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Special Issue "Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Henryk H. Jeleń
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624, Poznań, Poland
Tel. 0048618487273
Interests: food flavors—formation, analytical aspects; extraction techniques in flavor analysis; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in aroma research; electronic noses; food volatiles for authenticity testing; microbial volatiles, off-flavors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 

The analysis of volatile and odor compounds in food covers a wide range of aspects. Volatile compounds are not synonymous with odorants and only a few percent of volatiles contribute to food flavor, however the majority of tools used for their analysis remain the same. The identification of key odorants is an especially challenging task, as chromatographic detectors must “compete” with the human nose.

Profiling/fingerprinting volatiles is used for food authenticity/traceability testing and combined with multivariate statistical methods offer large potential in this field. Although gas chromatography is usually performed for profiling food volatiles, other techniques used for this purpose are also widely explored (electronic noses based on electrochemical sensors, quasi electronic noses based on mass spectrometry or fast chromatography). The analysis of selected volatiles is a tool for monitoring technological processes and changes during food storage, but also changes that are the result of microbial spoilage. Sensory guided analysis of food aroma uses the human nose as a detector (gas chromatography–olfactometry, GC-O) to identify key odorants, together with various mass spectrometry approaches, followed by the quantitation of odorants and aroma reconstitution. GC-O is also used in the determination of compounds causing off-flavors in food. This Special Issue of Molecules will treat analytical aspects of food volatiles and odorants as a priority.

The isolation of volatile compounds from the food matrix is a challenging task, and papers covering developments in this field are welcomed, mainly those focused on sorbent-based/microextraction methods, especially regarding their quantitative aspects, which remains a challenging issue considering food complexity as a matrix. Novel techniques and approaches to sample preparation, including derivatization procedures, are especially welcomed. All hyphenated methods are of interest, especially these offering high efficiency, selectivity and peak capacity, such as multidimensional chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-O, as well as the enantioselective analysis of food odorants, will also be a valuable contribution to this issue.

Prof. Dr. Henryk H. Jeleń
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Volatiles in food authenticity
  • Volatiles in food traceability
  • Food volatilomics, sensomics, flavoromics
  • Taints and off-flavors analysis
  • Electronic noses
  • Chirality of food odorants
  • Extraction of food odorants/volatiles
  • GC-MS, 2DGC-MS, GC×GC-MS

