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Molecules, Volume 24, Issue 22 (November-2 2019)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Identifying Promiscuous Compounds with Activity against Different Target Classes
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4185; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224185 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Compounds with multitarget activity are of high interest for polypharmacological drug discovery. Such promiscuous compounds might be active against closely related target proteins from the same family or against distantly related or unrelated targets. Compounds with activity against distinct targets are not only [...] Read more.
Compounds with multitarget activity are of high interest for polypharmacological drug discovery. Such promiscuous compounds might be active against closely related target proteins from the same family or against distantly related or unrelated targets. Compounds with activity against distinct targets are not only of interest for polypharmacology but also to better understand how small molecules might form specific interactions in different binding site environments. We have aimed to identify compounds with activity against drug targets from different classes. To these ends, a systematic analysis of public biological screening data was carried out. Care was taken to exclude compounds from further consideration that were prone to experimental artifacts and false positive activity readouts. Extensively assayed compounds were identified and found to contain molecules that were consistently inactive in all assays, active against a single target, or promiscuous. The latter included more than 1000 compounds that were active against 10 or more targets from different classes. These multiclass ligands were further analyzed and exemplary compounds were found in X-ray structures of complexes with distinct targets. Our collection of multiclass ligands should be of interest for pharmaceutical applications and further exploration of binding characteristics at the molecular level. Therefore, these highly promiscuous compounds are made publicly available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multitarget Ligands)
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Step Azidoalkenylation of Terminal Alkenes Using Iodomethyl Sulfones
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224184 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The radical azidoalkylation of alkenes that was initially developed with α-iodoesters and α-iodoketones was extended to other activated iodomethyl derivatives. By using iodomethyl aryl sulfones, the preparation of γ-azidosulfones was easily achieved. Facile conversion of these azidosulfones to homoallylic azides using a Julia–Kocienski [...] Read more.
The radical azidoalkylation of alkenes that was initially developed with α-iodoesters and α-iodoketones was extended to other activated iodomethyl derivatives. By using iodomethyl aryl sulfones, the preparation of γ-azidosulfones was easily achieved. Facile conversion of these azidosulfones to homoallylic azides using a Julia–Kocienski olefination reaction is reported, making the whole process equivalent to the azidoalkenylation of terminal alkenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Radical Chemistry and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions Followed by Solid Phase Extraction Fractionation from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiace) Leaves for Antiproliferative Effect on Prostate Cancer Cells
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4183; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224183 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Primarily, optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of Orthospihon stamineus was evaluated and verified using a central composite design (CCD) based on three factors including extraction time (minutes), ultrasound amplitude (A), and solvent concentration (%). The response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to [...] Read more.
Primarily, optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of Orthospihon stamineus was evaluated and verified using a central composite design (CCD) based on three factors including extraction time (minutes), ultrasound amplitude (A), and solvent concentration (%). The response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to develop an extraction method with maximum yield and high rosmarinic acid content. The optimal UAE conditions were as follows: extraction time 21 min, ultrasound amplitudes 62 A, and solvent composition 70% ethanol in water. The crude extract was further fractionated using solid-phase extraction (SPE), where six sequential fractions that varied in polarity (0–100% Acetonitrile in water) were obtained. Next, the six fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. This study found that Fraction 2 (F2) contained the highest rosmarinic acid content and showed the strongest antioxidant activity. Additionally, F2 showed an anti-proliferative effect against prostate cancer (DU145) with no harmful effect on normal cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in the Analysis of Medicinal Plants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Current Trends on Seaweeds: Looking at Chemical Composition, Phytopharmacology, and Cosmetic Applications
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4182; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224182 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Seaweeds have received huge interest in recent years given their promising potentialities. Their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hypolipemic, and anticoagulant effects are among the most renowned and studied bioactivities so far, and these effects have been increasingly associated with their content and richness in [...] Read more.
Seaweeds have received huge interest in recent years given their promising potentialities. Their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hypolipemic, and anticoagulant effects are among the most renowned and studied bioactivities so far, and these effects have been increasingly associated with their content and richness in both primary and secondary metabolites. Although primary metabolites have a pivotal importance such as their content in polysaccharides (fucoidans, agars, carragenans, ulvans, alginates, and laminarin), recent data have shown that the content in some secondary metabolites largely determines the effective bioactive potential of seaweeds. Among these secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds feature prominently. The present review provides the most remarkable insights into seaweed research, specifically addressing its chemical composition, phytopharmacology, and cosmetic applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
8-Hydroxyquinoline Glycoconjugates: Modifications in the Linker Structure and Their Effect on the Cytotoxicity of the Obtained Compounds
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4181; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224181 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Small molecule nitrogen heterocycles are very important structures, widely used in the design of potential pharmaceuticals. Particularly, derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) are successfully used to design promising anti-cancer agents. Conjugating 8-HQ derivatives with sugar derivatives, molecules with better bioavailability, selectivity, and solubility are [...] Read more.
