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Open AccessArticle

Perception of Menstrual Normality and Abnormality in Spanish Female Nursing Students

Department of Nursing, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain
Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Castilla-La-Mancha, Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6432;
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obstetrics-Gynecology and Women's Health)
Menstrual problems are usually taboo; and often, some, such as dysmenorrhea, are presumed normal. This study seeks to compare the menstrual characteristics and symptoms of female university students reporting self-perceived normality concerning their cycles and menstruation with those who perceive their menstruation as being abnormal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 270 nursing students using a self-report questionnaire that included sociodemographic and gynecological issues, together with Visual Analog Scale, the Andersch and Milsom Scale, and the Spanish version of the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EuroQol-5D) to measure self-perceived health status. A bivariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test, linear trend chi-square, and Student’s t-test, and a multivariate analysis of stepwise binary logistic regression was performed to predict the perception of cycle abnormality. In total, 77.4% of participants displayed normality; however, in self-reporting of menstrual characteristics, 67.4% identified alterations. Young women suffering from menstrual dizziness were 1.997 (CI95% = 1.010–3.950; p = 0.047) more likely to manifest abnormal menstruation, 4.518 (CI95% = 1.239–16.477; p = 0.022) more likely if they suffered from Grade 3 menstrual pain, and 2.851 (CI95% = 1.399–5.809; p = 0.004) more likely if they perceived that menstruation interfered with their daily lives. Many menstrual changes and symptoms are still considered normal, making it difficult to identify and address these issues. Therefore, it is necessary to develop health policies and strategies to improve menstrual health literacy for increased knowledge and earlier diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: disorders menstrual; menstrual experiences; menstrual health disorders menstrual; menstrual experiences; menstrual health
MDPI and ACS Style

Abreu-Sánchez, A.; Parra-Fernández, M.L.; Onieva-Zafra, M.D.; Fernández-Martínez, E. Perception of Menstrual Normality and Abnormality in Spanish Female Nursing Students. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6432.

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