Topic Editors

Dr. Asha Janadaree Dissanayake
Center for Bioinformatics, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
Dr. Arun Kumar Dutta
Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Assam 781014, India
Dr. Benjarong Karbowy-Thongbai
Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)-Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
Dr. Samantha C. Karunarathna
Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011, China
Prof. Dr. Sumedha Madawala
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20442 Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Dr. Patcharee Pripdeevech
School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
Dr. Alvin M.C. Tang
Research Centre for Environment and Human Health, School of Continuing Education, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

Fungal Diversity

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2022
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55242

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fungi are a group of organisms with a high level of diversity. Fungi are also well known as the second most speciose group after the insects; hence, it is challenging to complete the global fungal diversity estimates, as compared to other organisms. In various ecosystems, fungi are found as pathogens, decomposers, and mutualists, and are of significant ecological value as they impact nearly every component of the ecosystem services, while in most cases, the role of an individual fungus in nature is still unknown. Despite the fungal diversity that science has revealed and their innumerable roles in ecology, health, and industry, much about these unique organisms remains a mystery. This topic intends to cover all fungi related subjects viz. Taxonomy, phylogeny, pathology, toxicology, ecology, and biotechnology. Both original and review articles are welcome.

Dr. Samantha Karunarathna
Dr. Patcharee Pripdeevech
Prof. Dr. Sumedha Madawala
Dr. Alvin M.C. Tang
Dr. Benjarong Karbowy-Thongbai
Dr. Asha Janadaree Dissanayake
Dr. Arun Kumar Dutta
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • ascomycota
  • basidiomycota
  • biodegradation
  • biocontrol agents
  • biotechnology
  • fungal taxonomy
  • fungal phylogeny
  • next generation sequencing
  • fungal toxins
  • fungal pathogens
  • fungal ecology
  • mushrooms

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diversity
diversity
3.031 2.9 2009 15.5 Days 1900 CHF Submit
Journal of Fungi
jof
5.724 4.1 2015 13.8 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Life
life
3.253 1.9 2011 14 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.926 4.1 2013 15.3 Days 2200 CHF Submit
Pathogens
pathogens
4.531 3.5 2012 16 Days 2200 CHF Submit

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Published Papers (51 papers)

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Article
New Strain of Cyphellophora olivacea Exhibits Striking Tolerance to Sodium Bicarbonate
Diversity 2022, 14(12), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14121023 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
The cyanobacterium strain Synechococcus cedrorum SAG 88.79 stock culture has fungal contamination stated by the Sammlung von Algenkulturen der Universität Göttingen itself. In this recent work, this particular fungal strain was isolated, identified, and morphologically characterised. The fungal strain AGSC12 belongs to the [...] Read more.
The cyanobacterium strain Synechococcus cedrorum SAG 88.79 stock culture has fungal contamination stated by the Sammlung von Algenkulturen der Universität Göttingen itself. In this recent work, this particular fungal strain was isolated, identified, and morphologically characterised. The fungal strain AGSC12 belongs to the species Cyphellophora olivacea, with respect to the sequence similarity, phylogeny, and morphology of the strain. Colony morphology and growth capability were examined on SMA, EMMA, PDA, MEA, YEA, and YPA plates. Growth of the colonies was the most successful on YPA plates, followed by PDA and MEA containing plates. Surprisingly, the AGSC12 strain showed extreme tolerance to NaHCO3, albeit it, is is considered a general fungistatic compound. Moreover, positive association between the AGSC12 and SAG 88.79 strains was revealed, as the SAG 88.79 strain always attained higher cell density in co-cultures with the fungus than in mono-cultures. Besides, a taxonomic note on the SAG 88.79 strain itself was also stated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Candida auris: A Mini Review on Epidemiology in Healthcare Facilities in Asia
J. Fungi 2022, 8(11), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8111126 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Candida auris, a newly emerging healthcare-associated yeast pathogen from the Metschnikowiaceae family, was first described in the ear canal of an elderly Japanese patient in 2009. The yeast is one of the causative agents of candidemia, which has been linked with nosocomial outbreaks [...] Read more.
Candida auris, a newly emerging healthcare-associated yeast pathogen from the Metschnikowiaceae family, was first described in the ear canal of an elderly Japanese patient in 2009. The yeast is one of the causative agents of candidemia, which has been linked with nosocomial outbreaks and high mortality rates in healthcare facilities worldwide. Since its first isolation, the occurrence of C. auris in six continents has becomes a grave concern for the healthcare professionals and scientific community. Recent reports showed the identification of five geographically distinct clades and high rates of antifungal resistance associated with C. auris. Till date, there are no effective treatment options, and standardized measures for prevention and control of C. auris infection in healthcare facilities. This leads to frequent therapeutic failures and complicates the eradication of C. auris infection in healthcare facilities. Thus, this review focuses on the recent understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, transmission and prevention and control strategies of C. auris infection in healthcare facilities in Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
Article
The Introduction of Two New Species of Aquatic Fungi from Anzali Lagoon, Northern Iran
Diversity 2022, 14(10), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14100889 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
During a survey of aquatic fungi from Anzali Lagoon in Iran, several fungal specimens were isolated from freshwater habitats. Morphological evidence and comparing sequencing based on rDNA (ITS and LSU) and protein-coding genes (TEF1 and TUB2) showed that some isolates belong [...] Read more.
During a survey of aquatic fungi from Anzali Lagoon in Iran, several fungal specimens were isolated from freshwater habitats. Morphological evidence and comparing sequencing based on rDNA (ITS and LSU) and protein-coding genes (TEF1 and TUB2) showed that some isolates belong to undescribed fungal species. These isolates belong to Arthrobotrys and Sarocladium, two ascomycetes genera. Arthrobotrys hyrcanus, sp. nov., differs from closely related species such as A. dianchiensis by its larger conidia and septation of primary conidia. Sarocladium pseudokiliense, sp. nov., was similar to S. kiliense, but distinguished by its conidial shape and the absence of adelophialides and chlamydospores. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and multilocus phylogenetic analysis for both new species are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Taxonomy and Phylogenetic Appraisal of Dothideomycetous Fungi Associated with Magnolia, Lilium longiflorum and Hedychium coronarium
J. Fungi 2022, 8(10), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8101094 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 430
Abstract
This paper highlights the taxonomy of some interesting saprobic microfungi associated with dead plant materials of Hedychium coronarium, Lilium longiflorum, and Magnolia species. The taxa reported in this study belong to the orders Pleosporales and Kirschsteiniotheliales (Dothideomycetes). These taxa [...] Read more.
This paper highlights the taxonomy of some interesting saprobic microfungi associated with dead plant materials of Hedychium coronarium, Lilium longiflorum, and Magnolia species. The taxa reported in this study belong to the orders Pleosporales and Kirschsteiniotheliales (Dothideomycetes). These taxa were identified based on multi-locus phylogeny of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (LSU, SSU, and ITS) and protein-coding genes (tef1-α and rpb2), together with comprehensive morphological characterization. Two novel saprobic species, Leptoparies magnoliae sp. nov. and Neobambusicola magnoliae sp. nov., are introduced from Magnolia species in Thailand. Another new species, Asymmetrispora zingiberacearum sp. nov., is also described from dead stems of H. coronarium, which is the first asexual morph species of the genus Asymmetrispora. In addition, Ramusculicola thailandica and Kirschsteiniothelia thailandica are reported as new host records from dead twigs of Magnolia species. Sphaerellopsis paraphysata is reported as a new host record from L. longiflorum. Newly described taxa are compared with other similar species and detailed descriptions, micrographs, and phylogenetic trees to show the positions are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Choiromyces sichuanensis sp. nov., a New Species from Southwest China, and Its Mycorrhizal Synthesis with Three Native Conifers
Diversity 2022, 14(10), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14100837 - 05 Oct 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
A new Choiromyces species was discovered at local wild mushroom markets in Songpan County, Sichuan, southwest China where it has been considered as a Chinese white truffle. Based on both morphological and phylogenetic analyses, the collection was described as Choiromyces sichuanensis sp. nov. [...] Read more.
A new Choiromyces species was discovered at local wild mushroom markets in Songpan County, Sichuan, southwest China where it has been considered as a Chinese white truffle. Based on both morphological and phylogenetic analyses, the collection was described as Choiromyces sichuanensis sp. nov. This study confirms the occurrence of members of Choiromyces in China. In addition, the mycorrhizal synthesis via spore inoculation between C. sichuanensis and Pinus armandii or two Picea species of Pi. likiangensis and Pi. crassifolia was attempted in a greenhouse. Both morphoanatomical and molecular analyses evidenced well-developed mycorrhization between C. sichuanensis and P. armandii, but not in Picea seedlings. Our current study provides data about the species diversity and mycorrhizal research of this genus for further studies. In addition, a successful mycorrhization between C. sichuanensis and selected tree species, irrespective of Pinus genus or other plant species, would broaden the set of species for a successful mycorrhization in greenhouse conditions and potential outplanting for cultivation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Living Fungi in an Opencast Limestone Mine: Who Are They and What Can They Do?
J. Fungi 2022, 8(10), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8100987 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Opencast limestone mines or limestone quarries are considered challenging ecosystems for soil fungi as they are highly degraded land with specific conditions, including high temperature, prolonged sunlight exposure, and a lack of organic matter, moisture, and nutrients in soil. In such ecosystems, certain [...] Read more.