Small molecule nitrogen heterocycles are very important structures, widely used in the design of potential pharmaceuticals. Particularly, derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) are successfully used to design promising anti-cancer agents. Conjugating 8-HQ derivatives with sugar derivatives, molecules with better bioavailability, selectivity, and solubility are obtained. In this study, 8-HQ derivatives were functionalized at the 8-OH position and connected with sugar derivatives (D-glucose or D-galactose) substituted with different groups at the anomeric position, using copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Glycoconjugates were tested for inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cell lines (HCT 116 and MCF-7) and inhibition of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity, which overexpression is associated with cancer progression. All glycoconjugates in protected form have a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells in the tested concentration range. The presence of additional amide groups in the linker structure improves the activity of glycoconjugates, probably due to the ability to chelate metal ions present in many types of cancers. The study of metal complexing properties confirmed that the obtained glycoconjugates are capable of chelating copper ions, which increases their anti-cancer potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Quinolines and Quinoline Derivatives)
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Open AccessArticle
Key-Marker Volatile Compounds in Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa) Grains: An HS-SPME Extraction Method Combined with GC×GC-TOFMS
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4180; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224180 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The aroma of rice essentially contributes to the quality of rice grains. For some varieties, their aroma properties really drive consumer preferences. In this paper, using a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) system coupled to a two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a time-of-flight [...] Read more.
The aroma of rice essentially contributes to the quality of rice grains. For some varieties, their aroma properties really drive consumer preferences. In this paper, using a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) system coupled to a two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (TOFMS) and multivariate analysis, the volatile compounds of aromatic and non-aromatic rice grains were contrasted to define some chemical markers. Fifty-one volatile compounds were selected for principal component analysis resulting in eight key-marker volatile compounds (i.e., pentanal, hexanal, 2-pentyl-furan, 2,4-nonadienal, pyridine, 1-octen-3-ol and (E)-2-octenal) as responsible for the differences between aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties. The factors that are most likely to affect the HS-SPME efficiency for the aforementioned key-marker compounds were evaluated using a 2 I I I 5 2 fractional factorial design in conjunction with multi-response optimisation. The method precision values, expressed as % of coefficient of variation (CV), were ranging from 1.91% to 26.90% for repeatability (n = 9) and 7.32% to 37.36% for intermediate precision (n = 3 × 3). Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to evaluate the volatile compounds of rice varieties from some Asian countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Curcumin Nicotinate Selectively Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis and Cycle Arrest through a P53-Mediated Mechanism
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4179; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224179 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Curcumin is an anticancer agent, but adverse effects and low bioavailability are its main drawbacks, which drives efforts in chemical modifications of curcumin. This study evaluated antiproliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity of a curcumin derivative, curcumin nicotinate (CN), in which two niacin [...] Read more.
Curcumin is an anticancer agent, but adverse effects and low bioavailability are its main drawbacks, which drives efforts in chemical modifications of curcumin. This study evaluated antiproliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity of a curcumin derivative, curcumin nicotinate (CN), in which two niacin molecules were introduced. Our data showed that CN effectively inhibited proliferation and clonogenic growth of colon (HCT116), breast (MCF-7) and nasopharyngeal (CNE2, 5-8F and 6-10B) cancer cells with IC50 at 27.7 μM, 73.4 μM, 64.7 μM, 46.3 μM, and 31.2 μM, respectively. In cancer cells, CN induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase through a p53-mediated mechanism, where p53 was activated, p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bak were upregulated, and PARP was cleaved. In non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A, CN at 50 µM had no cytotoxicity and p53 was not activated, but curcumin at 12.5 µM activated p53 and p21 and inhibited MCF10A cell growth. These data suggest that CN inhibits cell growth and proliferation through p53-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest with cancer cell selectivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Newly Discovered Phenylethanoid Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Affects Insulin Secretion in Rat INS-1 Islet β Cells
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4178; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224178 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The tea-like beverage Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Stevia) is popular in China because it reduces blood glucose and has a sweet taste. In this work, a comprehensive quality assessment of Stevia led to the discovery of five phenylethanoid glycosides, namely steviophethanoside ( [...] Read more.
The tea-like beverage Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Stevia) is popular in China because it reduces blood glucose and has a sweet taste. In this work, a comprehensive quality assessment of Stevia led to the discovery of five phenylethanoid glycosides, namely steviophethanoside (1), cuchiloside (2), salidroside (3), icariside D (4), and tyrosol (5). Of them, compound 1 is a novel compound. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were employed to confirm the absolute configuration. A hydrolytic step with 4 N TFA at 95 °C for 4 h was used to confirm the monosaccharides. In addition, Discovery Studio 4.0 was used to predict the ADME and toxicity activity of compound 1. The results suggested that compound 1 was biocompatible and had poor toxicity, which was verified by rat INS-1 islet β cells through an MTT assay. Meanwhile, a significant stimulatory effect on INS-1 cells was observed, which indicated a hypoglycemic effect of compound 1. This is the first report that describes a natural, novel, and hypoglycemic phenylethanoid glycoside in Stevia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cu(II)-Catalyzed C-N Coupling of (Hetero)aryl Halides and N-Nucleophiles Promoted by α-Benzoin Oxime
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4177; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224177 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
We first reported the new application of a translate metal chelating ligand α-benzoin oxime for improving Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling reactions. The system could catalyse coupling reactions of (hetero)aryl halides with a wide of nucleophiles (e.g., azoles, piperidine, pyrrolidine and amino acids) in moderate [...] Read more.
