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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 6 (June 2014), Pages 6911-8706

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Open AccessArticle Effects of Propylene Glycol Alginate and Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Modified Starch-Stabilized Beverage Emulsions
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8691-8706; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068691
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2612 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers or a mixture of emulsifiers has a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the response variables studied. The addition of PGA had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the creaming index at 55 °C, while PGA-stabilized (PGA1) emulsions showed low creaming stability at both 25 °C and 55 °C. Conversely, the utilization of PGA either as a mixture or sole emulsifier, showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cloudiness, as larger average droplet size will affect the refractive index of the oil and aqueous phases. Additionally, the cloudiness was directly proportional to the mean droplet size of the dispersed phase. The inclusion of PGA into the formulation could have disrupted the properties of the interfacial film, thus resulting in larger droplet size. While unadsorbed ionized PGA could have contributed to higher conductivity of emulsions prepared at low pH. Generally, emulsions prepared using sucrose monoesters or as a mixture with modified starch emulsions have significantly (p < 0.05) lower creaming index and conductivity values, but higher cloudiness and average droplet size. Full article
Open AccessArticle Production of the Anti-Inflammatory Compound 6-O-Palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol by Callus Cultures of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae)
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8679-8690; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068679
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2371 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1) and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2), previously reported
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Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1) and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2), previously reported to have cytotoxic activity on several cancer cell lines. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of 1 in vivo by mouse ear edema induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 57.14% inhibition was observed. The aim of our study was to obtain callus cultures derived from this plant species with the ability to produce the compounds of interest. Callus cultures were initiated on MS basal medium amended with variable amounts of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), combined or not with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Ten treatments with these growth regulators were carried out, using in vitro germinated seedlings as source of three different explants: hypocotyl, stem node, and leaf. Highest yield of 1 was observed on callus derived from leaf explants growing in medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP. Selected callus lines produced less 1 than wild plants but the in vitro cultured seedlings showed higher production. So we conclude that it could be attractive to further investigate their metabolic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Heterocycles: New Uracil-Based Structures Obtained by Nucleophilic Substitution at the sp2 Carbon of Bromoisoxazoline
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8661-8678; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068661
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2096 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The regioisomeric cycloadducts of bromonitrile oxide and N-benzoyl-2,3-oxaza-norborn-5-ene were easily prepared and elaborated into a novel class of uracil-based scaffolds. The key-synthetic step is the nucleophilic substitution at the sp2 carbon atom of the bromoisoxazoline three-dimensional heterocycles. The protocol to perform
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The regioisomeric cycloadducts of bromonitrile oxide and N-benzoyl-2,3-oxaza-norborn-5-ene were easily prepared and elaborated into a novel class of uracil-based scaffolds. The key-synthetic step is the nucleophilic substitution at the sp2 carbon atom of the bromoisoxazoline three-dimensional heterocycles. The protocol to perform the nucleophilic substitution of uracil anions was optimized and adapted to the steric requirements of the substrates. A library of pyrimidine derivatives was prepared in very good yields and the products were fully characterized. They are proposed as nucleoside analogues and as synthons for β-turn motifs within PNA structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cycloaddition Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Hydrophilic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil on Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8644-8660; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068644
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4237 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and
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In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and HCT116), liver (HepG2 and Huh7), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and prostate (DU145) cancer lines. Our results demonstrated that punicic acid and its congeners induce a significant decrease of cell viability for two breast cell lines with a related increase of the cell cycle G0/G1 phase respect to untreated cells. Moreover, the evaluation of a great panel of cytokines expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that the levels of VEGF and nine pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α) decreased in a dose dependent way with increasing amounts of the hydrophilic extracts of PSO, supporting the evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, the data herein suggest a potential synergistic cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant role of the polar compounds from PSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Polyhydroyxalkanoate Synthase Fusions as a Strategy for Oriented Enzyme Immobilisation