Opencast limestone mines or limestone quarries are considered challenging ecosystems for soil fungi as they are highly degraded land with specific conditions, including high temperature, prolonged sunlight exposure, and a lack of organic matter, moisture, and nutrients in soil. In such ecosystems, certain fungi can survive and have a crucial function in maintaining soil ecosystem functions. Unfortunately, we know very little about taxonomic diversity, potential functions, and the ecology of such fungi, especially for a limestone quarry in a tropical region. Here, we characterized and compared the living soil fungal communities in an opencast limestone mine, including mining site and its associated rehabilitation site (9 months post-rehabilitation), with the soil fungal community in a reference forest, using the amplicon sequencing of enrichment culture. Our results showed that living fungal richness in the quarry areas was significantly lower than that in the reference forest, and their community compositions were also significantly different. Living fungi in the mining sites mostly comprised of Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes) with strongly declined abundance or absence of Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota. After nine months of rehabilitation, certain taxa were introduced, such as Hypoxylon spp. and Phellinus noxius, though this change did not significantly differentiate fungal community composition between the mining and rehabilitation plots. The majority of fungi in these plots are classified as saprotrophs, which potentially produce all fifteen soil enzymes used as soil health indicators. Network analysis, which was analyzed to show insight into complex structures of living fungal community in the limestone quarry, showed a clear modular structure that was significantly impacted by different soil properties. Furthermore, this study suggests potential taxa that could be useful for future rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
A New Strain of Lecanicillium uredinophilum Isolated from Tibetan Plateau and Its Insecticidal Activity
Microorganisms 2022, 10(9), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10091832 - 14 Sep 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
A new strain QHLA of Lecanicillium uredinophilum was isolated from a Chinese caterpillar fungus complex and its optimum growth temperature and fermentation conditions were studied. Its insecticidal activity was tested against larvae of seven different insect pests, including Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Spodoptera exigua [...] Read more.
A new strain QHLA of Lecanicillium uredinophilum was isolated from a Chinese caterpillar fungus complex and its optimum growth temperature and fermentation conditions were studied. Its insecticidal activity was tested against larvae of seven different insect pests, including Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, Spodoptera frugiperda, Sitobion avenae, Hyalopterus perikonus, and Aphis citricola. The optimum growth temperature was 21–24 °C. The highest spore production of the strain QHLA was 4.08 × 106 spore/mL on solid medium with a nitrogen source of NH4Cl. However, the highest mycelial growth rate of the strain QHLA was on solid medium with a nitrogen source from yeast extract (4.63 ± 0.03 mm/d). When the liquid medium contained peptone, yeast extract, and glucose, the water content of the mycelia was the lowest, while the spore production was the highest until day 12. When the liquid medium contained glucose, tussah pupa powder, KH2PO4, and MgSO4, the mycelia production was highest until day 8. The bioassay for insecticidal activity indicated that the LC50 values of QHLA were 6.32 × 103 spore/mL and 6.35 × 103 spore/mL against Sitobion avenae and Aphis citricola, respectively, while the LC90 values of the strain QHLA against Aphis citricola and Sitobion avenae were 2.11 × 107 spore/mL and 2.36 × 108 spore/mL, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the strain QHLA was a high virulence pathogenic fungus against insect pests, with the potential to be developed as a microbial pesticide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
The Effects of Secondary Growth of Spartina alterniflora after Treatment on Sediment Microorganisms in the Yellow River Delta
Microorganisms 2022, 10(9), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10091722 - 26 Aug 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
As a typical invasive species, Spartina alterniflora is widely recognized as one of the primary threats to biodiversity in various habitats, including wetlands. Although the invasion by S. alterniflora has been managed in multiple ways, it may reappear after treatment. How S. alterniflora [...] Read more.
As a typical invasive species, Spartina alterniflora is widely recognized as one of the primary threats to biodiversity in various habitats, including wetlands. Although the invasion by S. alterniflora has been managed in multiple ways, it may reappear after treatment. How S. alterniflora affects the soil microbial community in coastal wetlands during its regeneration process has not yet been clarified. Here, rhizosphere soil samples (RSPs) and bulk soil samples (SSPs) were collected in the S. alterniflora community and a high-throughput sequencing method was conducted to analyze the composition and diversity of soil microorganisms. Meanwhile, we also obtain the soil physicochemical properties. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the alpha diversity of both bacterial and fungal communities in the SSP and RSP groups. The PCoA (principal coordinate analysis) also showed that the microbial community structure did not differ significantly between the SSP and RSP groups. The results showed that except for pH, the total sulfur (TS) content, total nitrogen (TN) content, and electrical conductivity (EC) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the SSP and RSP groups. The composition of the bacterial and fungal community in the rhizosphere of S. alterniflora was similar to that found in the surrounding soils. The top two dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Desulfobacterota in the present study. Venn diagram results also support this view; most OTUs belong to the common OTUs of the two groups, and the proportion of unique OTUs is relatively small. The LEfSe (LDA effect size) analysis showed that Campylobacterota (at the phylum level) and Sulfurimonas (at the genus level) significantly increased in the RSP group, implying that the increased Sulfurimonas might play an essential role in the invasion by S. alterniflora during the under-water period. Overall, these results suggest that the bacterial and fungal communities were not significantly affected by the S. alterniflora invasion due to the short invasion time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Additions to the Inventory of the Genus Alternaria Section Alternaria (Pleosporaceae, Pleosporales) in Italy
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090898 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
The genus Alternaria is comprised of well-known plant pathogens causing various important diseases in plants, as well as being common allergens in animals and humans. Species of Alternaria can be found as saprobes associated with various dead plant materials. This research aims to [...] Read more.
The genus Alternaria is comprised of well-known plant pathogens causing various important diseases in plants, as well as being common allergens in animals and humans. Species of Alternaria can be found as saprobes associated with various dead plant materials. This research aims to enhance the taxonomy of saprobic species in the genus Alternaria found on grasses and herbaceous plants from Italy, based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated ITS, LSU, SSU, tef1-α, rpb2, gapdh and Alt-a1 DNA sequence dataset combined with morphological characteristics. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses demonstrated six novel species belonging to the genus Alternaria sect. Alternaria as: A. muriformispora sp. nov., A. obpyriconidia sp. nov., A. ovoidea sp. nov., A. pseudoinfectoria sp. nov., A. rostroconidia sp. nov. and A. torilis sp. nov. Detailed morphological descriptions, illustrations and an updated phylogenetic relationship of taxa in the genus Alternaria sect. Alternaria are provided herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Coprinus leucostictus Rediscovered after a Century, Epitypified, and Its Generic Position in Hausknechtia Resolved by Multigene Phylogenetic Analysis of Psathyrellaceae
Diversity 2022, 14(9), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14090699 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 716
Abstract
About a century after the first finding in northern Vietnam (1908), Coprinus leucostictus is rediscovered on 12 localities in southern India and southern to southeastern China, growing in evergreen subtropical or tropical forests. It is morphologically a rather unique species with coprinoid basidiomata, [...] Read more.
About a century after the first finding in northern Vietnam (1908), Coprinus leucostictus is rediscovered on 12 localities in southern India and southern to southeastern China, growing in evergreen subtropical or tropical forests. It is morphologically a rather unique species with coprinoid basidiomata, strongly branched and diverticulate veil hyphae, and a hymeniderm pileipellis. The BLAST search of ITS and tef-1α sequences showed its close relationship to Hausknechtia floriformis, which is not clear based on morphological characters. Multigene phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset of ITS, LSU, tef-1α, and β-tubulin sequences, revealed C. leucostictus and H. floriformis as separate, but sister species. Molecular phylogenetic relationships within the family Psathyrellaceae (including 17 genera) are presented in the phylogram. The genera Hausknechtia and Candolleomyces formed two well-supported lineages and were recovered as a monophyletic group. A total of 27 sequences from the genus Hausknechtia were newly generated in this study. Coprinus leucostictus is combined as Hausknechtia leucosticta, its epitype is designated, and the hitherto monotypic genus Hausknechtia is emended. A detailed morphological description of H. leucosticta supplemented with colour photographs and line drawings is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
The Umbelopsis ramanniana Sensu Lato Consists of Five Cryptic Species
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090895 - 23 Aug 2022
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Umbelopsis ramanniana is one of the most commonly reported species within the genus and an important oleaginous fungus. The morphology of the species varies remarkably in sporangiospores, columellae and chlamydospores. However, phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and nLSU rDNA had previously shown insufficiency [...] Read more.
Umbelopsis ramanniana is one of the most commonly reported species within the genus and an important oleaginous fungus. The morphology of the species varies remarkably in sporangiospores, columellae and chlamydospores. However, phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and nLSU rDNA had previously shown insufficiency in achieving species level identification in the genus Umbelopsis. In this study, by applying a polyphasic approach involving multi-gene (nSSU, ITS, nLSU, act1, MCM7 and cox1) phylogeny, morphology and maximum growth temperature, U. ramanniana sensu lato was revealed as a polyphyletic group and resolved with five novel taxa, namely U. curvata, U. dura, U. macrospora, U. microsporangia and U. oblongielliptica. Additionally, a key for all currently accepted species in Umbelopsis was also updated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Effects of Five Filamentous Fungi Used in Food Processes on In Vitro and In Vivo Gut Inflammation
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090893 - 23 Aug 2022
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Food processes use different microorganisms, from bacteria to fungi. Yeast strains have been extensively studied, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, to date, very little is known about the potential beneficial effects of molds on gut health as part of gut microbiota. We undertook [...] Read more.
Food processes use different microorganisms, from bacteria to fungi. Yeast strains have been extensively studied, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, to date, very little is known about the potential beneficial effects of molds on gut health as part of gut microbiota. We undertook a comprehensive characterization of five mold strains, Penicillium camemberti, P. nalgiovense, P. roqueforti, Fusarium domesticum, and Geotrichum candidum used in food processes, on their ability to trigger or protect intestinal inflammation using in vitro human cell models and in vivo susceptibility to sodium dextran sulfate-induced colitis. Comparison of spore adhesion to epithelial cells showed a very wide disparity in results, with F. domesticum and P. roqueforti being the two extremes, with almost no adhesion and 20% adhesion, respectively. Interaction with human immune cells showed mild pro-inflammatory properties of all Penicillium strains and no effect of the others. However, the potential anti-inflammatory abilities detected for G. candidum in vitro were not confirmed in vivo after oral gavage to mice before and during induced colitis. According to the different series of experiments carried out in this study, the impact of the spores of these molds used in food production is limited, with no specific beneficial or harmful effect on the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Phylogenetic Review of Acaulospora (Diversisporales, Glomeromycota) and the Homoplasic Nature of Its Ornamentations
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090892 - 23 Aug 2022
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The genus Acaulospora has undergone many updates since it was first described; however, there are some missing pieces in the phylogenetic relationships among Acaulospora species. The present review aimed to: (i) understand the evolutionary meaning of their different spore wall ornamentations; (ii) define [...] Read more.
The genus Acaulospora has undergone many updates since it was first described; however, there are some missing pieces in the phylogenetic relationships among Acaulospora species. The present review aimed to: (i) understand the evolutionary meaning of their different spore wall ornamentations; (ii) define the best molecular marker for phylogenetic inferences, (iii) address some specific issues concerning the polyphyletic nature of Acaulospora lacunosa and Acaulospora scrobiculata, and the inclusion of Kuklospora species; and (iv) update the global geographical distribution of Acaulospora species. As such, the wall ornamentation of previously described Acaulospora species was reviewed and phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on ITS and SSU-ITS-LSU (nrDNA). Moreover, the already available type material of A. sporocarpia was inspected. According to the data obtained, temperate and tropical zones are the richest in Acaulospora species. We also confirmed that A. sporocarpia does not belong to Acaulospora. Furthermore, our phylogeny supported the monophyly of Acaulospora genus, including the Kuklospora species, K. colombiana and K. kentinensis. The nrDNA phylogeny presented the best resolution and revealed the homoplasic nature of many ornamentations in Acaulospora species, pointing out their unfeasible phylogenetic signal. This review reinforces the urgency of more molecular markers, in addition to the nrDNA sequences, for the definition of a multi-locus phylogeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Species Diversity, Distribution, and Phylogeny of Exophiala with the Addition of Four New Species from Thailand
J. Fungi 2022, 8(8), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080766 - 24 Jul 2022
Viewed by 923
Abstract
The genus Exophiala is an anamorphic ascomycete fungus in the family Herpotrichiellaceae of the order Chaetothyriales. Exophiala species have been classified as polymorphic black yeast-like fungi. Prior to this study, 63 species had been validated, published, and accepted into this genus. Exophiala [...] Read more.
The genus Exophiala is an anamorphic ascomycete fungus in the family Herpotrichiellaceae of the order Chaetothyriales. Exophiala species have been classified as polymorphic black yeast-like fungi. Prior to this study, 63 species had been validated, published, and accepted into this genus. Exophiala species are known to be distributed worldwide and have been isolated in various habitats around the world. Several Exophiala species have been identified as potential agents of human and animal mycoses. However, in some studies, Exophiala species have been used in agriculture and biotechnological applications. Here, we provide a brief review of the diversity, distribution, and taxonomy of Exophiala through an overview of the recently published literature. Moreover, four new Exophiala species were isolated from rocks that were collected from natural forests located in northern Thailand. Herein, we introduce these species as E. lamphunensis, E. lapidea, E. saxicola, and E. siamensis. The identification of these species was based on a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of a combination of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and small subunit (nrSSU) of ribosomal DNA, along with the translation elongation factor (tef), partial β-tubulin (tub), and actin (act) genes support that these four new species are distinct from previously known species of Exophiala. A full description, illustrations, and a phylogenetic tree showing the position of four new species are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Diversity of Colletotrichum Species Causing Apple Bitter Rot and Glomerella Leaf Spot in China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070740 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
Bitter rot and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) of apples, caused by Colletotrichum species, are major diseases of apples around the world. A total of 98 isolates were obtained from apple fruits with bitter rot, and 53 isolates were obtained from leaves with leaf [...] Read more.
Bitter rot and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) of apples, caused by Colletotrichum species, are major diseases of apples around the world. A total of 98 isolates were obtained from apple fruits with bitter rot, and 53 isolates were obtained from leaves with leaf spot in the primary apple production regions in China. These isolates were characterized morphologically, and five gene regions (ITS, ACT, GAPDH, CHS-1 and TUB2) were sequenced for each isolate. A phylogenetic analysis, combined with a comparison of the morphological, cultural and pathogenic characters, sorted bitter rot isolates into six species: C. alienum, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto, C. nymphaeae, C. siamense and one new species, C. orientalis Dandan Fu & G.Y. Sun. Among these, C. siamense was the predominant pathogen associated with bitter rot. Isolates from leaf spot were identified as two species, C. aenigma and C. fructicola. This is the first report of C. orientalis as an apple bitter rot pathogen worldwide, and the results provide important insights into the diversity of Colletotrichum species in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Fungal Flora in Adult Females of the Rearing Population of Ambrosia Beetle Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Does It Differ from the Wild Population?
Diversity 2022, 14(7), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14070535 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Ambrosia beetles bore into host trees, and live with fungi symbiotically that serve as a food source. However, it is challenging to directly observe these beetles in the wild. In this study, Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a pest of fig trees [...] Read more.
Ambrosia beetles bore into host trees, and live with fungi symbiotically that serve as a food source. However, it is challenging to directly observe these beetles in the wild. In this study, Euwallacea interjectus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a pest of fig trees in Japan, were reared under artificial conditions to emulate the behavior of ambrosia beetle. Fungi were isolated from the adult females of E. interjectus to identify the species associated with secondary symbiosis. In total, nine filamentous fungi and one yeast were identified using morphological characteristics and DNA sequence data. Neocosmospora metavorans (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae), Fusarium sp. (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae), that is undescribed, and Meyerozyma guilliermondii (Saccharomycetes: Saccharomycetales) (yeast) were isolated more frequently from the head (including from mycangia, the fungus-carrying organ) than from the thorax and abdomen of adult beetles. Neocosmospora metavorans was the dominant species isolated from 12 out of 16 heads at 200 to 3300 CFUs/head, compared to the primary mycangia fungus from wild beetles, i.e., Fusarium kuroshium (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae). Temperature had a marked effect on fungal growth in the three symbiont species. Our results represent a major paradigm shift in understanding beetle–fungal interactions, as they show specific symbiont switching can occur in different nesting places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Two New Species of Globisporangium from Southern China, G. pengfuense and G. tenuihyphum
Diversity 2022, 14(7), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14070528 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Two new species of Globisporangium, G. pengfuense and G. tenuihyphum, that were isolated from soybean in China are described and illustrated based on their morphological characters and molecular evidence. The characteristics of G. pengfuense include globose to sub-globose sporangia that are: [...] Read more.
Two new species of Globisporangium, G. pengfuense and G. tenuihyphum, that were isolated from soybean in China are described and illustrated based on their morphological characters and molecular evidence. The characteristics of G. pengfuense include globose to sub-globose sporangia that are: catenulate, terminal, occasionally with apical papillae or intercalary, smooth oogonia, mostly monoclinous, occasionally diclinous antheridia, fist-shaped to crook-necked, with straight or curved antheridial cells, and plerotic or nearly plerotic with thin-walled oospores (0.5–1.0 µm). Globisporangium tenuihyphum differs from other species in this genus by its relatively narrow hyphae that are: mostly sub-globose to globose, occasionally ovoid-obpyriform sporangia, smooth oogonia, monoclinous antheridia, subclavate, falcate or semicircular to subcircular antheridial cells, and with aplerotic oospores. Phylogenetically, data from the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox1) sequences support the designation of G. pengfuense and G. tenuihyphum as two distinct species of Globisporangium (Pythium sensu lato clades G and J). In addition, the two new species were compared to closely related Globisporangium species, to delineate their phylogenetic positions and morphological features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
A Special Phenotype of Aconidial Aspergillus niger SH2 and Its Mechanism of Formation via CRISPRi
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070679 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
The complex morphological structure of Aspergillus niger influences its production of proteins, metabolites, etc., making the genetic manipulation and clonal purification of this species increasingly difficult, especially in aconidial Aspergillus niger. In this study, we found that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) could induce the [...] Read more.