We first reported the new application of a translate metal chelating ligand α-benzoin oxime for improving Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling reactions. The system could catalyse coupling reactions of (hetero)aryl halides with a wide of nucleophiles (e.g., azoles, piperidine, pyrrolidine and amino acids) in moderate to excellent yields. The protocol allows rapid access to the most common scaffolds found in FDA-approved pharmaceuticals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carnosic Acid Attenuates Cadmium Induced Nephrotoxicity by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Promoting Nrf2/HO-1 Signalling and Impairing TGF-β1/Smad/Collagen IV Signalling
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224176 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) imparts nephrotoxicity via triggering oxidative stress and pathological signal transductions in renal cells. The present study was performed to explore the protective mechanism of carnosic acid (CA), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound, against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-provoked nephrotoxicity employing suitable [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) imparts nephrotoxicity via triggering oxidative stress and pathological signal transductions in renal cells. The present study was performed to explore the protective mechanism of carnosic acid (CA), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound, against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-provoked nephrotoxicity employing suitable in vitro and in vivo assays. CA (5 µM) exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect against CdCl2 (40 µM) in normal kidney epithelial (NKE) cells evidenced from cell viability, image, and flow cytometry assays. In this study, CdCl2 treatment enhanced oxidative stress by triggering free radical production, suppressing the endogenous redox defence system, and inhibiting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in NKE cells and mouse kidneys. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly endorsed apoptosis and fibrosis via activation of apoptotic and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/collagen IV signalling pathways, respectively. In contrast, CA treatment significantly attenuated Cd-provoked nephrotoxicity via inhibiting free radicals, endorsing redox defence, suppressing apoptosis, and inhibiting fibrosis in renal cells in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In addition, CA treatment significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) restored blood and urine parameters to near-normal levels in mice. Histological findings further confirmed the protective role of CA against Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity. Molecular docking predicted possible interactions between CA and Nrf2/TGF-β1/Smad/collagen IV. Hence, CA was found to be a potential therapeutic agent to treat Cd-mediated nephrotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Capacities of Natural Products 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities of Mono-Herbal Extracts and Exhibited Synergistic Effects of the Phytoconstituents: A Biochemical and Computational Study
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4175; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224175 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is the most common form of dementia. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a common strategy for the treatment of AD. In this study, aqueous, hydro-methanolic, and methanolic extracts of five potent herbal extracts were tested for their [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is the most common form of dementia. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a common strategy for the treatment of AD. In this study, aqueous, hydro-methanolic, and methanolic extracts of five potent herbal extracts were tested for their in vitro anti-AChE activity. Among all, the Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) methanolic fraction performed better with an IC50 of 202.64 µg/mL. Of the HPLC analyzed components of T. cordifolia (methanolic extract), palmatine and berberine performed better (IC50 0.66 and 0.94 µg/mL, respectively) as compared to gallic acid and the tool compound “galantamine hydrobromide” (IC50 7.89 and 1.45 µg/mL, respectively). Mode of inhibition of palmatine and berberine was non-competitive, while the mode was competitive for the tool compound. Combinations of individual alkaloids palmatine and berberine resulted in a synergistic effect for AChE inhibition. Therefore, the AChE inhibition by the methanolic extract of T. cordifolia was probably due to the synergism of the isoquinoline alkaloids. Upon molecular docking, it was observed that palmatine and berberine preferred the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE, with π-interactions to PAS residue Trp286, indicating that it may hinder the substrate binding by partially blocking the entrance of the gorge of the active site or the product release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Data and Modelling of the Solubility of High-Carotenoid Paprika Extract in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224174 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The studies of solubility of the paprika extract with a high concentration of carotenoids in carbon dioxide under the pressure of 20–50 MPa and at temperatures of 313.15–333.15 K were carried out using the static method. The highest solubility of paprika extract was [...] Read more.
The studies of solubility of the paprika extract with a high concentration of carotenoids in carbon dioxide under the pressure of 20–50 MPa and at temperatures of 313.15–333.15 K were carried out using the static method. The highest solubility of paprika extract was achieved at the temperature of 333.15 K and under the pressure of 50 MPa. The obtained experimental data were correlated with five density-based models, applied for prediction of solubility in the supercritical carbon dioxide (the Chrastil, del Valle and Aguilera, Adachi and Lu, Sparks et al. and Bian et al. models). The accuracy of particular models with reference to measurement results was specified with the average absolute relative deviation (AARD) and coefficient of determination (R2). Results showed that solubility calculated based on the selected models was compliant with experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Analogs of Temporin-GHa Exhibit a Broader Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential against Staphylococcus aureus
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224173 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The abuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which is becoming a serious worldwide problem people have to face. In our previous study, temporin-GHa (GHa) cloned from Hylarana guentheri showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve [...] Read more.
The abuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which is becoming a serious worldwide problem people have to face. In our previous study, temporin-GHa (GHa) cloned from Hylarana guentheri showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve its therapeutic potential, we used a template-based and a database-assisted design to obtain three derived peptides by replacing the histidine at both ends of GHa with lysine, which exhibited faster and stronger bactericidal activity and a broader spectrum than the parent peptide. GHaK and GHa4K targeted to the bacterial membrane to exert their antibacterial activities at a faster membrane damage rate. The derived peptides inhibited the initial adhesion and the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, and eradicated the mature biofilms, which indicated that the derived peptides effectively penetrated the biofilm and killed bacteria. The therapeutic index (TI) and cell selectivity index (CSI) of the derived peptides increased significantly, which means a broader therapeutic window of the derived peptides. The derived peptides with improved activity and cell selectivity have the potential to be the promising candidates for the treatment of S. aureus infections. Our research also provides new insights into the design and development of antimicrobial peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Antibiofilm Agents: Design, Synthesis and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Arginine-Induced Self-Assembly of Protoporphyrin to Obtain Effective Photocatalysts in Aqueous Media Under Visible Light
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4172; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224172 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The fabrication of controlled supramolecular nanostructures via self-assembly of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was studied with enantiomerically pure l-arginine and d-arginine, and we have shown that stoichiometry controlled the morphology formed. The nanostructure morphology was mainly influenced by the delicate balance of [...] Read more.
The fabrication of controlled supramolecular nanostructures via self-assembly of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) was studied with enantiomerically pure l-arginine and d-arginine, and we have shown that stoichiometry controlled the morphology formed. The nanostructure morphology was mainly influenced by the delicate balance of π-π stacking interactions between PPIX cores, as well as H-bonding between the deprotonated acidic head group of PPIX with the guanidine head group of arginine. PPIX self-assembled with l-/d-arginine to create rose-like nanoflower structures for four equivalents of arginine that were 5–10 μm in length and 1–4 μm diameter. We employed UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques to characterize the resulting self-assembled nanostructures. Furthermore, we investigated the catalytic activity of PPIX and arginine co-assembled materials. The fabricated PPIX–arginine nanostructure showed high enhancement of photocatalytic activity through degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) with a decrease in dye concentration of around 78–80% under simulated visible radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Organization of Multi-Porphyrins for Pre-Defined Properties)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Enzyme Inhibitory Properties of Berberis thunbergii DC. Leaves: A Valuable Source of Phenolic Acids
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224171 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
: Berberis species are known for their use in traditional medicine. Here, we report the phenolic composition and bioactivity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Berberis thunbergii DC. leaves. The phenolic profiling and the quantitation of the main compounds were performed by high-performance [...] Read more.
: Berberis species are known for their use in traditional medicine. Here, we report the phenolic composition and bioactivity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Berberis thunbergii DC. leaves. The phenolic profiling and the quantitation of the main compounds were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detections. The most abundant compounds in both extracts were caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, particularly, with a concentration of 90.1–101.3 mg g1 dried extract), followed by caffeoylglucaric acids and quercetin glycosides. Antioxidant and radical scavenging assays (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, metal chelating activity), as well as enzyme inhibitory assays (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase, glucosidase, and lipase), were carried out to evaluate the potential bioactivity of B. thunbergii. The methanolic extract presented the highest antioxidant and radical scavenging values, in agreement with its higher phenolic content. Regarding enzyme inhibitory potential, the methanolic extract was also more potent than the aqueous one. Hence, B. thunbergii leaves represent a suitable candidate for the preparation of pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic and Polyphenolic Compounds)
Open AccessArticle
Pseudomonas sp. COW3 Produces New Bananamide-Type Cyclic Lipopeptides with Antimicrobial Activity against Pythium myriotylum and Pyricularia oryzae
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4170; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224170 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Pseudomonas species are metabolically robust, with capacity to produce secondary metabolites including cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). Herein we conducted a chemical analysis of a crude CLP extract from the cocoyam rhizosphere-derived biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. COW3. We performed in silico analyses on its whole [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas species are metabolically robust, with capacity to produce secondary metabolites including cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). Herein we conducted a chemical analysis of a crude CLP extract from the cocoyam rhizosphere-derived biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. COW3. We performed in silico analyses on its whole genome, and conducted in vitro antagonistic assay using the strain and purified CLPs. Via LC-MS and NMR, we elucidated the structures of four novel members of the bananamide group, named bananamides D-G. Besides variability in fatty acid length, bananamides D-G differ from previously described bananamides A-C and MD-0066 by the presence of a serine and aspartic acid at position 6 and 2, respectively. In addition, bananamide G has valine instead of isoleucine at position 8. Kendrick mass defect (KMD) allowed the assignment of molecular formulae to bananamides D and E. We unraveled a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase cluster banA, banB and banC which encodes the novel bananamide derivatives. Furthermore, COW3 displayed antagonistic activity and mycophagy against Pythium myriotylum, while it mainly showed mycophagy on Pyricularia oryzae. Purified bananamides D-G inhibited the growth of P. myriotylum and P. oryzae and caused hyphal distortion. Our study shows the complementarity of chemical analyses and genome mining in the discovery and elucidation of novel CLPs. In addition, structurally diverse bananamides differ in their antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Isonicotinamide-Based Compounds: From Cocrystal to Polymer
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4169; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224169 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
The reaction between [Cu(μ-OAc)(μ-Pip)(MeOH)]2 (1) (OAc = acetate; Pip = 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate) and isonicotinamide (Isn) in MeOH as solvent yielded two mixture pairs of three compounds: {(HPip)2(Isn) (2), [Cu(Pip)2(Isn)2] (3)} and [...] Read more.