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8629-8643; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068629
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2710 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a carbon storage polymer produced by certain bacteria in unbalanced nutrient conditions. The PHA forms spherical inclusions surrounded by granule associate proteins including the PHA synthase (PhaC). Recently, the intracellular formation of PHA granules with covalently attached synthase from Ralstonia
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Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a carbon storage polymer produced by certain bacteria in unbalanced nutrient conditions. The PHA forms spherical inclusions surrounded by granule associate proteins including the PHA synthase (PhaC). Recently, the intracellular formation of PHA granules with covalently attached synthase from Ralstonia eutropha has been exploited as a novel strategy for oriented enzyme immobilisation. Fusing the enzyme of interest to PHA synthase results in a bifunctional protein able to produce PHA granules and immobilise the active enzyme of choice to the granule surface. Functionalised PHA granules can be isolated from the bacterial hosts, such as Escherichia coli, and maintain enzymatic activity in a wide variety of assay conditions. This approach to oriented enzyme immobilisation has produced higher enzyme activities and product levels than non-oriented immobilisation techniques such as protein inclusion based particles. Here, enzyme immobilisation via PHA synthase fusion is reviewed in terms of the genetic designs, the choices of enzymes, the control of enzyme orientations, as well as their current and potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Catalytic Behavior of Lipase Immobilized onto Congo Red and PEG-Decorated Particles
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8610-8628; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068610
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 24 June 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2647 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-decorated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean hydrodynamic diameter (D) and zeta–potential (ζ) of (286 ± 15) nm and (−50 ± 5) mV, respectively, were modified by the adsorption of Congo red (CR). The PS/PEG/CR particles presented D
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Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-decorated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean hydrodynamic diameter (D) and zeta–potential (ζ) of (286 ± 15) nm and (−50 ± 5) mV, respectively, were modified by the adsorption of Congo red (CR). The PS/PEG/CR particles presented D and ζ values of (290 ± 19) nm and (−36 ± 5) mV, respectively. The adsorption of lipase onto PS/PEG or PS/PEG/CR particles at (24 ± 1) °C and pH 7 changed the mean D value to (380 ± 20) and (405 ± 11) nm, respectively, and ζ value to (−32 ± 4) mV and (−25 ± 2) mV, respectively. The kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate were determined for free lipase, lipase immobilized onto PS/PEG and PS/PEG/CR particles. Lipase on PS/PEG/CR presented the largest Michaelis-Menten constant (KM), but also the highest Vmax and kcat values. Moreover, it could be recycled seven times, losing a maximum 10% or 30% of the original enzymatic activity at 40 °C or 25 °C, respectively. Although lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG particles presented the smallest KM values, the reactions were comparatively the slowest and recycling was not possible. Hydrolysis reactions performed in the temperature range of 25 °C to 60 °C with free lipases and lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG/CR particles presented an optimal temperature at 40 °C. At 60 °C free lipases and lipases immobilized onto PS/PEG/CR presented ~80% and ~50% of the activity measured at 40 °C, indicating good thermal stability. Bioconjugation effects between CR and lipase were evidenced by circular dichroism spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. CR molecules mediate the open state conformation of the lipase lid and favor the substrate approaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Open AccessReview Self-Assembly: From Amphiphiles to Chromophores and Beyond
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8589-8609; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068589
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3883 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-assembly has been recognised as a ubiquitous aspect of modern chemistry. Our understanding and applications of self-assembly are substantially based on what has been learned from biochemical systems. In this review, we describe various aspects of self-assembly commencing with an account of the
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Self-assembly has been recognised as a ubiquitous aspect of modern chemistry. Our understanding and applications of self-assembly are substantially based on what has been learned from biochemical systems. In this review, we describe various aspects of self-assembly commencing with an account of the soft structures that are available by assembly of surfactant amphiphiles, which are important scientific and industrial materials. Variation of molecular design using rules defined by surfactant self-assembly permits synthesis of functional nanostructures in solution and at surfaces while increasing the strength of intermolecular interactions through π-π stacking, metal cation coordination and/or hydrogen bonding leads to formation of highly complex bespoke nanostructured materials exemplified by DNA assemblies. We describe the origins of self-assembly involving aggregation of lipid amphiphiles and how this subject has been expanded to include other highly advanced chemical systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Template Directed Synthesis and Self-Assembly in Organic Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Triple-Helical Peptide with Quenched Fluorophores for Optical Imaging of MMP-2 and MMP-9 Proteolytic Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8571-8588; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068571
Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2295 | PDF Full-text (2155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9, the gelatinases, have consistently been associated with tumor progression. The development of gelatinase-specific probes will be critical for identifying in vivo gelatinoic activity to understand the molecular role of the gelatinases in tumor development. Recently, a self-assembling