The complex morphological structure of Aspergillus niger influences its production of proteins, metabolites, etc., making the genetic manipulation and clonal purification of this species increasingly difficult, especially in aconidial Aspergillus niger. In this study, we found that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) could induce the formation of spore-like propagules in the aconidial Aspergillus niger SH2 strain. The spore-like propagules possessed life activities such as drug resistance, genetic transformation, and germination. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that the spore-like propagules were resting conidia entering dormancy and becoming more tolerant to environmental stresses. The Dac1 gene and the metabolic pathway of GlcNAc converted to glycolysis are related to the formation of the spore-like propagules, as evidenced by the CRISPRi system, qPCR, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, a method based on the CRISPR-Cas9 tool to rapidly recycle screening tags and recover genes was suitable for Aspergillus niger SH2. To sum up, this suggests that the spore-like propagules are resting conidia and the mechanism of their formation is the metabolic pathway of GlcNAc converted to glycolysis, particularly the Dac1 gene. This study can improve our understanding of the critical factors involved in mechanisms of phenotypic change and provides a good model for researching phenotypic change in filamentous fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
A Global Overview of Diversity and Phylogeny of the Rust Genus Uromyces
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060633 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Uromyces is the second-largest plant pathogenic rust genus, is responsible for numerous diseases, and has major effects on both agricultural and non-agricultural plants. The genus is generally characterized by its unicellular teliospores that help to characterize it and distinguish it from another important [...] Read more.
Uromyces is the second-largest plant pathogenic rust genus, is responsible for numerous diseases, and has major effects on both agricultural and non-agricultural plants. The genus is generally characterized by its unicellular teliospores that help to characterize it and distinguish it from another important rust genus, Puccinia. In this study, a global overview of the diversity and distribution of Uromyces is presented based on both online and offline resources. The information obtained was analyzed for numerical and graphical summaries to provide the diversity and distribution of the genus by country and continent. Besides this, broad taxonomical aspects, a brief life cycle, and other comparative aspects on diversity and distribution were also provided. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS and nLSU DNA sequence data available in GenBank and published literature was performed to examine the intergeneric relationships of Uromyces. The results obtained revealed that the rust genus is found distributed over 150 countries, territories, and occupancies of the world on around 647 plant genera belonging to 95 plant families. Phylogenetic studies based on LSU and ITS sequence data revealed that Uromyces species are polyphyletic and require more DNA-based analyses for a better understanding of their taxonomic placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Leaf-Associated Epiphytic Fungi of Gingko biloba, Pinus bungeana and Sabina chinensis Exhibit Delicate Seasonal Variations
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060631 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Plant-leaf surface on Earth harbors complex microbial communities that influence plant productivity and health. To gain a detailed understanding of the assembly and key drivers of leaf microbial communities, especially for leaf-associated fungi, we investigated leaf-associated fungal communities in two seasons for three [...] Read more.
Plant-leaf surface on Earth harbors complex microbial communities that influence plant productivity and health. To gain a detailed understanding of the assembly and key drivers of leaf microbial communities, especially for leaf-associated fungi, we investigated leaf-associated fungal communities in two seasons for three plant species at two sites by high-throughput sequencing. The results reveal a strong impact of growing season and plant species on fungal community composition, exhibiting clear temporal patterns in abundance and diversity. For the deciduous tree Gingko biloba, the number of enriched genera in May was much higher than that in October. The number of enriched genera in the two evergreen trees Pinus bungeana and Sabina chinensis was slightly higher in October than in May. Among the genus-level biomarkers, the abundances of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Filobasidium were significantly higher in October than in May in the three tree species. Additionally, network correlations between the leaf-associated fungi of G. biloba were more complex in May than those in October, containing extra negative associations, which was more obvious than the network correlation changes of leaf-associated fungi of the two evergreen plant species. Overall, the fungal diversity and community composition varied significantly between different growing seasons and host plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Root-Associated Endophytic and Mycorrhizal Fungi from the Epiphytic Orchid Maxillaria acuminata in a Tropical Montane Forest in Southern Ecuador
Diversity 2022, 14(6), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14060478 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
In natural environments, it has been shown that orchids interact with multiple microorganisms including various species of fungi that colonize their tissues. The diversity of these fungi associated with orchid roots is still being described along with the ecological role they play when [...] Read more.
In natural environments, it has been shown that orchids interact with multiple microorganisms including various species of fungi that colonize their tissues. The diversity of these fungi associated with orchid roots is still being described along with the ecological role they play when interacting with the orchids. In this study, we evaluated the richness and diversity of the endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots of Maxillaria acuminata, a common epiphytic orchid species from a tropical montane forest in southern Ecuador. We characterized the fungal communities by sequencing the ITS2 region of the nrDNA with Illumina MiSeq technology. In total, 843 fungal OTUs were uncovered using a 97% sequence similarity. The highest percentage of OTUs belonged to the Agaricomycetes class, Basidiomycota. Interestingly, the most frequent trophic guild from the analyzed OTUs was assigned as saprophytic. Also, some groups of orchid mycorrhizal-forming fungi were detected, including members within the families Ceratobasidicaceae, Serendipitaceae, Tulasnellaceae, and in the order Atractiellales. We discuss the potential influence of this diverse group of root-associated endophytic fungi on the development and survival of M. acuminata in the tropical forests of southern Ecuador. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Entomopathogenic Fungi in the Soils of China and Their Bioactivity against Striped Flea Beetles Phyllotretastriolata
Diversity 2022, 14(6), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14060464 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 828
Abstract
The present research aims to explore the occurrence and diversity of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) in cultivated and uncultivated lands from different provinces of China and to search for EPF against Phyllotreta striolata. In this study, first, the EPF biodiversity from the soil [...] Read more.
The present research aims to explore the occurrence and diversity of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) in cultivated and uncultivated lands from different provinces of China and to search for EPF against Phyllotreta striolata. In this study, first, the EPF biodiversity from the soil of four provinces (Hunan, Hubei, Henan and Hebei) was surveyed. There were 302 fungal isolates obtained from 226 soil samples collected from croplands (114), arbor (79), grasslands (97) and fallow land (12); 188 EPF isolates were identified as 11 genera. The data indicate that Hubei Province has the greatest EPF diversity, with a Shannon Evenness Index (SHEI) value of 0.88. Here, the grassland, arbor and cropland had an EPF diversity with SHEI values of 0.81, 0.86 and 0.76, respectively, while the fallow land had the highest SHEI value of 1.00, which suggests that cultivation by humans affected the count and richness of soil fungi: the less human activity, the more kinds of fungi found. Finally, the pathogenicity of 47 fungal strains against the adult P. striolata was determined. Isaria javanica (IsjaHN3002) had the highest mortality. In conclusion, this study reports the EPF distribution and biodiversity in the soil from four provinces in China, showing that the amount and type of fungi in the soil varied by region and vegetation and that soil was one of the resources for acquiring EPF. The potential of I. javanica as a biocontrol must be studied further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Three New Species of Cystolepiota from Laos and Thailand
Diversity 2022, 14(6), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14060449 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 991
Abstract
Cystolepiota Singer is rarely studied in Southeast Asia; here, we survey and describe three new species of Cystolepiota from tropical Laos and Thailand. Cystolepiota pyramidalis is related to C. fumosifolia (Murrill) Vellinga and C. pseudofumosifolia M.L. Xu & R.L. Zhao, but [...] Read more.
Cystolepiota Singer is rarely studied in Southeast Asia; here, we survey and describe three new species of Cystolepiota from tropical Laos and Thailand. Cystolepiota pyramidalis is related to C. fumosifolia (Murrill) Vellinga and C. pseudofumosifolia M.L. Xu & R.L. Zhao, but it is distinguished by pale to pastel yellow lamellae. Second, Cystolepiota thailandica differs from other members in the genus by the greyish-orange granulose or powdery pileus and stipe covering made up of globose to subglobose and sphaeropedunculate elements. Furthermore, Cystolepiota rhodella is characterized by the pink-violet granulose covering of the pileus and stipe and white lamellae with distinctly violet edges. Each species is provided with a full description of the morphological characters, photos in situ, line drawings of the microcharacters, discussion of related and similar species, and molecular data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Responses of Soil Microbiota to Different Control Methods of the Spartina alterniflora in the Yellow River Delta
Microorganisms 2022, 10(6), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061122 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Spartina alterniflora invasion has negative effects on the structure and functioning of coastal wetland ecosystems. Therefore, many methods for controlling S. alterniflora invasion have been developed. S. alterniflora control methods can affect plant community, which results in changes in microbial communities and subsequent [...] Read more.
Spartina alterniflora invasion has negative effects on the structure and functioning of coastal wetland ecosystems. Therefore, many methods for controlling S. alterniflora invasion have been developed. S. alterniflora control methods can affect plant community, which results in changes in microbial communities and subsequent changes in soil ecological processes. However, the effects of controlling S. alterniflora on soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We aimed to examine the responses of bacterial and fungal communities to invasion control methods (cutting plus tilling treatment: CT; mechanical rolling treatment: MR). Soil bacterial and fungal community diversity and composition structure were assessed using high-throughput sequencing technology. The findings of the study showed that bacterial diversity and richness in the CT treatment reduced substantially, but fungal diversity and richness did not show any remarkable change. Bacterial and fungal diversity and richness in the MR treatment were not affected considerably. In addition, the two control methods significantly changed the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of bacteria negatively associated with nutrient cycling increased considerably in the CT treatment. The considerable increases in the relative abundance of certain bacterial taxa in the MR treatment may promote soil nutrient cycling. Compared with mechanical rolling, soil bacterial community diversity and structure were more sensitive to cutting plus tilling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Insight into Biological Control Potential of Hirsutella citriformis against Asian Citrus Psyllid as a Vector of Citrus Huanglongbing Disease in America
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060573 - 27 May 2022
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Studies on Hirsutella citriformis Speare are scarce. Among these, some reports have focused on phenotypic identification, based on its morphological structure and morphometric characteristics. This fungus is known to control economically important citrus crop pests. In recent years, H. citriformis has received increased [...] Read more.
Studies on Hirsutella citriformis Speare are scarce. Among these, some reports have focused on phenotypic identification, based on its morphological structure and morphometric characteristics. This fungus is known to control economically important citrus crop pests. In recent years, H. citriformis has received increased attention as a control agent for the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), which causes the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. Unfortunately, formal H. citriformis strains characterization is marginal, which mainly involves the role of biologically active exudates (metabolites) produced during their growth. Information regarding their mode of action and biocontrol potential is limited. However, epizootics reports of this fungus, under suitable environmental conditions for its development (25 °C to 28 °C and ~80% relative humidity), have demonstrated its parasitization efficacy. Therefore, it becomes challenging to determine whether H. citriformis strains may be developed as commercial products. In this review, we showed relevant information on isolation and bioassay strategies of H. citriformis to evaluate potential biocontrol strains under laboratory and field conditions in America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Communication
Occurrence and Identification of Yeasts in Production of White-Brined Cheese
by , , and
Microorganisms 2022, 10(6), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061079 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 905
Abstract
The aim of this study was to reveal the sites of yeast contamination in dairy production and perform taxonomic characterization of potential yeast spoilers in cheese making. Occurrence of spoilage yeasts was followed throughout the manufacture of white-brined cheese at a Danish dairy, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to reveal the sites of yeast contamination in dairy production and perform taxonomic characterization of potential yeast spoilers in cheese making. Occurrence of spoilage yeasts was followed throughout the manufacture of white-brined cheese at a Danish dairy, including the areas of milk pasteurization, curd processing, and packaging (26 sites in total). Spoilage yeasts were isolated from whey, old cheese curd, and air samples in viable counts of 1.48–6.27 log CFU/mL, 5.44 log CFU/g, and 1.02 log CFU/m3, respectively. Yeast isolates were genotypically classified using (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. The largest yeast heterogeneity was found in old curd collected under the turning machine of molds, where 11 different yeast species were identified. The most frequently isolated yeast species were Candida intermedia, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia kudriavzevii. The less abundant yeast species included Candida auris, Candida parapsilosis, Candida pseudoglaebosa, Candida sojae, Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus, Cutaneotrichosporon moniliiforme, Papiliotrema flavescens, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Vanrija humicola, and Wickerhamiella sorbophila. The awareness on occurrence and taxonomy of spoilage yeasts in cheese production will contribute to a knowledge-based control of contaminating yeasts and quality management of cheese at the dairies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Lignicolous Fungi Collected in Northern Italy: Identification and Morphological Description of Isolates
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14050413 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
In recent years, fungi, particularly lignicolous fungi, have been re-considered as a source for biotechnological and industrial applications. Lignicolous basidiomycetes are the most effective at degrading wood, particularly cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which are among the most resistant biopolymers. This study aims to [...] Read more.
In recent years, fungi, particularly lignicolous fungi, have been re-considered as a source for biotechnological and industrial applications. Lignicolous basidiomycetes are the most effective at degrading wood, particularly cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which are among the most resistant biopolymers. This study aims to constitute a research collection of lignicolous fungal strains that are useful for further studies and applications in different production fields. The basidiomata used to isolate the strains in a pure culture were, firstly, identified through macroscopic and microscopic characteristics integrated with ecological data. To obtain pure cultures of dikaryotic mycelia, 96 different strains of Agaricomycetes belonging to 76 different species and related to 51 genera (18 families and 5 orders) were isolated using a malt extract agar (MEA) medium enriched with hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the isolated strains was then confirmed by molecular analysis through the sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster. All the strains are currently conserved using different methods, and their vitality is periodically tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Diversity, Abundance, and Ecological Roles of Planktonic Fungi in Marine Environments
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050491 - 08 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Fungi are considered terrestrial and oceans are a “fungal desert”. However, with the considerable progress made over past decades, fungi have emerged as morphologically, phylogenetically, and functionally diverse components of the marine water column. Although their communities are influenced by a plethora of [...] Read more.
Fungi are considered terrestrial and oceans are a “fungal desert”. However, with the considerable progress made over past decades, fungi have emerged as morphologically, phylogenetically, and functionally diverse components of the marine water column. Although their communities are influenced by a plethora of environmental factors, the most influential include salinity, temperature, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen, suggesting that fungi respond to local environmental gradients. The biomass carbon of planktonic fungi exhibits spatiotemporal dynamics and can reach up to 1 μg CL−1 of seawater, rivaling bacteria on some occasions, which suggests their active and important role in the water column. In the nutrient-rich coastal water column, there is increasing evidence for their contribution to biogeochemical cycling and food web dynamics on account of their saprotrophic, parasitic, hyper-parasitic, and pathogenic attributes. Conversely, relatively little is known about their function in the open-ocean water column. Interestingly, methodological advances in sequencing and omics approach, the standardization of sequence data analysis tools, and integration of data through network analyses are enhancing our current understanding of the ecological roles of these multifarious and enigmatic members of the marine water column. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the diversity and abundance of planktonic fungi in the world’s oceans and provides an integrated and holistic view of their ecological roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Brunneosporopsis yunnanensis gen. et sp. nov. and Allocryptovalsa xishuangbanica sp. nov., New Terrestrial Sordariomycetes from Southwest China
Life 2022, 12(5), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050635 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Three fungal taxa were collected on dead branches of wood during fieldwork in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, China. The new generic name Brunneosporopsis gen. nov. and species B. yunnanensis sp. nov. are introduced for a novel taxon characterized by globose to subglobose [...] Read more.
Three fungal taxa were collected on dead branches of wood during fieldwork in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, China. The new generic name Brunneosporopsis gen. nov. and species B. yunnanensis sp. nov. are introduced for a novel taxon characterized by globose to subglobose and dark olivacous-brown conidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined LSU, SSU and tef1-α loci strongly support the monophyly of this taxon and place it in the subclass Diaporthomycetidae. It could not be assigned to any currently recognized families in the subclass and was, therefore, placed in the Diaporthomycetidae genera incertae sedis. A second taxon represents a new species in Allocryptovalsa based on an analysis of the sequence datasets of ITS and btub loci of the novel, brown-spored sexual morphic species. This taxon is described here as A. xishuangbanica sp. nov. An interesting hypocrealean fungus producing synnemata, Stilbocrea gracilipes, was collected from dead wood of an unknown host from Sichuan Province and is reported here, with asexual morph from both the host and culture as well as LSU, ITS, tef1-α, rpb2 and rpb1 sequence data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Applying EDTA in Chelating Excess Metal Ions to Improve Downstream DNA Recovery from Mine Tailings for Long-Read Amplicon Sequencing of Acidophilic Fungi Communities
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8050419 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The hostile environment of mine tailings contains unique microbial life capable of bioleaching. The metagenomic analysis of such an environment provides an in-depth understanding of the microbial life and its potential, especially in biomining operations. However, DNA recovery from samples collected in those [...] Read more.
The hostile environment of mine tailings contains unique microbial life capable of bioleaching. The metagenomic analysis of such an environment provides an in-depth understanding of the microbial life and its potential, especially in biomining operations. However, DNA recovery from samples collected in those environments is challenging due to the presence of metal ions that interfere with the DNA analysis. A varied concentration of EDTA (4–13 µg/µL) to chelate the metal ions of enriched tailing samples prior to DNA extraction was performed. The results show that 9 µg/µL of EDTA was effective in most samples. However, the increasing concentration of EDTA negatively affected the DNA recovery. The sequencing of the successfully extracted DNA revealed a diverse range of fungal genera, some of which have not been previously reported in tailing or bioleaching applications. The dominant genera include Fodinomyces, Penicillium, Recurvomuces, Trichoderma, and Xenoacremonium; their traits were determined using the FungalTraits database. This study demonstrates the need to include a preliminary metal-chelating step using EDTA before DNA extractions for samples collected from metal-rich environments. It further showed the need for optimization but provided a benchmark range, particularly for tailings. However, we caution that a further EDTA removal step from the extracted DNA should be included to avoid its interferences in downstream applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Influence of Different Vegetation Types on Soil Physicochemical Parameters and Fungal Communities
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040829 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
This study assessed the effects of Betula dahurica (BD), Betula platyphylla (BP), Larix gmelinii (LG), Quercus mongolica (QM), and a mixed conifer–broadleaf forest composed of LG and QM (LGQM) on the soil physicochemical parameters and community structure of fungi in the Zhongyangzhan Black-billed [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effects of Betula dahurica (BD), Betula platyphylla (BP), Larix gmelinii (LG), Quercus mongolica (QM), and a mixed conifer–broadleaf forest composed of LG and QM (LGQM) on the soil physicochemical parameters and community structure of fungi in the Zhongyangzhan Black-billed Capercaillie Nature Reserve. Fungal community structures were characterized via ITS rRNA sequencing. The effects of soil parameters on the community structure of soil fungi were assessed by Pearson correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). LGQM exhibited lower C/N, available nitrogen (AN), total phosphorus (TP), and available phosphorus (AP) compared with the QM broadleaf forest. The fungal Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were highest in BP, whereas LG exhibited the highest ACE index. The Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, and Mucoromycota fungal phyla were dominant across all vegetation types. Each of the different vegetation types studied herein exhibited a unique fungal community structure. The RDA results indicated that fungal community structures were primarily shaped by the total N, available N, and available P of soil. Our findings thus indicated that forests restored with different species of trees may exhibit variations in soil quality and characteristics despite sharing the same climate. Furthermore, broadleaved and coniferous forests exhibited a unique fungal community diversity and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Antifungal Activity of Polymethoxylated Flavonoids (PMFs)-Loaded Citral Nanoemulsion against Penicillium italicum by Causing Cell Membrane Damage
J. Fungi 2022, 8(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040388 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
A major citrus postharvest pathogen, Penicillium italicum (P. italicum), causes substantial economic losses in citrus. In this study, a citral nanoemulsion containing polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs), the antimicrobial compounds from citrus, was prepared. The antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanisms of [...] Read more.
A major citrus postharvest pathogen, Penicillium italicum (P. italicum), causes substantial economic losses in citrus. In this study, a citral nanoemulsion containing polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs), the antimicrobial compounds from citrus, was prepared. The antifungal activity and potential antifungal mechanisms of the nanoemulsion against P. italicum were evaluated. The results showed that the growth of P. italicum was effectively inhibited by the nanoemulsion, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 62.5 and 250 mg L−1, respectively. The nanoemulsion significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth, and it altered the morphology of P. italicum. In addition, the permeability of the cell membrane increased with increasing nanoemulsion concentrations, as evidenced by a rapid rise in extracellular electric conductivity and stronger red fluorescence from mycelia (propidium iodide staining). Compared with the control, the nanoemulsion treatment induced a decrease in total lipid and ergosterol contents in P. italicum cells by 64.61% and 60.58%, respectively, demonstrating that membrane integrity had been disrupted. The results indicated that the PMFs-loaded nanoemulsion exerted antifungal activity against P. italicum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and permeability; such a nanoemulsion may be used as a potential fungicide substitute for preservation in citrus fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Three Preceding Crops Increased the Yield of and Inhibited Clubroot Disease in Continuously Monocropped Chinese Cabbage by Regulating the Soil Properties and Rhizosphere Microbial Community
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040799 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Crop rotation can improve soil properties and is one of the important measures to prevent soil-borne diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different preceding crops on clubroot disease in Chinese cabbage and soil microorganisms, to provide a theoretical basis for [...] Read more.
Crop rotation can improve soil properties and is one of the important measures to prevent soil-borne diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different preceding crops on clubroot disease in Chinese cabbage and soil microorganisms, to provide a theoretical basis for the ecological control of clubroot scientifically. In this experiment, soybeans, potato onions, and wheat were used as the preceding crops and compared with the local preceding crop garlic. The growth of the Chinese cabbage, disease occurrence, soil chemical properties and changes in microbial community structure were determined by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), soil microbial high-throughput sequencing and other methods. The results showed that the rotation of potato onion and wheat with Chinese cabbage could reduce the clubroot disease index of Chinese cabbage remarkably. Through Illumina Miseq sequencing, when three previous crops were harvested, the abundance and diversity of the bacteria increased obviously, while the fungi decreased. The relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and Firmicutes was strikingly reduced, while that of Chloroflexi was significantly increased. These results show that three previous crops changed the structure of soil microorganisms, reduced the clubroot disease of Chinese cabbage, promoted growth, and suppressed disease. The ranked effect on promoting growth and inhibiting diseases was potato onion > wheat > soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Metatranscriptomic Analyses Reveal the Functional Role of Botrytis cinerea in Biochemical and Textural Changes during Noble Rot of Grapevines
J. Fungi 2022, 8(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040378 - 08 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
Botrytis cinerea, can lead to the formation of noble rot (NR) of grape berries under certain environmental conditions, resulting in favored metabolic and physical changes necessary for producing highly regarded botrytized wines. The functional genes involved in the textural and biochemical processes [...] Read more.
Botrytis cinerea, can lead to the formation of noble rot (NR) of grape berries under certain environmental conditions, resulting in favored metabolic and physical changes necessary for producing highly regarded botrytized wines. The functional genes involved in the textural and biochemical processes are still poorly characterized. We generated and analyzed metatranscriptomic data from healthy (H) berries and from berries representing the four stages of NR from the Tokaj wine region in Hungary over three months. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was conducted to link B. cinerea functional genes to grape berry physical parameters berry hardness (BH), berry skin break force (F_sk), berry skin elasticity (E_sk), and the skin break energy (W_sk). Clustered modules showed that genes involved in carbohydrate and protein metabolism were significantly enriched in NR, highlighting their importance in the grape berry structural integrity. Carbohydrate active enzymes were particularly up-regulated at the onset of NR (during the transition from phase I to II) suggesting that the major structural changes occur early in the NR process. In addition, we identified genes expressed throughout the NR process belonging to enriched pathways that allow B. cinerea to dominate and proliferate during this state, including sulphate metabolizing genes and genes involved in the synthesis of antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Insight into the Taxonomic Resolution of the Pleosporalean Species Associated with Dead Woody Litter in Natural Forests from Yunnan, China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040375 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
In the course of investigating the systematics of woody litter micromycete associates in Yunnan Province, China, we found one new species in Phaeoseptaceae, one new genus and three new species in Sulcatisporaceae from 16 specimens collected (ten collections of ascomycetous teleomorphs, four [...] Read more.
In the course of investigating the systematics of woody litter micromycete associates in Yunnan Province, China, we found one new species in Phaeoseptaceae, one new genus and three new species in Sulcatisporaceae from 16 specimens collected (ten collections of ascomycetous teleomorphs, four collections of hyphomycetous and two collections of coelomycetes anamorphs) from Ailaoshan, Chuxiong, Diqing, Honghe, Kunming, Lancang, Mengla and Yuxi in Yunnan Province. These taxonomic novelties were recognized with the aid of morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of multiple gene sequences (non-translated loci and protein-coding regions). Pleopunctum menglaense sp. nov. is accommodated in Phaeoseptaceae (Pleosporales) based on its hyphomycetous anamorph, which is characterized by superficial sporodochia on the host surface, macronematous, mononematous, cylindrical, unbranched, aseptate, hyaline and smooth-walled conidiophores, monoblastic, terminal, hyaline conidiogenous cells, hyaline, muriform α conidia, and brown, muriform β conidia with tri-lobed wing like basal cells. Kazuakitanaka gen. nov. (type: K. yuxiensis) is introduced in Sulcatisporaceae (Massarineae, Pleosporales) for a saprobic ascomycete with teleomorphic and anamorphic (coelomycetous) features. The teleomorph possesses globose to subglobose ascomata with acentric ostiole, a peridial wall of textura angularis to textura prismatica, cylindric-clavate, pedicellate asci with an ocular chamber, and 1–2-septate, hyaline, fusiform, guttulate ascospores with a distinct mucilaginous sheath. The anamorph features pycnidial conidiomata, phialidic, ampulliform to cylindrical, hyaline conidiogenous cells and ampulliform to cylindrical, one-to-three-septate, hyaline, guttulate conidia. Loculosulcatispora was known only from its anamorph of L. thailandica. We observed the teleomorph of Loculosulcatispora hongheensis sp. nov. and amended the generic description of Loculosulcatispora accordingly. Loculosulcatispora hongheensis is characterized by globose to subglobose ascomata with a central ostiole, a peridial wall of textura angularis to globosa, branched, septate, pseudoparaphyses, clavate asci with a short pedicel and a minute ocular chamber and hyaline, fusiform, 1-septate ascospores with a thick irregular mucilaginous sheath. This study provides some insights into the diversity of fungi on dead woody litter in terrestrial habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Assessment of Yeasts as Potential Probiotics: A Review of Gastrointestinal Tract Conditions and Investigation Methods
J. Fungi 2022, 8(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8040365 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Probiotics are microorganisms (including bacteria, yeasts and moulds) that confer various health benefits to the host, when consumed in sufficient amounts. Food products containing probiotics, called functional foods, have several health-promoting and therapeutic benefits. The significant role of yeasts in producing functional foods [...] Read more.
Probiotics are microorganisms (including bacteria, yeasts and moulds) that confer various health benefits to the host, when consumed in sufficient amounts. Food products containing probiotics, called functional foods, have several health-promoting and therapeutic benefits. The significant role of yeasts in producing functional foods with promoted health benefits is well documented. Hence, there is considerable interest in isolating new yeasts as potential probiotics. Survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), salt tolerance and adherence to epithelial cells are preconditions to classify such microorganisms as probiotics. Clear understanding of how yeasts can overcome GIT and salt stresses and the conditions that support yeasts to grow under such conditions is paramount for identifying, characterising and selecting probiotic yeast strains. This study elaborated the adaptations and mechanisms underlying the survival of probiotic yeasts under GIT and salt stresses. This study also discussed the capability of yeasts to adhere to epithelial cells (hydrophobicity and autoaggregation) and shed light on in vitro methods used to assess the probiotic characteristics of newly isolated yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
The Impact of Drying Temperature on Basidiospore Size
Diversity 2022, 14(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14040239 - 25 Mar 2022
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Fungal taxonomy research, and specifically the study of macro and micro morphological characteristics, requires precise temperature control. This is because variation in temperature can affect macrofungal microstructures. Understanding the appropriate temperature range for drying macrofungal fruitbodies is crucial to ensure consistent reports between [...] Read more.
Fungal taxonomy research, and specifically the study of macro and micro morphological characteristics, requires precise temperature control. This is because variation in temperature can affect macrofungal microstructures. Understanding the appropriate temperature range for drying macrofungal fruitbodies is crucial to ensure consistent reports between studies. In this study, three macrofungal species, viz. Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus, were selected to compare basidiospore sizes in dried and fresh macrofungal fruitbodies. All three were dehydrated within 24 h of harvesting at five different temperatures: 30 °C, 35 °C, 40 °C, 45 °C, and 50 °C, with dehydration lasting 48 h. We measured a total of 1000 basidiospores at each temperature for each species. A linear regression model was used to monitor the relationship between drying temperature and the length, width, and Q value of the basidiospores. We found that drying temperature was negatively related, while Q value was positively related to basidiospore length and width. Analysis of variance shows significant changes in basidiospore size among different drying temperatures. Our data indicate that the optimal method for drying macrofungal fruitbodies is to use a temperature of 30 °C for 48 h and subsequently preserve the specimens with silica gel. Standardizing drying temperature is crucial for the study of macrofungi as basidiospore size is used as a discriminative taxonomic characteristic in macrofungal identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Robust Profiling of Cytochrome P450s (P450ome) in Notable Aspergillus spp.
Life 2022, 12(3), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030451 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Cytochrome P450s (P450ome) constitute an extended superfamily group of heme-thiolate enzymes identified in all biological domains. P450omes play a critical role in the oxidation of steroids and fatty acids, xenobiotic degradation of hydrophobic compounds, biosynthesis of hormones, and primary and secondary metabolism in [...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450s (P450ome) constitute an extended superfamily group of heme-thiolate enzymes identified in all biological domains. P450omes play a critical role in the oxidation of steroids and fatty acids, xenobiotic degradation of hydrophobic compounds, biosynthesis of hormones, and primary and secondary metabolism in organisms. Aspergillus species are among the most economically important fungal organisms in human medicine, industry, and agriculture worldwide. Exploring insight on the genome-wide annotations of cytochrome P450s in Aspergillus species is necessary for their biosynthetic applications. In this present study, we report the identification of 306 cytochrome P450s and their robust profiling in eight notable Aspergillus species (A. carbonarius, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. oryzae, and A. terreus). Based on the evolutionary relationship, the Aspergillus P450s families clustered into 15 clades, with clades V, I, and XIII recording higher percentages (17.3%, 15.00%, and 14.71%, respectively) of Cyp families. Cyps were classified into 120 families 64 clans, and their putative functions were also elucidated. P450s were predicted to be located in 13 subcellular components, but the endoplasm reticulum was the dominant location across the eight Aspergillus species. Cyps genes of Aspergillus species were associated with seven secondary metabolism-related gene clusters. Elucidating the genome-wide annotations of P450s enzymes in Aspergillus species will form vital potential biotechnological tools that could be harnessed for industrial, pharmaceutical, and agricultural use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Colletotrichum Species Associated with Peaches in China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030313 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
Colletotrichum is regarded as one of the 10 most important genera of plant pathogens in the world. It causes diseases in a wide range of economically important plants, including peaches. China is the largest producer of peaches in the world but little is [...] Read more.
Colletotrichum is regarded as one of the 10 most important genera of plant pathogens in the world. It causes diseases in a wide range of economically important plants, including peaches. China is the largest producer of peaches in the world but little is known about the Colletotrichum spp. affecting the crop. In 2017 and 2018, a total of 286 Colletotrichum isolates were isolated from symptomatic fruit and leaves in 11 peach production provinces of China. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, ACT, CAL, CHS-1, GAPDH, TUB2, and HIS3) and morphological characterization, the isolates were identified to be C. nymphaeae, C. fioriniae, and C. godetiae of the C. acutatum species complex, C. fructicola and C. siamense of the C. gloeosporioides species complex, C. karsti of the C. boninense species complex, and one newly identified species, C. folicola sp. nov. This study is the first report of C. karsti and C. godetiae in peaches, and the first report of C. nymphaeae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, and C. siamense in peaches in China. C. nymphaeae is the most prevalent species of Colletotrichum in peaches in China, which may be the result of fungicide selection. Pathogenicity tests revealed that all species found in this study were pathogenic on both the leaves and fruit of peaches, except for C. folicola, which only infected the leaves. The present study substantially improves our understanding of the causal agents of anthracnose on peaches in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Diversity and Biosynthetic Activities of Agarwood Associated Fungi
Diversity 2022, 14(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14030211 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Agarwood is a fragrant dark resin produced in plants belonging to the family Thyme-laeaceae and which has a high economic value. The unique fragrance and medicinal applications intensify the value of agarwood. The wild populations of agarwood trees are highly threatened by high [...] Read more.
Agarwood is a fragrant dark resin produced in plants belonging to the family Thyme-laeaceae and which has a high economic value. The unique fragrance and medicinal applications intensify the value of agarwood. The wild populations of agarwood trees are highly threatened by high economic demand. Therefore, it is worthwhile to develop an artificial agarwood induction technology for the countries that rely on agarwood from the natural habitat of the plants. Fungal induction of agarwood has been shown to be an efficient method. Interestingly, most of the fungi known from agarwood are endophytic. In this paper, we supplement and update the bioactivity of fungi associated with agarwood and their ability to induce agarwood formation. According to the existing literature, 59 endophytic fungal strains of 16 genera induce agarwood production, most of which belong to Fusarium (28 identified strains). Hence, Fusarium is a good candidate for further studies on fungal induced agarwood production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Original Leaf Colonisers Shape Fungal Decomposer Communities of Phragmites australis in Intermittent Habitats
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030284 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Common reed (Phragmites australis) has high biomass production and is primarily subjected to decomposition processes affected by multiple factors. To predict litter decomposition dynamics in intermittent lakes, it is critical to understand how communities of fungi, as the primary decomposers, form [...] Read more.
Common reed (Phragmites australis) has high biomass production and is primarily subjected to decomposition processes affected by multiple factors. To predict litter decomposition dynamics in intermittent lakes, it is critical to understand how communities of fungi, as the primary decomposers, form under different habitat conditions. This study reports the shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the initial fungal communities on common reed leaves decomposing under different environmental conditions. We demonstrate that a complex network of fungi forms already on the plant persists into the decomposition phase. Phragmites australis leaves contained at least five fungal phyla, with abundant Ascomycota (95.7%) and Basidiomycota (4.1%), identified as saprotrophs (48.6%), pathotrophs (22.5%), and symbiotrophs (12.6%). Most of the correlations between fungi in fresh and decomposing leaves were identified as co-occurrences (positive correlations). The geographic source of litter and leaf age did not affect the structure and diversity of fungal communities. Keystone taxa were mostly moisture-sensitive. Our results suggest that habitat has a strong effect on the formation of the fungal communities through keystone taxa. Nevertheless, it can also alter the proportions of individual fungal groups in the community through indirect effects on competition between the fungal taxa and their exploitation of favourable conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Rubinosporus auriporus gen. et sp. nov. (Boletaceae: Xerocomoideae) from Tropical Forests of Thailand, Producing Unusual Dark Ruby Spore Deposits
by , and
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030278 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Rubinosporus, a new bolete genus from tropical forests of Thailand is introduced with R. auriporus as the type species. The genus is unique among Xerocomoideae in producing dark ruby spore deposits. It can be differentiated from all other Boletaceae genera by [...] Read more.
Rubinosporus, a new bolete genus from tropical forests of Thailand is introduced with R. auriporus as the type species. The genus is unique among Xerocomoideae in producing dark ruby spore deposits. It can be differentiated from all other Boletaceae genera by the following combination of characters: pileus surface evenly covered with matted tomentum; stipe surface with evenly scattered minute squamules; golden yellow tubular hymenophore, which is relatively thin especially when young; unchanging surfaces and context when bruised or cut; smooth, broadly ellipsoid basidiospores; and dark ruby spore deposits. The Boletaceae-wide and Xerocomoideae-wide phylogenetic analyses based on four-gene data sets (atp6, cox3, rpb2, and tef1) support Rubinosporus as monophyletic and places it in Boletaceae subfamily Xerocomoideae. Full descriptions and illustrations of the new genus and species are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Search for Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii Complexes and Related Genera (Filobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Papiliotrema, Solicoccozyma, Vishniacozyma) spp. Biotope: Two Years Surveillance of Wild Avian Fauna in Southern France
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030227 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Fungi belonging to the Cryptococcus genus and related genera (Filobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Papiliotrema, Solicoccozyma, Vishniacozyma) are encapsulated yeasts found in either the environment or animal sources. However, the precise biotopes of most species remain poorly defined. [...] Read more.
Fungi belonging to the Cryptococcus genus and related genera (Filobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Papiliotrema, Solicoccozyma, Vishniacozyma) are encapsulated yeasts found in either the environment or animal sources. However, the precise biotopes of most species remain poorly defined. To assess whether wild birds from southern France can carry or spread the most pathogenic species (i.e., species belonging to the C. neoformans and C. gattii complexes), as well as lesser-studied species (non-neoformans/gattii Cryptococcus and former Cryptococcus spp.), 669 birds belonging to 89 species received for care over a two-year period at the Centre de Protection de la Faune Sauvage of Villeveyrac (Bird Protection League nongovernmental organization (NGO) care center) were sampled. Samples were cultured, and Cryptococcus and former Cryptococcus yeasts were identified by PCR sequencing. The purpose was to evaluate whether there was any health risk to local populations or care personnel in aviaries and gather new data on the ecological niches of lesser-known species. One hundred and seven birds (16%) were found to be positive for at least one Cryptococcus or former Cryptococcus species. No yeasts belonging to the highly pathogenic C. neoformans or C. gattii complexes were isolated. However, diversity was notable, with 20 different Cryptococcus or former Cryptococcus species identified. Furthermore, most bird–yeast species associations found in this study have never been described before. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Two Novel Species and Two New Records within the Genus Pluteus (Agaricomycetes, Agaricales) from Thailand
Diversity 2022, 14(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14030156 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Pluteus is a species-rich genus of saprotrophic agaric in the family Pluteaceae and is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate areas throughout the world. Some species in this genus are threatened species according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) [...] Read more.