The reaction between [Cu(μ-OAc)(μ-Pip)(MeOH)]2 (1) (OAc = acetate; Pip = 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate) and isonicotinamide (Isn) in MeOH as solvent yielded two mixture pairs of three compounds: {(HPip)2(Isn) (2), [Cu(Pip)2(Isn)2] (3)} and {(3), {[Cu3(Pip)2(OAc)2(μ-Isn)2(Isn)2(μ-OCH3)2(MeOH)2]·2MeOH}n (4)}. Modifying the reaction conditions (t, T, molar ratio), 2 and 3 have been successfully isolated, whereas 3 and 4 had to be mechanically separated. The recrystallization of 3 in pentanol yielded single crystals of compound [Cu(Pip)2(Isn)2]·C5H11OH (3a). The X-ray crystal structure of 2, 3a, and 4 has been elucidated showing a cocrystal, a monomer, and an unusual coordination polymer, respectively. The Pip ligand exhibited a chelate (3a) or a monodentate (4) coordination mode, but the Isonicotinamide (Isn) ligand is the one that promoted the arrangement of different structures and also mainly directs the formation of the 2D and 3D supramolecular assemblies. All the structures have been analyzed by Hirshfeld surface. In addition, the energy frameworks and lattice energy values of 2 and 3a have been calculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Diethylzinc/propyl Gallate Catalytic System for Ring-Opening Copolymerization of rac-Lactide and ε-Caprolactone
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4168; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224168 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Biodegradable polyesters gain significant attention because of their wide potential biomedical applications. The ring-opening polymerization method is widely used to obtain such polymers, due to high yields and advantageous properties of the obtained material. The preparation of new, effective, and bio-safe catalytic systems [...] Read more.
Biodegradable polyesters gain significant attention because of their wide potential biomedical applications. The ring-opening polymerization method is widely used to obtain such polymers, due to high yields and advantageous properties of the obtained material. The preparation of new, effective, and bio-safe catalytic systems for the synthesis of biomedical polymers is one of the main directions of the research in modern medical chemistry. The new diethylzinc/propyl gallate catalytic system was first used in the copolymerization of ε-caprolactone and rac-lactide. In this paper, the activity of the new zinc-based catalytic system in the copolymerization of cyclic esters depending on the reaction conditions was described. The microstructure analysis of the obtained copolyesters and their toxicity studies were performed. Resulted copolyesters were characterized by low toxicity, moderate dispersity (1.19–1.71), varying randomness degree (0.18–0.83), and average molar mass (5300–9800 Da). Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Inulin on the Retention of Polyphenolic Compounds during the Drying of Blackcurrant Juice
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224167 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
In blackcurrant juice powders made using freeze-, vacuum-, and spray-drying methods, 19 polyphenolic compounds were identified: anthocyanins (6), (+)-catechin, flavonols (8), and phenolic acids (4). The highest content of identified polyphenols was noted after vacuum drying at 90 °C, which was connected with [...] Read more.
In blackcurrant juice powders made using freeze-, vacuum-, and spray-drying methods, 19 polyphenolic compounds were identified: anthocyanins (6), (+)-catechin, flavonols (8), and phenolic acids (4). The highest content of identified polyphenols was noted after vacuum drying at 90 °C, which was connected with the thermally induced release of (+)-catechin. Drying at this temperature also increased the formation of the Maillard reaction/caramelization product, hydroxymethyl-l-furfural, when inulin was added. The higher the vacuum drying temperature was, the stronger the degradation of anthocyanins was. Inulin was a better protectant of anthocyanins than maltodextrin, except during vacuum drying at 90 °C, which probably triggered inulin’s participation in the formation of hydroxymethyl-l-furfural (HMF), thus limiting its capability to protect anthocyanins. Flavonols and phenolic acids were best retained after vacuum drying at 50 °C. Carrier selection affected only slightly, whereas carrier concentration did not affect, the content of flavonols and phenolic acids. The quality of fruit juice powders should be considered taking into account a broad spectrum of factors, including the initial composition of the material subjected to drying, the drying parameters, the carrier type and concentration, and the interactions that occur during the thermal treatment of fruit juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Spectroscopic UV-Vis and FT-IR Screening Techniques Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Red Wine Authentication: Varietal and Vintage Year Discrimination
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4166; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224166 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
One of the most important issues in the wine sector and prevention of adulterations of wines are discrimination of grape varieties, geographical origin of wine, and year of vintage. In this experimental research study, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic screening analytical approaches together with [...] Read more.