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9, the gelatinases, have consistently been associated with tumor progression. The development of gelatinase-specific probes will be critical for identifying in vivo gelatinoic activity to understand the molecular role of the gelatinases in tumor development. Recently, a self-assembling homotrimeric triple-helical peptide (THP), incorporating a sequence from type V collagen, with high substrate specificity to the gelatinases has been developed. To determine whether this THP would be suitable for imaging protease activity, 5-carboxyfluorescein (5FAM) was conjugated, resulting in 5FAM3-THP and 5FAM6-THP, which were quenched up to 50%. 5FAM6-THP hydrolysis by MMP-2 and MMP-9 displayed kcat/KM values of 1.5 × 104 and 5.4 × 103 M−1 s−1, respectively. Additionally 5FAM6-THP visualized gelatinase activity in gelatinase positive HT-1080 cells, but not in gelatinase negative MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the fluorescence in the HT-1080 cells was greatly attenuated by the addition of a MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitor, SB-3CT, indicating that the observed fluorescence release was mediated by gelatinase proteolysis and not non-specific proteolysis of the THPs. These results demonstrate that THPs fully substituted with fluorophores maintain their substrate specificity to the gelatinases in human cancer cells and may be useful in in vivo molecular imaging of gelatinase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes)
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Open AccessArticle Mycelium-Bound Lipase from a Locally Isolated Strain of Geotrichum candidum
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8556-8570; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068556
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2209 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells
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Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL), harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Loddigesiinols G–J: α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Dendrobium loddigesii
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8544-8555; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068544
Received: 10 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2644 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four new polyphenols, loddigesiinols G–J (compounds 14) and a known compound, crepidatuol B (5), were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium loddigesii that have long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and have recently been used to treat
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Four new polyphenols, loddigesiinols G–J (compounds 14) and a known compound, crepidatuol B (5), were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium loddigesii that have long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and have recently been used to treat type 2 diabetes. Compounds 15 structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 14 were determined using theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and the absolute configuration of compound 5 was determined by a comparison of the experimental ECD spectra and the literature data. Compounds 15 are strong inhibitors of α-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 16.7, 10.9, 2.7, 3.2, and 18.9 μM, respectively. Their activities were significantly stronger than trans-resveratrol as a positive control (IC50 values of 27.9 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ Coordination Ion as a Specific Sensing Ion for H2O2 Detection in HT22 Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8533-8543; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068533
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1886 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the coordinated cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH)2]+ cation where pm denotes pyridoxamine, as a specific sensing ion for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
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The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the coordinated cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH)2]+ cation where pm denotes pyridoxamine, as a specific sensing ion for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The proposed method for H2O2 detection includes two key steps. The first step is based on the nonenzymatic decarboxylation of pyruvate upon reaction with H2O2, while the second step is based on the interaction of cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ with the CO2 released in the previous step. Using this method H2O2 generated during glutamate-induced oxidative stress was detected in HT22 hippocampal cells. The coordination ion cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ and the spectrophotometric stopped-flow technique were applied to determine the CO2 concentration in cell lysates, supernatants and cell-free culture medium. Prior to CO2 assessment pyruvate was added to all samples studied. Pyruvate reacts with H2O2 with 1:1 stoichiometry, and consequently the amount of CO2 released in this reaction is equivalent to the amount of H2O2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8518-8532; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068518
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2026 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all
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The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dehydroabietic Acid Isolated from Commiphora opobalsamum Causes Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Pulmonary Artery via PI3K/Akt-eNOS Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8503-8517; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068503
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2598 | PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commiphora opobalsamum is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat traumatic injury, mainly by relaxing blood vessels. In this study, two diterpenes, dehydroabietic acid (DA) and sandaracopimaric acid (SA) were obtained from it by a bioassay-guided approach using isolated
[...] Read more.