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
Effect of Preheating Treatment before Defatting on the Flavor Quality of Skim Milk
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152824 - 02 Aug 2019
Abstract
Skim milk has a poor flavor due to the lack of fat. Finding ways to improve the flavor quality of skim milk has attracted the attention of more and more researchers. The purpose of this study was to create a skim milk product [...] Read more.
Skim milk has a poor flavor due to the lack of fat. Finding ways to improve the flavor quality of skim milk has attracted the attention of more and more researchers. The purpose of this study was to create a skim milk product with good flavor by processing. Briefly, raw milk was treated by preheating at pasteurization (85 °C, 15 s) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) instantaneous sterilization (137–141 °C, 4 s). Subsequently, the sample was centrifuged to remove fat and obtain two kinds of skim milk, namely, PSM (skim milk obtained by preheating at 85 °C, 15 s) and USM (skim milk obtained by preheating at 137–141 °C, 4 s). The results showed that the intensity of the main sensory attributes (overall liking, milk aroma, etc.) and the concentrations of the key flavor compounds (2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, decanal, hexanoic acid, etc.) were significantly higher in the USM (p < 0.05) than that of the PSM and RSM (skim milk without preheating). Principal component analysis (PCA) with E-Nose (electronic nose) showed that the RSM had significant differences in the milk aroma compared with the PSM and USM. Furthermore, it was found that there were good relationships between volatile compounds and sensory attributes by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. These findings provided insights into improving the flavor quality of skim milk by preheating treatment instead of any flavor additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Key Aroma Compounds and Construction of Flavor Base Module of Chinese Sweet Oranges
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132384 - 27 Jun 2019
Abstract
Sweet orange flavor, with its refreshing, joyful and attractive aroma, is favored by the majority of consumers all over the world. However, the industry terminology between flavorists for flavor evaluation is a bit vague and not intuitive for customers. Therefore, the study focused [...] Read more.
Sweet orange flavor, with its refreshing, joyful and attractive aroma, is favored by the majority of consumers all over the world. However, the industry terminology between flavorists for flavor evaluation is a bit vague and not intuitive for customers. Therefore, the study focused on analysis of sweet orange aroma and establishment of base module of orange flavor. The approach to the research involves screening key aroma compounds, identifying the attributes aroma and building base module of sweet orange. The notes of sweet orange flavor were determined by GC-O olfaction and sensory evaluation. 25 key aroma compounds with OAV ≥ 1 were screened and divided into eight notes: citrus, fruity, fresh, green, peely, woody, fatty, floral. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to further verify the corresponding relationship between the volatile substances and notes. Terpenes, esters, aldehydes and alcohols compounds can provide these notes. Based on the notes, 8 base modules of sweet orange were built by selecting and matching aroma ingredients. Through this study, beginners could be trained according to the 8 notes of base modules and flavorists can engage in dialogue with different raw material sourcing teams or providers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Volatile Oil between the Fruits of Amomum villosum Lour. and Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen Based on GC-MS and Chemometric Techniques
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091663 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fructus Amomi (FA) is usually regarded as the dried ripe fruit of Amomum villosum Lour. (FAL) or Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen (FALX.). However, FAL, which always has a much higher price because of its better quality, is [...] Read more.
Fructus Amomi (FA) is usually regarded as the dried ripe fruit of Amomum villosum Lour. (FAL) or Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen (FALX.). However, FAL, which always has a much higher price because of its better quality, is often confused with FALX. in the market. As volatile oil is the main constituent of FA, a strategy combining gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chemometric approaches was applied to compare the chemical composition of FAL and FALX. The results showed that the oil yield of FAL was significantly higher than that of FALX. Total ion chromatography (TIC) showed that cis-nerolidol existed only in FALX. Bornyl acetate and camphor can be considered the most important volatile components in FAL and FALX., respectively. Moreover, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) successfully distinguished the chemical constituents of the volatile oils in FAL and FALX. Additionally, bornyl acetate, α-cadinol, linalool, β-myrcene, camphor, d-limonene, terpinolene and borneol were selected as the potential markers for discriminating FAL and FALX. by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). In conclusion, this present study has developed a scientific approach to separate FAL and FALX. based on volatile oils, by GC-MS combined with chemometric techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Sensory and Electronic Tongue Analysis Combined with HS-SPME-GC-MS in the Evaluation of Skim Milk Processed with Different Preheating Treatments
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091650 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is well known that the flavor of skim milk is inferior to whole milk due to the lack of fat. With the popularity of low-fat dairy products, improving the flavor of skim milk is a main focus for food scientists. During the [...] Read more.
It is well known that the flavor of skim milk is inferior to whole milk due to the lack of fat. With the popularity of low-fat dairy products, improving the flavor of skim milk is a main focus for food scientists. During the production of skim milk, preheating treatments have a significant effect for the flavor of skim milk. In this study, to explore the optimal processing conditions, milk was preheated at 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C for 30 min prior to defatting. When the optimal temperature was determined, milk was then preheated at the optimal temperature for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min and 50 min, respectively, to obtain the best preheating time. Distinctions between skim milk samples with different processing conditions were studied by sensory evaluation, e-tongue and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Principle components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were selected to associate with e-tongue results and compare the similarities and differences among the skim milks. Sensory and e-tongue results matched and both showed that a preheating temperature of 50 °C and 30 min time might be the optimal combination of processing conditions. Thirteen volatiles, including ketones, acids, aldehydes, alcohols, alkanes and sulfur compounds, were analyzed to evaluate flavor of the skim milks produced by different preheating treatments. Combined with previous studies, the results indicated that most volatile compounds were decreased by reducing the fat concentration and the typical compound 2-heptanone was not detected in our skim milk samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Perilla frutescens Britton: A Comprehensive Study on Flavor/Taste and Chemical Properties During the Roasting Process
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071374 - 08 Apr 2019
Abstract
This study investigated changes of volatile compounds, sniffing test-assisted sensory properties, taste associated-constituent and free amino acid compositions, taste description by electronic-tongue, and chemical characteristics in Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo after roasting at 150 °C for 0–8 min. A total of [...] Read more.
This study investigated changes of volatile compounds, sniffing test-assisted sensory properties, taste associated-constituent and free amino acid compositions, taste description by electronic-tongue, and chemical characteristics in Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo after roasting at 150 °C for 0–8 min. A total of 142 volatile compounds were identified, among which methyl benzoate and limonene were predominant, regardless of roasting time, and these were also detected as the major compounds in the sniffing test by GC-olfactometry. For constituent amino acids analyzed by the acid hydrolysis method using hydrochloric acid (HCl), the concentration of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and leucine showed an increase pattern with increased roasting time, which results in umami taste, sour taste, and bitter taste, respectively. For free amino acids, valine and hydroxylysine eliciting bitter and bitter and sweet tastes, respectively, also tend to increase by roasting. The pattern of amino acid concentration by roasting was readily matched to the taste description by electronic-tongue but that of sweetness and sourness by electronic-tongue did not coincide with the amino acid composition. For the chemical properties, total phenolic content, antioxidative capacity, and browning intensity tend to increase with roasting but decreased by 8 min. The results of this study provide fundamental information on perilla in both the food industry and cooking environment for the sake of increasing the utilization of perilla as a food source and ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Analysis of Metabolites in Chardonnay Dry White Wine with Various Inactive Yeasts by 1H NMR Spectroscopy Combined with Pattern Recognition Analysis

Author: Boran Hu
Affiliation: College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China  
Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effect of five inactive yeasts on the metabolites of Chardonnay dry white wines vinified in 2016 in Shacheng, Hebei province, China. In this research, metabolomics technique based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition analysis, was applied to identify and discriminate the different wine products and the influences of various inactive yeasts. The results of principle component analysis (PCA) showed that there was significant difference between the metabolites of sample wines with different inactive yeasts, among them, the content of polyols, organic acids, amino acids and choline was notably influenced. The results of partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) confirmed that the metabolites contributed to the discrimination of the wines were 2,3-butanediol, ethyl acetate, malic acid, valine, succinic acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, glycerol, gallic acid, choline, proline, and alanine. Because of the different metabolites of chardonnay dry white wine with various inactive yeasts, their aroma components also have significant diversity.

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