One of the most important issues in the wine sector and prevention of adulterations of wines are discrimination of grape varieties, geographical origin of wine, and year of vintage. In this experimental research study, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopic screening analytical approaches together with chemometric pattern recognition techniques were applied and compared in addressing two wine authentication problems: discrimination of (i) varietal and (ii) year of vintage of red wines produced in the same oenological region. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra of red wines were registered for all the samples and the principal features related to chemical composition of the samples were identified. Furthermore, for the discrimination and classification of red wines a multivariate data analysis was developed. Spectral UV-Vis and FT-IR data were reduced to a small number of principal components (PCs) using principal component analysis (PCA) and then partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were performed in order to develop qualitative classification and regression models. The first three PCs used to build the models explained 89% of the total variance in the case of UV-Vis data and 98% of the total variance for FR-IR data. PLS-DA results show that acceptable linear regression fits were observed for the varietal classification of wines based on FT-IR data. According to the obtained LDA classification rates, it can be affirmed that UV-Vis spectroscopy works better than FT-IR spectroscopy for the discrimination of red wines according to the grape variety, while classification of wines according to year of vintage was better for the LDA based FT-IR data model. A clear discrimination of aged wines (over six years) was observed. The proposed methodologies can be used as accessible tools for the wine identity assurance without the need for costly and laborious chemical analysis, which makes them more accessible to many laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Food Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Spirocyclic Motifs in Natural Products
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4165; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224165 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Spirocyclic motifs are emerging privileged structures for drug discovery. They are also omnipresent in the natural products domain. However, until today, no attempt to analyze the structural diversity of various spirocyclic motifs occurring in natural products and their relative populations with unique compounds [...] Read more.
Spirocyclic motifs are emerging privileged structures for drug discovery. They are also omnipresent in the natural products domain. However, until today, no attempt to analyze the structural diversity of various spirocyclic motifs occurring in natural products and their relative populations with unique compounds reported in the literature has been undertaken. This review aims to fill that void and analyze the diversity of structurally unique natural products containing spirocyclic moieties of various sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Extended Perfusion Parameter Estimation from Hyperspectral Imaging Data for Bedside Diagnostic in Medicine
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4164; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224164 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has a strong potential to be established as a new contact-free measuring method in medicine. Hyperspectral cameras and data processing have to fulfill requirements concerning practicability and validity to be integrated in clinical routine processes. Methods: Calculating physiological parameters [...] Read more.
Background: Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has a strong potential to be established as a new contact-free measuring method in medicine. Hyperspectral cameras and data processing have to fulfill requirements concerning practicability and validity to be integrated in clinical routine processes. Methods: Calculating physiological parameters which are of significant clinical value from recorded remission spectra is a complex challenge. We present a data processing method for HSI remission spectra based on a five-layer model of perfused tissue that generates perfusion parameters for every layer and presents them as depth profiles. The modeling of the radiation transport and the solution of the inverse problem are based on familiar approximations, but use partially heuristic methods for efficiency and to fulfill practical clinical requirements. Results: The parameter determination process is consistent, as the measured spectrum is practically completely reproducible by the modeling sequence; in other words, the whole spectral information is transformed into model parameters which are easily accessible for physiological interpretation. The method is flexible enough to be applicable on a wide spectrum of skin and wounds. Examples of advanced procedures utilizing extended perfusion representation in clinical application areas (flap control, burn diagnosis) are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Characterization of Melanoidins from Dulce de Leche, A Confectionary Dairy Product
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4163; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224163 - 17 Nov 2019
Abstract
Melanoidins, the brown-colored compounds formed through the Maillard reaction, are responsible for color development in dulce de leche (DL), a popular confectionary dairy product in the Río de la Plata region, particularly in Uruguay and Argentina. Color is a critical quality parameter that [...] Read more.
Melanoidins, the brown-colored compounds formed through the Maillard reaction, are responsible for color development in dulce de leche (DL), a popular confectionary dairy product in the Río de la Plata region, particularly in Uruguay and Argentina. Color is a critical quality parameter that strongly influences consumer preference. This work aimed to develop a method to perform preliminary structural characterization of the chromophores produced by the Maillard reaction. Melanoidins are present in a water-insoluble fraction, linked to a protein backbone, conforming melanoproteins of high molecular weight. The insoluble melanoprotein fraction (10% total solids) was isolated, and the chromophores released by proteolysis and isolated by gel-permeation chromatography. The analysis of the products revealed that they present a high degree of molecular weight (MW) polydispersity, in a range of 300 to 2000 Da, where the compounds of higher molecular weight contributed the most to the color of the product. The isolated fractions were further analyzed by RP-HPLC using a diode array detector (DAD) detector. These results, together with H-NMR data, suggested that the chromophores isolated belonged to a relatively simple mixture of aromatic products with higher hydrophobic character relative to other products of the melanoprotein digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the OMICS Platforms in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Yuccalechins A–C from the Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies Bark: Elucidation of the Relative and Absolute Configurations of Three New Spirobiflavonoids and Their Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4162; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224162 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanolic extract of Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies bark exhibited moderate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity (IC50 47.44 and 47.40 µg mL−1, respectively). Gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and further RP-C18 [...] Read more.
The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanolic extract of Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies bark exhibited moderate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity (IC50 47.44 and 47.40 µg mL−1, respectively). Gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and further RP-C18 preparative HPLC of EtOAc fraction afforded 15 known and 3 new compounds, stereoisomers of larixinol. The structures of the isolated spirobiflavonoids 15, 26, and 29 were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. The relative configuration of isolated compounds was assigned based on coupling constants and ROESY (rotating-frame Overhauser spectroscopy) correlations along with applying the DP4+ probability method in case of ambiguous chiral centers. Determination of absolute configuration was performed by comparing calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with experimental ones. Compounds 26 and 29, obtained in sufficient amounts, were evaluated for activities against AChE and BChE, and they showed a weak inhibition only towards AChE (IC50 294.18 µM for 26, and 655.18 µM for 29). Furthermore, molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the possible binding modes of 26 and 29 with AChE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR Spectroscopy in Natural Product Structure Elucidation)
Open AccessReview
Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-ones: Synthesis and Biomedical Applications
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4161; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224161 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines (1) are a type of privileged heterocyclic scaffolds capable of providing ligands for several receptors in the body. Among such structures, our group and others have been particularly interested in pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7(8H)-ones (2) [...] Read more.
Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines (1) are a type of privileged heterocyclic scaffolds capable of providing ligands for several receptors in the body. Among such structures, our group and others have been particularly interested in pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7(8H)-ones (2) due to the similitude with nitrogen bases present in DNA and RNA. Currently there are more than 20,000 structures 2 described which correspond to around 2900 references (half of them being patents). Furthermore, the number of references containing compounds of general structure 2 have increased almost exponentially in the last 10 years. The present review covers the synthetic methods used for the synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7(8H)-ones (2), both starting from a preformed pyrimidine ring or a pyridine ring, and the biomedical applications of such compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
In Silico Molecular Studies of Antiophidic Properties of the Amazonian Tree Cordia nodosa Lam.
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4160; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224160 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
We carried out surveys on the use of Cordia nodosa Lam. in the jungles of Bobonaza (Ecuador). We documented this knowledge to prevent its loss under the Framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. We conducted bibliographic research and [...] Read more.
We carried out surveys on the use of Cordia nodosa Lam. in the jungles of Bobonaza (Ecuador). We documented this knowledge to prevent its loss under the Framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol. We conducted bibliographic research and identified quercetrin as a significant bioactive molecule. We studied its in silico biological activity. The selected methodology was virtual docking experiments with the proteins responsible for the venomous action of snakes. The molecular structures of quercetrin and 21 selected toxins underwent corresponding tests with SwissDock and Chimera software. The results point to support its antiophidic use. They show reasonable geometries and a binding free energy of −7 to −10.03 kcal/mol. The most favorable values were obtained for the venom of the Asian snake Naja atra (5Z2G, −10.03 kcal/mol). Good results were also obtained from the venom of the Latin American Bothrops pirajai (3CYL, –9.71 kcal/mol) and that of Ecuadorian Bothrops asper snakes (5TFV, –9.47 kcal/mol) and Bothrops atrox (5TS5, –9.49 kcal/mol). In the 5Z2G and 5TS5 L-amino acid oxidases, quercetrin binds in a pocket adjacent to the FAD cofactor, while in the myotoxic homologues of PLA2, 3CYL and 5TFV, it joins in the hydrophobic channel formed when oligomerizing, in the first one similar to α-tocopherol. This study presents a case demonstration of the potential of bioinformatic tools in the validation process of ethnobotanical phytopharmaceuticals and how in silico methods are becoming increasingly useful for sustainable drug discovery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Molecular Electron Density Theory Study of the Synthesis of Spirobipyrazolines through the Domino Reaction of Nitrilimines with Allenoates
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4159; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224159 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
The reaction of diphenyl nitrilimine (NI) with methyl 1-methyl-allenoate yielding a spirobipyrazoline has been studied within molecular electron density theory (MEDT) at the MPWB1K/6-311G(d) computational level in dichloromethane. This reaction is a domino process that comprises two consecutive 32CA reactions with the formation [...] Read more.