Commiphora opobalsamum is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat traumatic injury, mainly by relaxing blood vessels. In this study, two diterpenes, dehydroabietic acid (DA) and sandaracopimaric acid (SA) were obtained from it by a bioassay-guided approach using isolated rat pulmonary artery rings. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Both DA and SA reduced the contraction of phenylephrine-induced pulmonary arteries in a concentration-dependent manner, and endothelium contributed greatly to the vasodilatory effect of DA. This effect of DA was attenuated by NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an eNOS inhibitor). Meanwhile, DA increased nitric oxide (NO) production, along with the increase of phosphorylation level of eNOS and Akt in endothelial cells. LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) could reverse this effect, which suggested the endothelial PI3K/Akt pathway involved in the mechanism underlying DA-induced relaxation of pulmonary artery. This work provided evidence of vasorelaxant substances in Commiphora opobalsamum and validated that PI3K/Akt-eNOS pathway was associated with DA-induced pulmonary artery vasodilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8488-8502; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068488
Received: 16 March 2014 / Revised: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2782 | PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro
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The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam.), (family Asteraceae). These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+)-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Matrilin-2 Is Proteolytically Cleaved by ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8472-8487; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068472
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2207 | PDF Full-text (1324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Matrilin-2 is a widely distributed, oligomeric extracellular matrix protein that forms a filamentous network by binding to a variety of different extracellular matrix proteins. We found matrilin-2 proteolytic products in transfected cell lines in vitro and in mouse tissues in vivo. Two
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Matrilin-2 is a widely distributed, oligomeric extracellular matrix protein that forms a filamentous network by binding to a variety of different extracellular matrix proteins. We found matrilin-2 proteolytic products in transfected cell lines in vitro and in mouse tissues in vivo. Two putative cleavage sites were identified in the unique domain of matrilin-2; the first site was located between D851 and L852 in the middle of the domain and the second, at the boundary with the coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. Deletion of the entire unique domain eliminated the proteolysis of matrilin-2. While the first cleavage site was present in all matrilin-2 oligomers, the second cleavage site became apparent only in the matrilin-2 hetero-oligomers with matrilin-1 or matrilin-3. Analysis using a variety of extracellular protease inhibitors suggested that this proteolytic activity was derived from a member or several members of the ADAMTS family. Recombinant human ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1) and ADAMTS-5 (aggrecanase-2), but not ADAMTS-1, cleaved recombinant matrilin-2, thereby yielding matrilin-2 proteolytic peptides at the predicted sizes. These results suggest that ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 may destabilize the filamentous network in the extracellular matrix by cleaving matrilin-2 in both homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 3-Aminothiophene-2-Acylhydrazones: Non-Toxic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Lead-Candidates
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8456-8471; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068456
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2631 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH) are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5ai were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. These
[...] Read more.
Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH) are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5ai were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. These new derivatives showed great anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency and efficacy. Compounds 5a and 5d stand out in this respect, and were also active in CFA-induced arthritis in rats. After daily treatment for seven days with 5a and 5d (50 µmol/Kg), by oral administration, these compounds were not renal or hepatotoxic nor immunosuppressive. Compounds 5a and 5d also displayed good drug-scores and low risk toxicity calculated in silico using the program OSIRIS Property Explorer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle High-Throughput Assay of Levansucrase Variants in Search of Feasible Catalysts for the Synthesis of Fructooligosaccharides and Levan
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8434-8455; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068434
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2782 | PDF Full-text (1822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bacterial levansucrases polymerize fructose residues of sucrose to β-2,6 linked fructans—fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan. While β-2,1-linked FOS are widely recognized as prebiotics, the health-related effects of β-2,6 linked FOS are scarcely studied as they are not commercially available. Levansucrase Lsc3 (Lsc-3) of Pseudomonas
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Bacterial levansucrases polymerize fructose residues of sucrose to β-2,6 linked fructans—fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan. While β-2,1-linked FOS are widely recognized as prebiotics, the health-related effects of β-2,6 linked FOS are scarcely studied as they are not commercially available. Levansucrase Lsc3 (Lsc-3) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato has very high catalytic activity and stability making it a promising biotechnological catalyst for FOS and levan synthesis. In this study we evaluate feasibility of several high-throughput methods for screening and preliminary characterization of levansucrases using 36 Lsc3 mutants as a test panel. Heterologously expressed and purified His-tagged levansucrase variants were studied for: (1) sucrose-splitting activity; (2) FOS production; (3) ability and kinetics of levan synthesis; (4) thermostability in a Thermofluor assay. Importantly, we show that sucrose-splitting activity as well as the ability to produce FOS can both be evaluated using permeabilized levansucrase-expressing E. coli transformants as catalysts. For the first time we demonstrate the key importance of Trp109, His113, Glu146 and Glu236 for the catalysis of Lsc3. Cost-effective and high-throughput methods presented here are applicable not only in the levansucrase assay, but have a potential to be adapted for high-throughput (automated) study of other enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oligosaccharides and Glyco-Conjugates)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structure, DFT Studies and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of 3,4-Dimethoxybenzenamine Schiff Bases
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8414-8433; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068414
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2470 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Schiff bases of 3,4-dimethoxybenzenamine 125 were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant activity. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the characterizations of compounds 13, 15 and 16 were supported by crystal X-ray determinations and
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Schiff bases of 3,4-dimethoxybenzenamine 125 were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant activity. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the characterizations of compounds 13, 15 and 16 were supported by crystal X-ray determinations and their geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical DFT calculations at the B3LYP level of theory. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal data of two non-crystalline compounds 8 and 18 were theoretically calculated and compared with the practical values of compounds 13, 15, 16 and found a good agreement. The compounds showed good DPPH scavenging activity ranging from 10.12 to 84.34 μM where compounds 14 and 6 showed stronger activity than the standard n-propyl gallate. For the superoxide anion radical assay, compounds 13 showed better activity than the standard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Palladium Catalyzed Heck Arylation of 2,3-Dihydrofuran—Effect of the Palladium Precursor
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8402-8413; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068402
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2270 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba)3, Pd(acac)2, PdCl2(cod), [PdCl(allyl)]2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2) and
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Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba)3, Pd(acac)2, PdCl2(cod), [PdCl(allyl)]2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2) and ionic liquids (CILs) with L-prolinate or L-lactate anions. All the tested CILs caused remarkable increases of the conversion values and in all of the reactions 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (3) was obtained as the main product with a yield of up to 59.2%. The highest conversions of iodobenzene were achieved for the [PdCl(allyl)]2 precursor. Formation of Pd(0) nanoparticles, representing the resting state of the catalyst, was evidenced by TEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palladium Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave Resonant and Zero-Field Absorption Study of Doped Magnetite Prepared by a Co-Precipitation Method
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8387-8401; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068387
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2369 | PDF Full-text (1113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3−xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was
