.001), which, in turn, were associated with a stronger quit intention (health worries: β = 0.304, p < 0.001; attitude: β = 0.340, p < 0.001). Quit intention was a strong predictor of quit attempts (β = 0.336, p = 0.001). Health warning salience was also associated with stronger perceived social norms towards quitting (β = 0.166, p < 0.001), which directly predicted quit attempts (β = 0.141, p = 0.048). Quit attempts were positively associated with smoking cessation (β = 0.453, p = 0.043). Based on these findings, we posit that the effect of the EU’s tobacco health warnings on quit attempts and smoking cessation is mediated by increased health worries and a more positive attitude and perceived social norms towards quitting. Making tobacco health warnings more salient (e.g., by using plain packaging) may increase their potential to stimulate quitting among smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
The Effectiveness of Tobacco Dependence Education in Health Professional Students’ Practice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214158 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of tobacco dependence education versus usual or no tobacco dependence education on entry-level health professional student practice and client smoking cessation. Sixteen published databases, seven grey literature databases/websites, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of tobacco dependence education versus usual or no tobacco dependence education on entry-level health professional student practice and client smoking cessation. Sixteen published databases, seven grey literature databases/websites, publishers’ websites, books, and pertinent reference lists were searched. Studies from 16 health professional programs yielded 28 RCTs with data on 4343 healthcare students and 3122 patients. Two researchers independently assessed articles and abstracted data about student knowledge, self-efficacy, performance of tobacco cessation interventions, and patient smoking cessation. All forms of tobacco were included. We did not find separate interventions for different kinds of tobacco such as pipes or flavoured tobacco. We computed effect sizes using a random-effects model and applied meta-analytic procedures to 13 RCTs that provided data for meta-analysis. Students’ counseling skills increased significantly following the 5As model (SMD = 1.03; 95% CI 0.07, 1.98; p < 0.00001, I2 94%; p = 0.04) or motivational interviewing approach (SMD = 0.90, 95% CI 0.59, 1.21; p = 0.68, I2 0%; p < 0.00001). With tobacco dependence counseling, 78 more patients per 1000 (than control) reported quitting at 6 months (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.49, 2.74, I2 = 0%, p = 0.76; p < 0.00001), although the strength of evidence was moderate or low. Student tobacco cessation counseling improved guided by the above models, active learning strategies, and practice with standardized patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessBrief Report
Passive Smokers’ Support for Stronger Tobacco Control in Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061942 - 16 Mar 2020
Abstract
Secondhand smoke exposure in Indonesia is high, especially compared to other Southeast Asian countries. Passive smoking leads to negative impacts on health and socio-economic well-being. Therefore, increasing the price of cigarettes and, thereby, increasing barriers to access to cigarettes could be an effective [...] Read more.
Secondhand smoke exposure in Indonesia is high, especially compared to other Southeast Asian countries. Passive smoking leads to negative impacts on health and socio-economic well-being. Therefore, increasing the price of cigarettes and, thereby, increasing barriers to access to cigarettes could be an effective way to reduce smoking prevalence and protect people from second-hand smoke. This study aims to assess passive smokers’ support for cigarette price increases in Indonesia. We perform a quantitative analysis with a cross-sectional design. The data were obtained through phone-based interviews of 1000 respondents aged 18 and older in Indonesia. Only 596 nonsmokers were included to be further analyzed in this study. This study found that 44.1% respondents have at least one family member who smokes. We considered the respondents’ age, gender, education level, employment, and the number of people living in the respondent’s household that are exposed to passive smoking. Our results demonstrate that passive smokers support stronger tobacco control such as increasing cigarette prices, regulating smoking behavior using a religious approach (Fatwa), and applying more effective pictorial health warnings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop