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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 15, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Degradation of Triclosan and Carbamazepine in Two Agricultural and Garden Soils with Different Textures Amended with Composted Sewage Sludge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2557; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112557 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been extensively used in agriculture and landscaping, offering a practical solution for waste disposal. However, some pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) like triclosan (TCS) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have restricted its land application. In this study, CSS was
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Composted sewage sludge (CSS) has been extensively used in agriculture and landscaping, offering a practical solution for waste disposal. However, some pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) like triclosan (TCS) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have restricted its land application. In this study, CSS was added to agricultural soil and garden soil at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 25% (w/w soil), and 4 mL of TCS and CBZ stock solution (1000 mg/L in methanol) was spiked into soil amended with CSS of each bottle to arrive at the concentration of 10 mg/kg. Samples were then collected after incubation for 120 days and analyzed for concentrations and half-life (t1/2) of TCS and CBZ, and soil physicochemical properties, together with enzyme activities. The results showed that TCS was degraded completely during the incubation period. In contrast, only about 5.82–21.43% CBZ was degraded. CSS amendment inhibited TCS and CBZ degradation and prolonged t1/2 compared to the control, and the t1/2 of TCS and CBZ increased with CSS addition amount in all treatments except for CBZ in the garden soil amended with 10% CSS. Correlation studies showed a significantly positive relationship between t1/2 of TCS and CBZ and total organic carbon (TOC), while a significantly negative relationship between t1/2 of the two PPCPs and pH was observed. Alkaline phosphatase showed a significantly negative relationship with the Ct/C0 of TCS in garden soil amended with 25% CSS and CBZ in the control. The urease activity was negatively correlated with the Ct/C0 of TCS in 10% and 25% CSS treatments and CBZ in 10% CSS treatment for garden soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remediation and Analysis of Soil, Air, and Water Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle Correlates of Transitions in Tobacco Product Use by U.S. Adult Tobacco Users between 2013–2014 and 2014–2015: Findings from the PATH Study Wave 1 and Wave 2
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112556 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
More than half of adult tobacco users in the United States (U.S.) transitioned in tobacco product use between 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. We examine how characteristics of adult tobacco users in the U.S. relate to transitions in tobacco product use. Population Assessment of Tobacco
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More than half of adult tobacco users in the United States (U.S.) transitioned in tobacco product use between 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. We examine how characteristics of adult tobacco users in the U.S. relate to transitions in tobacco product use. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data were analyzed from 12,862 adult current tobacco users who participated in Wave 1 (W1, 2013–2014) and Wave 2 (W2, 2014–2015). Three types of transitions were examined—(1) adding tobacco product(s); (2) switching to non-cigarette tobacco product(s); and (3) discontinuing all tobacco use—among those currently using: (1) any tobacco product; (2) cigarettes only (i.e., exclusive cigarette); and (3) cigarettes plus another tobacco product(s) (i.e., poly-cigarette). Multinomial logistic regression analyses determined relative risk of type of transition versus no transition as a function of demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Transitions in tobacco product use among adult tobacco users were common overall, but varied among different demographic groups, including by age, sex, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and poverty level. Further, cigarette smokers with higher dependence scores were more likely to add product(s) and less likely to discontinue tobacco use compared to those with low dependence scores. That high nicotine dependence is a barrier to discontinuing tobacco use adds evidence to support policy to lower nicotine content of cigarettes and to evaluate new products for their potential to reduce cigarette use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Study on the Preferred Application-Oriented Index for Mental Fatigue Detection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112555 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Most of the research on mental fatigue evaluation has mainly concentrated on some indexes that require sophisticated and large instruments that make the detection of mental fatigue cumbersome, time-consuming, and difficult to apply on a large scale. A quick and sensitive mental fatigue
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Most of the research on mental fatigue evaluation has mainly concentrated on some indexes that require sophisticated and large instruments that make the detection of mental fatigue cumbersome, time-consuming, and difficult to apply on a large scale. A quick and sensitive mental fatigue detection index is necessary so that mentally fatigued workers can be alerted in time and take corresponding countermeasures. However, to date, no studies have compared the sensitivity of common objective evaluation indexes. To solve these problems, this study recruited 56 human subjects. These subjects were evaluated using six fatigue indexes: the Stanford sleepiness scale, digital span, digital decoding, short-term memory, critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF), and speed perception deviation. The results of the fatigue tests before and after mental fatigue were compared, and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the speed perception deviation. The results indicated the significance of this index. Considering individual differences, the relative fatigue index (RFI) was proposed to compare the sensitivity of the indexes. The results showed that when the self-rated fatigue grade changed from non-fatigue to mild fatigue, the ranges of RFI values for digital span, digital decoding, short-term memory, and CFF were 0.175–0.258, 0.194–0.316, 0.068–0.139, and 0.055–0.075, respectively. Correspondingly, when the self-rated fatigue grade changed to severe fatigue, the ranges of RFI values for the above indexes were 0.415–0.577, 0.482–0.669, 0.329–0.396, and 0.114–0.218, respectively. These results suggest that the sensitivity of the digital decoding, digital span, short-term memory, and CFF decreased sequentially when the self-evaluated fatigue grade changed from no fatigue to mild or severe fatigue. The RFI individuality of the speed perception deviation is highly variable and is not suitable as an evaluation index. In mental fatigue testing, digital decoding testing can provide faster, more convenient, and more accurate results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Occupational Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Fear of Terror and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112554 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to empirically explore whether or not the level of emotional intelligence of adolescents mitigates the potential adverse effects of the fear of terror on their psychological well-being. Data for this study were collected through a voluntary survey
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The purpose of this study was to empirically explore whether or not the level of emotional intelligence of adolescents mitigates the potential adverse effects of the fear of terror on their psychological well-being. Data for this study were collected through a voluntary survey from a sample of 385 adolescents residing in the terrorism-affected provinces of Pakistan: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Balochistan. The results from the structural equation modeling revealed that fear of terrorism had a significant negative relationship with the psychological well-being of adolescents. The study results further revealed that emotional intelligence significantly moderated the relationship between the fear of terrorism and the psychological well-being of the adolescents. Therefore, the negative relationship was stronger for those with low emotional intelligence and weaker for those with high emotional intelligence. This study also discusses several practical implications along with suggestions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress, Coping, and Resilience in Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle Parenting Practices as a Mediator in the Association Between Family Socio-Economic Status and Screen-Time in Primary Schoolchildren: A Feel4Diabetes Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112553 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effects of specific parenting practices on the association between family socio-economic status (SES) and screen-time of 6- to 9-year-old children from families with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional
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The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effects of specific parenting practices on the association between family socio-economic status (SES) and screen-time of 6- to 9-year-old children from families with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study, focusing on families with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, used the Belgian baseline data of the Movie Models intervention, integrated within the European Feel4Diabetes intervention, and included 247 parents (57.6% lower SES family; 78.0% mothers) who completed a questionnaire. Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test via multilevel linear regression analyses. Being consistent concerning rules about gaming (β = 0.127; standard error = 0.055; 95% CI = 0.020; 0.234) and avoiding negative role modeling concerning TV-time (β = −0.082; standard error = 0.040; 95% CI = −0.161; −0.003) significantly mediated the inverse association between family SES and children’s screen-time. Parents from lower SES families were more consistent concerning rules about gaming and watched more TV nearby their child compared to parents from higher SES families, and these parenting practices were related to more screen-time. No other parenting practices were found to mediate this association. Thus, parents from lower SES families with a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes might limit their own TV-time nearby their child to reduce their child’s screen-time. Future research should examine other possible mediating factors to develop effective interventions targeting this important at-risk group. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sedentary Behaviour and Health)
Open AccessArticle Screening for Depressive Mood During Acute Chikungunya Infection in Primary Healthcare Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112552 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: We aimed to screen for depressive mood experienced during acute chikungunya (CHIKV) infection, and to evaluate the association of several exposures with the risk of depressive symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of a multicenter cohort study took place and data from 354
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Background: We aimed to screen for depressive mood experienced during acute chikungunya (CHIKV) infection, and to evaluate the association of several exposures with the risk of depressive symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of a multicenter cohort study took place and data from 354 adult individuals with confirmed CHIKV infection were analyzed. Participants were recruited in primary health care settings and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used. Prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated by means of logistic models were used. Results: Depressive mood (PHQ-2 score 3 or higher) was reported by 44.1% of individuals. Subjects with articular effusion (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.77–8.11), gastrointestinal manifestations (diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain, OR = 1.97, 95 CI 1.21–3.19), and higher length of severe arthralgia (reference ≤ 14 days: 15–30 days, OR = 3.38, 95% CI 1.78–6.41; ≥ 30 days, OR = 1.69, 95% CI 0.95–3.01) were more likely to self-report depressive mood. Increasing age (≥ 40 years old, OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31–0.95) and rash (OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.30–0.98) were associated with a decreased risk of depressive mood. Conclusions: Depressive mood seemed to be a frequent event among analyzed individuals, and markers associated with its risk were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito-Borne Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Drinking Water Quality on the Development of Enteroviral Diseases in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112551 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Enterovirus diseases are fecal-orally transmitted, and its transmission may be closely related with the drinking water quality and other environmental factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors including drinking water quality and the incidence of enteroviral diseases in metropolitan
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Enterovirus diseases are fecal-orally transmitted, and its transmission may be closely related with the drinking water quality and other environmental factors. This study aimed to assess the association between environmental factors including drinking water quality and the incidence of enteroviral diseases in metropolitan provinces of Korea. Using monthly number of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis (AM) and acute hemorrhage conjunctivitis (AHC) cases, generalized linear Poisson model was applied to estimate the effects of environmental factors on the monthly cases. An increase of mean temperature was associated with an increase of enteroviral diseases at 0–2 months lag, while an increase of turbidity was associated with increase in HFMD at 1 month lag and a decrease in AHC. An increase of residual chlorine in municipal drinking water was associated with a decrease in HFMD and AHC 2 and 3 months later. An increase of pH was associated with a maximum increase in AM 3 months later. The meta-analysis revealed the effects of the provincial and pooled variation in percent change of risks of environmental factors on HFMD, AM, and AHC cases at specific selected lags. This study suggests that the drinking water quality is one of the major determinants on enteroviral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Norovirus Outbreak Associated with Swimming in a Recreational Lake Not Influenced by External Human Fecal Sources in The Netherlands, August 2012
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112550 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Swimming in fecally contaminated recreational water may lead to gastrointestinal illness. A recreational water-associated outbreak of norovirus (NoV) infections affecting at least 100 people in The Netherlands occurred in August 2012. Questionnaire responses from patients indicated swimming in recreational lake Zeumeren as the
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Swimming in fecally contaminated recreational water may lead to gastrointestinal illness. A recreational water-associated outbreak of norovirus (NoV) infections affecting at least 100 people in The Netherlands occurred in August 2012. Questionnaire responses from patients indicated swimming in recreational lake Zeumeren as the most likely cause of illness. Most patients visited the lake during the weekend of 18–19 August, during which the weather was exceptionally warm (maximum temperatures 32–33 °C), and visitor numbers elevated. Patients, mostly children, became ill with gastroenteritis 1–6 days (median 2 days) after exposure. Four stool samples from patients were NoV GI positive. Subsurface sandy soil from one of the beaches where most patients swam was NoV GI positive; the water sample was negative. The epidemiological curve and the timeline of investigation based on reported symptoms demonstrate the difficulty in discovering the source in recreational water outbreaks. A NoV outbreak in a recreational lake that is not subjected to external fecal contamination sources shows the need for active communication about human shedding of viruses during and after diarrheal episodes and the advice to refrain from swimming, even a few weeks after the symptoms have resolved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recreational Water Illnesses)
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Open AccessArticle The Mediating Role of Family and Food-Related Life Satisfaction in the Relationships between Family Support, Parent Work-Life Balance and Adolescent Life Satisfaction in Dual-Earner Families
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112549 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
This study explored the associations between family support and satisfaction with life, food-related life and family life. It also assessed the associations between both parents’ work-life balance and satisfaction with life, food-related life and family life among adolescent children from dual-earner families. Questionnaires
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This study explored the associations between family support and satisfaction with life, food-related life and family life. It also assessed the associations between both parents’ work-life balance and satisfaction with life, food-related life and family life among adolescent children from dual-earner families. Questionnaires were administered to 303 dual-earner families with one child between 10 and 17 years in Temuco, Chile. Adolescents answered the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life scale (SWFoL), Satisfaction with Family Life scale (SWFaL) and the Family subscale of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Both parents answered the Work-life Balance (WLB) scale. Using structural equation modelling and having controlled for adolescents’ gender, age and socioeconomic status, we confirmed that adolescent life satisfaction is associated with satisfaction with family life and food-related life. Food-related life satisfaction and family life satisfaction had complete mediating roles between perceived family support and adolescents’ life satisfaction. Satisfaction with food-related life also had a complete mediating role between both parents’ WLB and adolescents’ life satisfaction. Satisfaction with family life had a complete mediating role between mothers’ WLB and adolescents’ life satisfaction. In addition, mothers’ WLB was positively associated with perceived family support among adolescents. These findings suggest the need to improve family support and work-life balance among mothers in order to enhance adolescents’ satisfaction with different domains of life in dual-earner families. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Zika among a University Community Located in an Endemic Zone in Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112548 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about the Zika virus in both students and workers at the University of Veracruz, an online survey was conducted. The participants were divided into two groups: one according to sex, the other according to whether they
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To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about the Zika virus in both students and workers at the University of Veracruz, an online survey was conducted. The participants were divided into two groups: one according to sex, the other according to whether they were workers or students. Their answers were classified into knowledge, attitudes, and practices and they were rated as low, medium, and high. The results showed that knowledge about Zika prevailing among the university population is considered as medium in 79.4% of the study population. Most respondents know that the mosquito spreads the Zika virus (98.8%) and the clinical characteristics, while sexual transmission by the virus is little known (36.85%). Both the univariate analysis (OR (CI5) 0.227 (0.070–0.735), p = 0.013] and multivariate analysis (OR (CI95) 0.234 (0.071–778), p = 0.018] showed that belonging to the health sciences area is related to having a greater knowledge about Zika. Despite the existing knowledge, a low level of prevention practices prevails in the whole community (55%). A medium level of knowledge about Zika prevailed, while proper implementation of preventive measures for Zika is low, despite the fact that the state of Veracruz—the place where the University is located—is an endemic area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle “In my day…”- Parents’ Views on Children’s Physical Activity and Screen Viewing in Relation to Their Own Childhood
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112547
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Physical activity and screen viewing are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors, psychological wellbeing, and academic performance among children. Across the last generation, children’s physical activity and screen viewing behaviours have changed, coinciding with changes to the home and neighbourhood environment. This study aimed
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Physical activity and screen viewing are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors, psychological wellbeing, and academic performance among children. Across the last generation, children’s physical activity and screen viewing behaviours have changed, coinciding with changes to the home and neighbourhood environment. This study aimed to qualitatively explore parents’ views on their 8–9-year-old child’s childhood and how this compares to experiences from their own childhood, with a specific focus on physical activity and screen viewing behaviours. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 51 parents (mean age = 41.2 years, range 31.5 to 51.5 years), between July and October 2016. Inductive and deductive content analyses were used to explore parents’ perceptions of their child’s physical activity and screen viewing behaviours in comparison to their own childhood behaviours. Interview data revealed that compared to the relative freedom they recalled as children, parents restrict their children’s independent mobility and outdoor play due to concerns about safety. Despite their children having greater access to structured activities than they did as children, parents feel their children are “missing out,” and perceived their own childhood as better with regards to maximising independent and outdoor play and limiting screen viewing. Innovative strategies are needed to change the social norms surrounding children’s independent mobility and outdoor play. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Adolescents and Children Health Research)
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Satisfaction of Hospital Physicians: A Systematic Review on European Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112546
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Physician satisfaction is a multidimensional concept related to many factors. Despite the wide range of research regarding factors affecting physician satisfaction in different European countries, there is a lack of literature reviews analyzing and summarizing current evidence. The aim of the article
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Background: Physician satisfaction is a multidimensional concept related to many factors. Despite the wide range of research regarding factors affecting physician satisfaction in different European countries, there is a lack of literature reviews analyzing and summarizing current evidence. The aim of the article is to synthetize the literature studying the factors associated with physician satisfaction. Methods: We searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to January 2017. The eligibility criteria included: (1) target population: physicians working in European hospitals; (2) quantitative research aimed at assessing physician satisfaction and associated factors; (3) use of validated tools. We performed a narrative synthesis. Results: After screening 8585 records, 368 full text articles were independently checked and finally 24 studies were included for qualitative analysis. The included studies surveyed 20,000 doctors from 12 European countries. The tools and scales used in the analyzed research to measure physician satisfaction varied to a large extent. We extracted all pre-specified factors, reported as statistically significant/non-significant. Analyzed factors were divided into three groups: personal, intrinsic and contextual factors. The majority of factors are modifiable and positively associated with characteristics of contextual factors, such as work-place setting/work environment. In the group of work-place related factors, quality of management/leadership, opportunity for professional development and colleague support have been deemed statistically significant in numerous studies. Conclusions: We identified more studies appraising the effect of contextual factors (such as work environment, work-place characteristics), highlighting a positive association between those factors and physician satisfaction, compared with personal and intrinsic factors. Numerous studies confirmed statistically significant associations between physician satisfaction and quality of management, professional development and colleague support/team climate. Due to the health workforce crisis, knowledge regarding physician satisfaction and associated factors is essential to healthcare managers and policy makers for more stable human resources management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Health-Related Lifestyle Behavior and Religiosity among First-Generation Immigrants of Polish Origin in Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112545
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Health-related lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and obesity are major cardiovascular risk factors. Previous studies have mostly demonstrated a favorable association between religiosity and these cardiovascular risk factors; however, no studies have investigated this relationship in Polish
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Background: Health-related lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and obesity are major cardiovascular risk factors. Previous studies have mostly demonstrated a favorable association between religiosity and these cardiovascular risk factors; however, no studies have investigated this relationship in Polish immigrants. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between health-related lifestyle behaviors and religiosity in Polish immigrants in Germany. Methods: The smoking patterns, frequency of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and presence of overweight/obesity were assessed in 257 first-generation immigrants of Polish origin living in Germany. Religiosity was measured with the Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS, Huber, 2003) consisting of 15 items that categorized the respondents into intrinsically, extrinsically, and not/marginally religious. Results: After adjusting for various sociodemographic, migration, and health-related characteristics, intrinsic religiosity was significantly associated with a lower risk of being a smoker (odds ratios (OR) = 0.34, confidence intervals (CI) = 0.15–0.76) and was also associated with a lower risk of alcohol consumption (OR = 0.33, CI = 0.15–0.71), but a higher risk of being overweight/obese (OR = 2.53, CI = 1.15–5.56) in comparison with extrinsic/marginal religiosity. No significant relationship was found between religiosity and physical activity. Conclusions: In Polish immigrants, intrinsic religiosity acts as a protective factor against some cardiovascular risk factors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refugee, Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health)
Open AccessArticle Exposure to Household Air Pollution from Biomass Cookstoves and Levels of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Honduran Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112544
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Household air pollution is estimated to be responsible for nearly three million premature deaths annually. Measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may improve the limited understanding of the association of household air pollution and airway inflammation. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of FeNO
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Household air pollution is estimated to be responsible for nearly three million premature deaths annually. Measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may improve the limited understanding of the association of household air pollution and airway inflammation. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of FeNO with exposure to household air pollution (24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter and black carbon; stove type) among 139 women in rural Honduras using traditional stoves or cleaner-burning Justa stoves. We additionally evaluated interaction by age. Results were generally consistent with a null association; we did not observe a consistent pattern for interaction by age. Evidence from ambient and household air pollution regarding FeNO is inconsistent, and may be attributable to differing study populations, exposures, and FeNO measurement procedures (e.g., the flow rate used to measure FeNO). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation and Prediction of the Ecological Footprint and Ecological Carrying Capacity for Yangtze River Urban Agglomeration Based on the Grey Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112543
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
The conflict between economic development and environmental protection has become increasingly prominent in the urbanization process of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration, the most economically developed region in Jiangsu Province in China. In order to investigate the sustainable development status, and thus provide
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The conflict between economic development and environmental protection has become increasingly prominent in the urbanization process of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration, the most economically developed region in Jiangsu Province in China. In order to investigate the sustainable development status, and thus provide decision support for the sustainable development of this region, the ecological footprint model was utilized to evaluate and analyze the ecological footprint per capita, the ecological carrying capacity per capita, and the ecological deficit per capita for the period from 2013 to 2017. Furthermore, the Grey model is employed to predict the development trend of the ecological footprint for 2018 to 2022. The evaluation results show that the ecological footprint per capita has been increasing year by year since 2013, reaching a peak of 2.3897 hm2 in 2015 before declining again. In the same period, the available ecological carrying capacity per capita and the ecological footprint per capita basically developed in the same direction, resulting in an ecological deficit per capita and gradually increasing from 2013 to a peak of 2.0303 hm2 in 2015 before declining. It is also found that the change of ecological carrying capacity is not substantial, and the change of the ecological deficit is mainly caused by a huge change of the ecological footprint. The forecast results show that the ecological deficit per capita will reach 1.1713 hm2 in 2018, which will be another deficit peak after 2015. However, in the later period until 2022, the ecological deficit per capita will begin to decline year by year. These results can provide effective inspirations for reducing the ecological deficit of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration, thus promoting the coordinated development of the economy and environment in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Big Data Analytics and Intelligence)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of an Empowerment-Based Health-Promotion School Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Adolescents in a Multicultural Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112542
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Physical activity (PA) decreases with age, and interventions are needed to promote PA during adolescence, especially, among those in low-socioeconomic status (SES) areas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention had any effects on changes
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Physical activity (PA) decreases with age, and interventions are needed to promote PA during adolescence, especially, among those in low-socioeconomic status (SES) areas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention had any effects on changes in (a) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), (b) sedentary time (SED), (c) exercise training (ET) frequency, and (d) ET duration, among adolescents. Participants (aged 12–13 years at baseline) from one intervention school and two control schools, were recruited from a multicultural area of Sweden, characterized by low-SES. During the course of the two-year intervention, a total of 135 participants (43% boys) were included in the study. The intervention was developed and implemented as a result of cooperation and shared decision-making among the researchers and the participants. MVPA and SED were measured with accelerometers, and ET frequency and duration was self-reported at the beginning of the seventh, eighth, and ninth grade, respectively. There were no significant effects of the two-year, empowerment-based health-promotion school intervention on changes in the accelerometer-measured MVPA and SED, or the self-reported ET frequency and duration, among the adolescents. Overall, the intervention was unsuccessful at promoting PA and reducing SED. Several possible explanations for the intervention’s lack of effects are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Physical Activity and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Management of Chronic Disease and Hospitalization Due to Diabetes among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Korea: Using the National Sample Cohort Data 2002–2013
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112541
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
To prevent negative outcomes for diabetes patients, developing self-management skills is imperative. This study aimed to examine the association between management of chronic disease (MCD), which mainly involves educating patients about their chronic diseases for obtaining self-management skills and hospitalization due to diabetes
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To prevent negative outcomes for diabetes patients, developing self-management skills is imperative. This study aimed to examine the association between management of chronic disease (MCD), which mainly involves educating patients about their chronic diseases for obtaining self-management skills and hospitalization due to diabetes among type 2 diabetes patients in Korea. Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort data from 2002 to 2013 were used. A total of 54,031 type 2 diabetes patients were included in the study. If patients received the MCD within 1 year from the onset of diabetes, we categorized them as “MCD received patients” We reclassified these groups into five groups: “non-receiving”, “1–3 times”, “4–6 times”, “7–9 times” and “10–12 times” The dependent variable of this study was hospitalization due to diabetes. Cox proportional hazard regression was used. Of the patients, 86.2% (n = 46,571) did not received the MCD within the 1 year from the onset of diabetes. The number of MCDs received increased and the hazard ratio (HR) for hospitalization due to diabetes decreased; particularly, patients who received MCD 10–12 times per annum showed the lowest HR for hospitalization due to diabetes compared to patients in the MCD non-received group (1–3 times per annum: HR: 0.81, p = 0.0001; 4–6 times per annum: HR: 0.82, p = 0.0248; 7–9 times per annum: HR: 0.75, p = 0.0054; 10–12 times per annum: HR: 0.61, p < 0.0001). Considering the importance of raising self-managing diabetes skills, the findings can aid in determining the outcomes of the MCD program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Climate Change and Extreme Weather from 1951 to 2011 in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112540
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
It has been demonstrated that climate change is an established fact. A good comprehension of climate and extreme weather variation characteristics on a temporal and a spatial scale is important for adaptation and response. In this work, the characteristics of temperature, precipitation, and
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It has been demonstrated that climate change is an established fact. A good comprehension of climate and extreme weather variation characteristics on a temporal and a spatial scale is important for adaptation and response. In this work, the characteristics of temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather distribution and variation is summarized for a period of 60 years and the seasonal fluctuation of temperature and precipitation is also analyzed. The results illustrate the reduction in daily and annual temperature divergence on both temporal and spatial scales. However, the gaps remain relatively significant. Furthermore, the disparity in daily and annual precipitation are found to be increasing on both temporal and spatial scales. The findings indicate that climate change, to a certain extent, narrowed the temperature gap while widening the precipitation gap on temporal and spatial scales in China. Full article
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Open AccessReview Greenspace and Atopic Sensitization in Children and Adolescents—A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112539
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
In the last decade, studies investigating greenspace have highlighted several benefits to human health. However, the effect of greenspace on allergies and atopic sensitization in children was not clear. While several studies have investigated this link, the evidence has not been systematically synthesized.
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In the last decade, studies investigating greenspace have highlighted several benefits to human health. However, the effect of greenspace on allergies and atopic sensitization in children was not clear. While several studies have investigated this link, the evidence has not been systematically synthesized. We conducted a systematic search of eight databases. Study characteristics and findings were extracted from five articles covering 11 cohorts published between 2012 and 2016, and study quality assessments were performed. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to variations in exposure measurements, study populations and location, the specific allergens tested, and inclusion of confounders. Protective effects from greenspace were reported in four cohorts, while two cohorts showed an increase in sensitization related to greenspace. The other five cohorts found no significant effect of greenspace on atopic sensitization. There is limited understanding of the contributions of greenspace to specific allergens. Future research should consider amount and type of greenspace, as well as the specific allergens tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Epidemiology of Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life between People with Parkinson’s Disease and Non-Parkinson’s: Using Data Drawn from the ‘100 for Parkinson’s’ Smartphone-Based Prospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112538
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: This study aims to assess the specific difference of the health-related quality of life between people with Parkinson’s and non-Parkinson’s. Methods: A total of 1710 people were drawn from a prospective study with a smartphone-based survey named ‘100 for Parkinson’s’
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Background: This study aims to assess the specific difference of the health-related quality of life between people with Parkinson’s and non-Parkinson’s. Methods: A total of 1710 people were drawn from a prospective study with a smartphone-based survey named ‘100 for Parkinson’s’ to assess health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and the EQ visual analogue scale were used to measure health-related quality of life and a linear mixed model was used to analyze the difference. Results: The mean difference of EQ-5D-5L index values between people with Parkinson’s and non-Parkinson’s was 0.15 (95%CI: 0.12, 0.18) at baseline; it changed to 0.17 (95%CI: 0.14, 0.20) at the end of study. The mean difference of EQ visual analogue scale scores between them increased from 10.18 (95%CI: 7.40, 12.96) to 12.19 (95%CI: 9.41, 14.97) from baseline to the end of study. Conclusion: Data can be captured from the participants’ own smart devices and support the notion that health-related quality of life for people with Parkinson’s is lower than non-Parkinson’s. This analysis provides useful evidence for the EQ-5D instrument and is helpful for public health specialists and epidemiologists to assess the health needs of people with Parkinson’s and indirectly improve their health status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding #WorldEnvironmentDay User Opinions in Twitter: A Topic-Based Sentiment Analysis Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112537
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
The main objective of this exploratory study is to identify the social, economic, environmental and cultural factors related to the sustainable care of both environment and public health that most concern Twitter users. With 336 million active users as of 2018, Twitter is
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The main objective of this exploratory study is to identify the social, economic, environmental and cultural factors related to the sustainable care of both environment and public health that most concern Twitter users. With 336 million active users as of 2018, Twitter is a social network that is increasingly used in research to get information and to understand public opinion as exemplified by Twitter users. In order to identify the factors related to the sustainable care of environment and public health, we have downloaded n = 5873 tweets that used the hashtag #WorldEnvironmentDay on the respective day. As the next step, sentiment analysis with an algorithm developed in Python and trained with data mining was applied to the sample of tweets to group them according to the expressed feelings. Thereafter, a textual analysis was used to group the tweets according to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), identifying the key factors about environment and public health that most concern Twitter users. To this end, we used the qualitative analysis software NVivo Pro 12. The results of the analysis enabled us to establish the key factors that most concern users about the environment and public health such as climate change, global warming, extreme weather, water pollution, deforestation, climate risks, acid rain or massive industrialization. The conclusions of the present study can be useful to companies and institutions that have initiatives related to the environment and they also facilitate decision-making regarding the environment in non-profit organizations. Our findings will also serve the United Nations that will thoroughly review the 17 SDGs at the High-level Political Forum in 2019. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program in Reducing Cyberbullying and Cybervictimization among Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112536
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Background. This article presents results from the evaluation of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program (TIPIP) for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. TIPIP is theoretically designed to address cyberbullying and cybervictimization. It is the first program in this field developed combining the Ecological
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Background. This article presents results from the evaluation of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program (TIPIP) for cyberbullying and cybervictimization. TIPIP is theoretically designed to address cyberbullying and cybervictimization. It is the first program in this field developed combining the Ecological System Theory and the Threat Assessment Approach. Method. The Tabby Improved program was evaluated using an experimental design with 759 Italian students (aged 10–17 years) randomly allocated via their classes to either the Experimental or Control Group. Results. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed a significant decrease both in cyberbullying and cybervictimization among students who received the intervention with a follow-up period of six months. The program was more effective for boys than for girls. Conclusions. Because cyberbullying is a cruel problem negatively affecting those involved, validated interventions that prove their efficacy in reducing the problem using experimental designs should be widely tested and promoted, paying particular attention to implementing a program fully to increase and guarantee its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interventions to Reduce Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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Open AccessArticle Could Robots Help Older People with Age-Related Nutritional Problems? Opinions of Potential Users
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112535
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: The rapid development of new technologies has recently raised interest in the use of assistive robots in the care of older people. The success or failure of robots’ implementation is mediated by their acceptance by users. The aim of the study was
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Background: The rapid development of new technologies has recently raised interest in the use of assistive robots in the care of older people. The success or failure of robots’ implementation is mediated by their acceptance by users. The aim of the study was to answer the question of how both older people and caregivers perceive the possibility of using an assistive robot for nutritional support. Methods: Opinions of 252 respondents (126 older—aged 65 and above; 126 younger ones—aged below 65) from five European countries were collected using the Users’ Needs, Requirements, and Abilities Questionnaire. Results: The majority of participants positively assessed the possibility of using a robot to improve the diet of older people by giving advice on healthy eating or monitoring the amount of food consumed by the owner. An age-related difference was observed, as older people less frequently accepted the reminding of meal times or drinking liquids than younger participants. Four key categories related to the robot’s role in the diet of older people were identified: matching the needs, robot’s characteristics, ethical issues and technical/financial issues. Conclusions: Our preliminary research has shown a positive approach to robots in the context of their nutrition-related aspects. An indication has been made of the need to include older people and other stakeholders in the process of designing these functionalities and modeling human–robot interactions based on communication theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value Based Health and Social Care for Older People)
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Open AccessArticle Sources and Characteristics of Particulate Matter in Subway Tunnels in Seoul, Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112534
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Hazards related to particulate matter (PM) in subway systems necessitate improvement of the air quality. As a first step toward establishing a management strategy, we assessed the physicochemical characteristics of PM in a subway system in Seoul, South Korea. The mean mass of
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Hazards related to particulate matter (PM) in subway systems necessitate improvement of the air quality. As a first step toward establishing a management strategy, we assessed the physicochemical characteristics of PM in a subway system in Seoul, South Korea. The mean mass of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations (n = 13) were 213.7 ± 50.4 and 78.4 ± 8.8 µg/m3, with 86.0% and 85.9% of mass concentration. Chemical analysis using a thermal–optical elemental/organic carbon (EC–OC) analyzer, ion chromatography (IC), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy indicated that the chemical components in the subway tunnel comprised 86.0% and 85.9% mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5. Fe was the most abundant element in subway tunnels, accounting for higher proportions of PM, and was detected in PM with diameters >94 nm. Fe was present mostly as iron oxides, which were emitted from the wheel–rail–brake and pantograph–catenary wire interfaces. Copper particles were 96–150 nm in diameter and were likely emitted via catenary wire arc discharges. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that the PM in subway tunnels was composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), quartz (SiO2), and iron oxides (hematite (α-Fe2O3) and maghemite-C (γ-Fe2O3)). Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the PM in subway tunnels existed as agglomerates of iron oxide particle clusters a few nanometers in diameter, which were presumably generated at the aforementioned interfaces and subsequently attached onto other PM, enabling the growth of aggregates. Our results can help inform the management of PM sources from subway operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge Management for Fostering Biostatistical Collaboration within a Research Network: The RTRN Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112533
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Purpose: While the intellectual and scientific rationale for research collaboration has been articulated, a paucity of information is available on a strategic approach to facilitate the collaboration within a research network designed to reduce health disparities. This study aimed to (1) develop
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Purpose: While the intellectual and scientific rationale for research collaboration has been articulated, a paucity of information is available on a strategic approach to facilitate the collaboration within a research network designed to reduce health disparities. This study aimed to (1) develop a conceptual model to facilitate collaboration among biostatisticians in a research network; (2) describe collaborative engagement performed by the Network’s Data Coordinating Center (DCC); and (3) discuss potential challenges and opportunities in engaging the collaboration. Methods: Key components of the strategic approach will be developed through a systematic literature review. The Network’s initiatives for the biostatistical collaboration will be described in the areas of infrastructure, expertise and knowledge management and experiential lessons will be discussed. Results: Components of the strategic approach model included three Ps (people, processes and programs) which were integrated into expert management, infrastructure management and knowledge management, respectively. Ongoing initiatives for collaboration with non-DCC biostatisticians included both web-based and face-to-face interaction approaches: Network’s biostatistical capacities and needs assessment, webinar statistical seminars, mobile statistical workshop and clinics, adjunct appointment program, one-on-one consulting, and on-site workshop. The outreach program, as a face-to-face interaction approach, especially resulted in a useful tool for expertise management and needs assessment as well as knowledge exchange. Conclusions: Although fostering a partnered research culture, sustaining senior management commitment and ongoing monitoring are a challenge for this collaborative engagement, the proposed strategies centrally performed by the DCC may be useful in accelerating the pace and enhancing the quality of the scientific outcomes within a multidisciplinary clinical and translational research network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Comorbidity Assessed by the Charlson Comorbidity Index on the Length of Stay, Costs and Mortality among Older Adults Hospitalised for Acute Stroke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112532
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
The burden of comorbidity among stroke patients is high. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of comorbidity on the length of stay (LOS), costs, and mortality among older adults hospitalised for acute stroke. Among 776 older adults (mean age
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The burden of comorbidity among stroke patients is high. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of comorbidity on the length of stay (LOS), costs, and mortality among older adults hospitalised for acute stroke. Among 776 older adults (mean age 80.1 ± 8.3 years; 46.7% female) hospitalised for acute stroke during July 2013 to December 2015 at a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia, we collected data on LOS, costs, and discharge outcomes. Comorbidity was assessed via the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), where a CCI score of 0–1 was considered low and a CCI ≥ 2 was high. Negative binomial regression and quantile regression were applied to examine the association between CCI and LOS and cost, respectively. Survival was evaluated with the Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses. The median LOS was 1.1 days longer for patients with high CCI than for those with low CCI. In-hospital mortality rate was 18.2% (22.1% for high CCI versus 11.8% for low CCI, p < 0.0001). After controlling for confounders, high CCI was associated with longer LOS (incidence rate ratio [IRR]; 1.35, p < 0.0001) and increased likelihood of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR]; 1.91, p = 0.003). The adjusted median, 25th, and 75th percentile costs were AUD$2483 (26.1%), AUD$1446 (28.1%), and AUD$3140 (27.9%) higher for patients with high CCI than for those with low CCI. Among older adults hospitalised for acute stroke, higher global comorbidity (CCI ≥ 2) was associated adverse clinical outcomes. Measures to better manage comorbidities should be considered as part of wider strategies towards mitigating the social and economic impacts of stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Services and Health Economics Research)
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Open AccessArticle Global Identification of HIF-1α Target Genes in Benzene Poisoning Mouse Bone Marrow Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112531
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Benzene is a hematopoietic toxicant, and hematopoietic cells in bone marrow (BM) are one of the main targets for its action, especially hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is associated with the metabolism and physiological functions of HSCs. We previously found that
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Benzene is a hematopoietic toxicant, and hematopoietic cells in bone marrow (BM) are one of the main targets for its action, especially hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is associated with the metabolism and physiological functions of HSCs. We previously found that the mechanism of regulation of HIF-1α is involved in benzene-induced hematopoietic toxicity. In this study, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) technologies were used to analyze the genome-wide binding spectrum of HIF-1α in mouse BM cells, and specific HIF-1α target genes and pathways associated with benzene toxicity were screened and validated. By application of the ChIP-Seq technique, we identified target genes HIF-1α directly binds to and regulates. Forty-two differentially down-regulated genes containing the HIF-1α specific binding site hypoxia response element (HRE) were found, of which 25 genes were with biological function. Moreover, the enrichment analysis of signal pathways indicated that these genes were significantly enriched in the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, the Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, Pyrimidine metabolism, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, and Transcriptional misregulation in cancer. After verification, 11 genes involved in HSC self-renewal, cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis pathways were found to be significantly reduced, and may participate in benzene-induced hematotoxicity. Our study provides a new academic clue for the mechanism of benzene hematotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intake of Saturated Fatty Acids Affects Atherogenic Blood Properties in Young, Caucasian, Overweight Women Even without Influencing Blood Cholesterol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112530
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Despite a general relation between fat intake and cardiovascular risk factors, the association is often not observed in studies conducted in heterogenic populations, as for population groups, it may differ. The aim of the study was to analyze the associations between dietary fat
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Despite a general relation between fat intake and cardiovascular risk factors, the association is often not observed in studies conducted in heterogenic populations, as for population groups, it may differ. The aim of the study was to analyze the associations between dietary fat intake and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, as well as atherogenic blood properties, in young and middle-aged overweight Caucasian women. In a group of 138 overweight women, the three-day dietary records were assessed, under-reporters were excluded, and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions were analyzed. For the included 24 young (aged 20–40) and 42 middle-age women (aged 40–60), the intakes of fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and cholesterol, as well as the PUFA/SFA ratio, were assessed. Afterwards, the analysis of associations with blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride, as well as the TC/HDL ratio, HDL/LDL, ratio and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), were conducted. It was stated that the influence of the dietary fat level on lipoprotein cholesterol fractions as well as atherogenic blood properties in overweight Caucasian women is age dependent. For young, overweight, Caucasian women, the influence of the dietary fat level on the lipoprotein cholesterol fractions was not observed; however, SFA intake influenced atherogenic blood properties. For middle-aged, overweight, Caucasian women, the PUFA intake had an especially important influence in increasing the HDL cholesterol level. For overweight Caucasian women, not only should lipoprotein cholesterol fractions be controlled, but also the AIP calculated—especially for younger women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diets and Public Health)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Backpack Loads on School Children: A Critical Narrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112529
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Backpack loads of school students during school days have been suggested to range from 10% to as high as 25% of their body weight and may have a negative impact on their body. The aim of this review was to identify
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Background: Backpack loads of school students during school days have been suggested to range from 10% to as high as 25% of their body weight and may have a negative impact on their body. The aim of this review was to identify and review studies that have examined impacts of contemporary backpack loads on school children. Methods: A systematic search was conducted of the literature using key search terms. After relevant studies published in recent years were selected using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised and relevant data were extracted and tabulated prior to conducting a critical narrative synthesis of findings. Results: Twenty-one studies were included, ranging in methodological quality from poor to good (critical appraisal scores 22% to 77%). Students carried on average over 15% of their own body weight, which caused biomechanical and physiological adaptations that could increase musculoskeletal injury risk, fatigue, redness, swelling and discomfort. Conclusion: Considering the limited methodological quality and variations in foci across studies, further research is needed to elucidate: (1) the loads students carry around on a school day in their school backpacks and; (2) the biomechanical, physiological and physical effects of load carriage on students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening among Married Female Immigrants with Korean Husbands in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112528
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Background. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the national cervical cancer screening behaviors of married female immigrants living in South Korea. Methods. The present study dataset was collected by the National Health Insurance Services in 2014–2015. A final
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Background. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the national cervical cancer screening behaviors of married female immigrants living in South Korea. Methods. The present study dataset was collected by the National Health Insurance Services in 2014–2015. A final study population of 15,935 was considered eligible for inclusion in this study if they met the criteria for participation in the national cervical cancer screening program in 2014–2015. Results. Of the 15,935 subjects, 7837 (49%) participated in cervical cancer screening. Based on the results of the logistic regression analysis of the association between cervical cancer screening behaviors and related factors, the odds ratio (OR) for participation in cervical cancer screening among individuals older than 50 years was the highest (OR: 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82–2.51), and the OR increased as their duration of stay in South Korea decreased. The OR of Chinese women for cervical cancer screening participation was higher than that of non-Chinese women (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.69–1.99). The OR value was 29.4 (95% CI: 25.9–33.3) among those who participated in the general health screening compared with those who did not participate. Conclusions. To improve awareness about cervical cancer screening and reduce disparities in access to healthcare, appropriate programs should be developed to promote cervical cancer screening participation to socially vulnerable classes. Continuous social attention is needed to address these issues and encourage participation in general health screening to improve the rate of cervical cancer screening. Full article
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