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Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3−xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was observed in all cases under consideration indicating that the materials are magnetically uniform. The shortfall in the resonance fields from 3.27 kOe (for the frequency of 9.5 GHz) expected for spheres can be understood taking into account the dipolar forces, magnetoelasticity, or magnetocrystalline anisotropy. All samples show non-zero low field absorption. For Series A samples the grain size decreases with an increase of the Zn content. In this case zero field absorption does not correlate with the changes of the grain size. For Series B samples the grain size and zero field absorption behavior correlate with each other. The highest zero-field absorption corresponded to 0.2 zinc concentration in both A and B series. High zero-field absorption of Fe3O4 ferrite magnetic NPs can be interesting for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols from the Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8373-8386; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068373
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2438 | PDF Full-text (1239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenol extracts from the burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (CMPE) exhibited potential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of CMPE were assessed as a means of elucidating the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic activities. In vitro studies showed that CMPE significantly
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Polyphenol extracts from the burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (CMPE) exhibited potential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of CMPE were assessed as a means of elucidating the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic activities. In vitro studies showed that CMPE significantly inhibited both yeast α-glucosidase, through a noncompetitive mode with an IC50 of 0.33 μg/mL, and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. In vivo studies revealed that oral administration of CMPE at doses of 600 mg/kg significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels by 27.2% in normal rats following sucrose challenges. Gel permeation chromatography revealed that CMPE exhibited typical characteristics of high-molecular-mass polymers with mean (Mn) and weight (Mw) average molecular weights of 35.4 and 50.7 kDa, respectively, and a polydispersity (Mw/Mn) of 1.432. Acid hydrolysis analysis indicated the presence of ellagitannins. These data suggest that CMPE, enriched with ellagitannins, would be an efficacious dietary supplement for diabetes management through the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Properties for Sourcing Nigerian Larvicidal Plants
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8363-8372; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068363
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2842 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available
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Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of chikungunya, yellow and dengue fevers. Dengue fever is the major cause of child morbidity and hospitalisation in some Asian and African countries, while yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria. The development of resistance to the available insecticides has necessitated the continued search for safer ones from plants. Eighteen plant extracts with ethnomedical claims of or demonstrated febrifuge, antimalarial, insecticidal and insect repellent biological activities were tested for activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. About 61% of the eighteen extracts demonstrated high to moderate larvicidal activity. Extracts of Piper nigrum and Abrus precatorius seeds were the most active and the larvicidal constituent(s) of the latter should be determined. Full article
Open AccessArticle RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) Papaya Fruit
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8350-8362; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068350
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2230 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants. Full article
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Open AccessReview Sulfur Amino Acids in Diet-induced Fatty Liver: A New Perspective Based on Recent Findings
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8334-8349; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068334
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2717 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, non-alcoholic
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The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Two recent papers provide the first evidence linking sulfane sulfur to diet-induced fatty liver opening a new perspective on the problem. This review summarizes the early data on sulfur amino acids in fatty liver and correlates that data with current knowledge of sulfur metabolism. Evidence is reviewed showing that the lipotropic effect of methionine may be mediated by sulfane sulfur and that the hepatosteatogenic effect of cystine may be related to the removal of sulfane sulfur by cysteine catabolites. Possible preventive and therapeutic strategies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Xanthenedione Derivatives, New Promising Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8317-8333; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068317
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 8 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2535 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural and synthetic xanthone derivatives are well-known for their ability to act as antioxidants and/or enzyme inhibitors. This paper aims to present a successful synthetic methodology towards xanthenedione derivatives and the study of their aromatization to xanthones. Additionally their ability to reduce Fe(III),
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Natural and synthetic xanthone derivatives are well-known for their ability to act as antioxidants and/or enzyme inhibitors. This paper aims to present a successful synthetic methodology towards xanthenedione derivatives and the study of their aromatization to xanthones. Additionally their ability to reduce Fe(III), to scavenge DPPH radicals and to inhibit AChE was evaluated. The results demonstrated that xanthenedione derivative 5e, bearing a catechol unit, showed higher reduction capacity than BHT and similar to quercetin, strong DPPH scavenging activity (EC50 = 3.79 ± 0.06 µM) and it was also showed to be a potent AChEI (IC50 = 31.0 ± 0.09 µM) when compared to galantamine (IC50 = 211.8 ± 9.5 µM). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evidence for the Involvement of Spinal Cord-Inhibitory and Cytokines-Modulatory Mechanisms in the Anti-Hyperalgesic Effect of Hecogenin Acetate, a Steroidal Sapogenin-Acetylated, in Mice
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8303-8316; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068303
Received: 19 April 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2335 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin largely drawn from the plants of the genus Agave, commonly known as ‘sisal’, and is one of the important precursors used by the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of steroid hormones. Hecogenin acetate (HA) is a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated
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Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin largely drawn from the plants of the genus Agave, commonly known as ‘sisal’, and is one of the important precursors used by the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of steroid hormones. Hecogenin acetate (HA) is a steroidal sapogenin-acetylated that produces antinociceptive activity. Thus, we evaluate the antihyperalgesic profile of HA in mice in inflammatory models, as well as its possible involvement with c-fos expression on spinal cord area and cytokines to produces analgesic profile. Acute pretreatment with HA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited the development of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, TNF-α, dopamine and PGE2. Additionally, the immunofluorescence data demonstrated that acute pretreatment with HA, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited Fos-like expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn normally observed after carrageenan-inflammation. Moreover, HA did not affect the motor performance of the mice as tested in the Rota rod test. This antinociceptive profile seems to be related, at least in part, to a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β. The present results suggest that HA attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia by blocking the neural transmission of pain at the spinal cord levels and by cytokines-inhibitory mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A PPARγ, NF-κB and AMPK-Dependent Mechanism May Be Involved in the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin in the Diabetic db/db Mice Liver
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8289-8302; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068289
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6644 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms of action include the modulation of signal transduction cascades and effects on gene expression, however they remain to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of some proteins responsible for transcription factors, inflammation, and metabolic control were evaluated by western blot in 15-week-old db/db mice livers treated with curcumin 0.75% mixed in their diet for 8 weeks. In addition, nitrosative stress was evaluated. Curcumin increased the expression of AMPK and PPARγ, and diminished NF-κB protein in db/db mice. However, it did not modify the expression of PGC-1α or SIRT1. Nitrosative stress present in db/db mice livers was determined by a unique nitrotyrosylated protein band (75 kDa) and was not reverted with curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin regulates the expression of AMPK, PPARγ, and NF-κB; suggesting a beneficial effect for treatment of T2DM complications. In order to observe best beneficial effects it is desirable to administer curcumin in the earlier states of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-Loaded Alginate Composite Beads for Removing Dye from Aqueous Solutions
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8276-8288; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068276
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3340 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study,
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Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Nanomaterials Based on Fe3O4)
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Open AccessArticle 3-(Methoxycarbonylmethylene)isobenzofuran-1-imines as a New Class of Potential Herbicides
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8261-8275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068261
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2072 | PDF Full-text (932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel class of potential herbicides, the 3-(methoxycarbonylmethylene) isobenzofuran-1-imines, has been discovered. The herbicidal activity has been tested on two particular molecules, (E)-methyl 2-[3-(butylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (1) and (E)-methyl 2-phenyl-2-[3-(phenylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (2), prepared by
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A novel class of potential herbicides, the 3-(methoxycarbonylmethylene) isobenzofuran-1-imines, has been discovered. The herbicidal activity has been tested on two particular molecules, (E)-methyl 2-[3-(butylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (1) and (E)-methyl 2-phenyl-2-[3-(phenylimino)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ylidene]acetate (2), prepared by palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of 2-alkynylbenzamides. Both compounds 1 and 2 showed a strong phytotoxic effect on both shoot and root systems of Arabidopsis thaliana. The effects observed on the shoot were similar for both molecules, but while compound 1 showed a stronger effect on root parameters (such as primary root length, root hair and density, showing lower ED50 values), compound 2 caused important malformations in root morphology. Our results indicate that these molecules are very promising synthetic herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonylation Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8238-8260; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules19068238
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 May 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4369 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been
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Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products. Full article
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