The reaction of diphenyl nitrilimine (NI) with methyl 1-methyl-allenoate yielding a spirobipyrazoline has been studied within molecular electron density theory (MEDT) at the MPWB1K/6-311G(d) computational level in dichloromethane. This reaction is a domino process that comprises two consecutive 32CA reactions with the formation of a pyrazoline intermediate. Analysis of the relative Gibbs free energies indicates that both 32CA reactions are highly regioselective, the first one being also completely chemoselective, in agreement with the experimental outcomes. The geometries of the TSs indicate that they are associated to asynchronous bond formation processes in which the shorter distance involves the C1 carbon of diphenyl NI. Despite the zwitterionic structure of diphenyl NI, the appearance of a pseudoradical structure at the beginning of the reaction path, with a very low energy cost, suggests that the 32CA reaction between diphenyl NI, a strong nucleophile, and the allenoate, a moderate electrophile, should be mechanistically considered on the borderline between pmr-type and cb-type 32CA reactions, somewhat closer to the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular Electron Density Theory in Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Oil from Arnica Montana L. Achenes: Chemical Characteristics and Anticancer Activity
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4158; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224158 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Mountain arnica Arnica montana L. is a source of several metabolite classes with diverse biological activities. The chemical composition of essential oil and its major volatile components in arnica may vary depending on the geographical region, environmental factors, and plant organ. The objective [...] Read more.
Mountain arnica Arnica montana L. is a source of several metabolite classes with diverse biological activities. The chemical composition of essential oil and its major volatile components in arnica may vary depending on the geographical region, environmental factors, and plant organ. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil derived from A. montana achenes and to investigate its effect on induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human anaplastic astrocytoma MOGGCCM and glioblastoma multiforme T98G cell lines. The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from the achenes was examined with the use of Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry GC-MS. Only 16 components of the essential oil obtained from the achenes of 3-year-old plants and 18 components in the essential oil obtained from the achenes of 4-year-old plants constituted ca. 94.14% and 96.38% of the total EO content, respectively. The main components in the EO from the arnica achenes were 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (39.54 and 44.65%), cumene (13.24 and 10.71%), thymol methyl ether (8.66 and 8.63%), 2,6-diisopropylanisole (8.55 and 8.41%), decanal (7.31 and 6.28%), and 1,2,2,3-tetramethylcyclopent-3-enol (4.33 and 2.94%) in the 3- and 4-year-old plants, respectively. The essential oils were found to exert an anticancer effect by induction of cell death in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme cells. The induction of apoptosis at a level of 25.7–32.7% facilitates the use of this secondary metabolite in further studies focused on the development of glioma therapy in the future. Probably, this component plays a key role in the anticancer activity against the MOGGCCM and T98G cell lines. The present study is the first report on the composition and anticancer activities of essential oil from A. montana achenes, and further studies are required to explore its potential for future medicinal purposes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Ultrasound on the Green Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4157; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224157 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Oxidation of alcohols plays an important role in industrial chemistry. Novel green techniques, such as sonochemistry, could be economically interesting by improving industrial synthesis yield. In this paper, we studied the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol as a model of aromatic alcohol compound [...] Read more.
Oxidation of alcohols plays an important role in industrial chemistry. Novel green techniques, such as sonochemistry, could be economically interesting by improving industrial synthesis yield. In this paper, we studied the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol as a model of aromatic alcohol compound under various experimental parameters such as substrate concentration, oxidant nature and concentration, catalyst nature and concentration, temperature, pH, reaction duration, and ultrasound frequency. The influence of each parameter was studied with and without ultrasound to identify the individual sonochemical effect on the transformation. Our main finding was an increase in the yield and selectivity for benzaldehyde under ultrasonic conditions. Hydrogen peroxide and iron sulfate were used as green oxidant and catalyst. Coupled with ultrasound, these conditions increased the benzaldehyde yield by +45% compared to silent conditions. Investigation concerning the transformation mechanism revealed the involvement of radical species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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Passivating Surface States on Water Splitting Cuprous Oxide Photocatalyst with Bismuth Decoration
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4156; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224156 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
To enhance the visible light photocatalystic activity of Cu2O(100) surface, we performed first-principles calculations on the structural, electronic and optical properties of a bismuth (Bi)-decorated Cu2O(100) surface ([email protected]2O(100)). It is shown that the Bi prefer to be [...] Read more.
To enhance the visible light photocatalystic activity of Cu 2 O(100) surface, we performed first-principles calculations on the structural, electronic and optical properties of a bismuth (Bi)-decorated Cu 2 O(100) surface ([email protected] 2 O(100)). It is shown that the Bi prefer to be loaded to the hollow sites among four surface oxygen atoms and tend to individual dispersion instead of aggregating on the surface due to the lowest formation energy and larger distance between two Bi atoms at the surface than the Bi clusters; the coverage of around 0.25 monolayer Bi atoms can effectively eliminate the surface states and modify the band edges to satisfy the angular momentum selection rules for light excited transition of electrons, and the loaded Bi atoms contribute to the separation of photogenerated electron-holes. The relative positions between the band edges and the redox potentials are suitable for photocatalytic hydrogen production from the redox water, and moreover, the optical absorption spectrum indicates a positive response of the Bi 0 . 25 @Cu 2 O(100) to visible light, implying that the Bi 0 . 25 @Cu 2 O(100) is a promising visible light photocatalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Catalysis)
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