Pluteus is a species-rich genus of saprotrophic agaric in the family Pluteaceae and is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate areas throughout the world. Some species in this genus are threatened species according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list. During investigations of agarics in northern Thailand, four Pluteus taxa were collected. Morphological characteristics and phylogenic analyses were investigated. Two new species, namely P. chandrasikuliae and P. saisamorniae, were introduced. Pluteus chandrasikuliae is characterized by its relatively large basidiomata, an applanate, dark brown scaly pileus with a cutis pileipellis, two types of hymenial cystidia viz. irregular, as well as diverticulate cells and lageniform cells. In accordance with the phylogenetic results, this new species belongs to the Pluteus sect. Celluloderma. Moreover, P. saisamorniae is distinguished by a plano-convex with a broad umbo, dark brown minute squamules pileus, light brown lamellar edges, greyish orange stipe covered with brown granules, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores, an abundance of thin- to thick-walled cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia, a trichohymeniderm pileipellis, and brown caulocystidia in clusters. Pluteus saisamorniae is a member of Pluteus sect. Hispidoderma. Additionally, P. losulus and P. septocystidiatus were discovered in Thailand for the first time and they belong to Pluteus sect. Pluteus. Comprehensive descriptions along with illustrations, photographs, phylogenetic trees showing their positions, and a comparison with phenetically similar taxa are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Diversity of Ophiostomatoid Fungi Associated with Dendroctonus armandi Infesting Pinus armandii in Western China
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030214 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Pinus armandii (P. armandii) is extensively abundant in western China and, as a pioneer tree, and prominently influences local ecology. However, pine forests in this region have been significantly damaged by Dendroctonus armandi (D. armandi) infestations, in close association [...] Read more.
Pinus armandii (P. armandii) is extensively abundant in western China and, as a pioneer tree, and prominently influences local ecology. However, pine forests in this region have been significantly damaged by Dendroctonus armandi (D. armandi) infestations, in close association with ophiostomatoid fungi. This study aimed to identify the diversity of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with D. armandi infesting P. armandii in western China. A total of 695 ophiostomatoid fungal strains were isolated from 1040 tissue pieces from D. armandi galleries and 89 adult beetles at four sites. In this study, based on multiloci DNA sequence data, as well as morphological and physiological characteristics, seven species belonging to five genera were identified including three known species, Esteyea vermicola, Graphium pseudormiticum and L. wushanense, two novel taxa, Graphilbum parakesiyea and Ophiostoma shennongense, and an unidentified Ophiostoma sp. 1. A neotype of Leptographium qinlingense. Ophiostoma shennongense was the dominant taxon (78.99%) in the ophiostomatoid community. This study provides a valuable scientific theoretical basis for the occurrence and management of D. armandi in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Review
Major Biological Control Strategies for Plant Pathogens
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020273 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2739
Abstract
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer [...] Read more.
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer better promise and hence are gaining prominence recently. Moreover, these methods have taken precedence currently over chemical-based methods of pest restriction and pathogen control. Adoption of Biological Control is one such crucial technique that is currently in the forefront. Over a period of time, various biocontrol strategies have been experimented with and some have exhibited great success and promise. This review highlights the different methods of plant-pathogen control, types of plant pathogens, their modus operandi and various biocontrol approaches employing a range of microorganisms and their byproducts. The study lays emphasis on the use of upcoming methodologies like microbiome management and engineering, phage cocktails, genetically modified biocontrol agents and microbial volatilome as available strategies to sustainable agricultural practices. More importantly, a critical analysis of the various methods enumerated in the paper indicates the need to amalgamate these techniques in order to improve the degree of biocontrol offered by them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
Article
Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Musculoskeletal Fungal Infection at Thailand’s Largest National Tertiary Referral Center
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020191 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
To investigate the risk factors, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of musculoskeletal fungal infection in Thai patients, patients aged ≥18 years definitively diagnosed with musculoskeletal fungal infection by culture and/or histopathology at Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) during 2002–2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Twenty-eight patients [...] Read more.
To investigate the risk factors, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of musculoskeletal fungal infection in Thai patients, patients aged ≥18 years definitively diagnosed with musculoskeletal fungal infection by culture and/or histopathology at Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) during 2002–2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Twenty-eight patients (median age: 58.5 years [range: 22–81], 57.1% male) with fungal osteomyelitis (n = 22), septic arthritis (n = 1), or fungal osteomyelitis with septic arthritis (n = 5) were included. Immunocompromised status was common (82%). Most patients had de novo infection from hematogenous spreading that usually presented at a single, non-contiguous site. The median symptom duration prior to diagnosis was 2 months. The tibia and knee were the most common site of osteomyelitis (30%) and septic arthritis (72%), respectively. The most common pathogens were Talaromyces marneffei and Cryptococcus neoformans. Organism identification from tissues at the affected sites was required in all cases. Most patients (82%) required combination surgery and systemic antifungal therapy. Among those with complete follow-up (23/28), 61% and 39% had complete and partial responses, respectively. Musculoskeletal fungal infection is an uncommon disease with insidious onset and non-specific manifestations that requires pathogen identification via tissue cultures and histopathologic studies. Combination surgery and systemic antifungal therapy yielded generally favorable outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
Article
Fourteen New Species of Foliar Colletotrichum Associated with the Invasive Plant Ageratinaadenophora and Surrounding Crops
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020185 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Ageratina adenophora is one of the most invasive weeds in China. Following an outbreak in Yunnan in the 1960s, A. adenophora has been spreading in Southwest China at tremendous speed. Previous research indicated A. adenophora contained many Colletotrichum species as endophytes. In this [...] Read more.
Ageratina adenophora is one of the most invasive weeds in China. Following an outbreak in Yunnan in the 1960s, A. adenophora has been spreading in Southwest China at tremendous speed. Previous research indicated A. adenophora contained many Colletotrichum species as endophytes. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Colletotrichum in healthy and diseased leaves of the invasive plant A. adenophora and several surrounding crops in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou provinces in China, and obtained over 1000 Colletotrichum strains. After preliminary delimitation using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequences, 44 representative strains were selected for further study. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of ITS, actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and beta-tubulin (TUB2). Combined with morphological characteristics, 14 new Colletotrichum species were named as C. adenophorae, C. analogum, C. cangyuanense, C. dimorphum, C. gracile, C. nanhuaense, C. nullisetosum, C. oblongisporum, C. parvisporum, C. robustum, C. simulanticitri, C. speciosum, C. subhenanense, and C. yunajiangense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
The Genus Xanthagaricus: An Updated Global Species Distribution and Phylogeny with the Description of Two New Species from Oman
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8020173 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Xanthagaricus is a saprotrophic mushroom genus with small-sized basidiomata in the family Agaricaceae (Agaricales). Prior to this study, 26 species belonging to this genus have been described and published. In this study, we reported Xanthagaricus for the first time from Oman with the [...] Read more.
Xanthagaricus is a saprotrophic mushroom genus with small-sized basidiomata in the family Agaricaceae (Agaricales). Prior to this study, 26 species belonging to this genus have been described and published. In this study, we reported Xanthagaricus for the first time from Oman with the description of two new species. Basidiomata of the new species Xanthagaricus appendiculatus and X. omanicus were collected during the monsoon rains of summer in 2018 in the southern coastal region of Oman. Species descriptions are based on morphological and molecular characterization. Phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clustered the new species in the Xanthagaricus clade with strong statistical support. The new species Xanthagaricusappendiculatus can be distinguished from other species by its purplish pileus with umbonate disc and X. omanicus with the largest pileus (70–90 mm diameter) among the known species of the genus. A detailed description, photographs, line drawings, and a phylogenetic tree showing the position of both new species are provided. A dichotomous key to the known taxa of Xanthagaricus is proposed. Morphological comparisons of new species with known Xanthagaricus taxa are provided. Our observations highlight the diversity of Xanthagaricus and other lepiotaceous mushrooms in southern Oman and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region’s fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Article
Anemochore Seeds Harbor Distinct Fungal and Bacterial Abundance, Composition, and Functional Profiles
J. Fungi 2022, 8(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8010089 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Many plants adapted to harsh environments have evolved low seed mass (‘light seeds’) with specific dispersal strategies, primarily either by wind (anemochory) or water (hydrochory). However, the role of their seed microbiota in their survival, and their seed microbial abundance and structure, remain [...] Read more.
Many plants adapted to harsh environments have evolved low seed mass (‘light seeds’) with specific dispersal strategies, primarily either by wind (anemochory) or water (hydrochory). However, the role of their seed microbiota in their survival, and their seed microbial abundance and structure, remain insufficiently studied. Herein, we studied the light seed microbiome of eight anemochores and two hydrochores (as controls) collected from four provinces in China, using qPCR and metagenomic sequencing targeting both bacteria and fungi. Substantial variations were found for seed endophytic fungi (9.9 × 1010~7.3 × 102 gene copy numbers per seed) and bacteria (1.7 × 1010~8.0 × 106). Seed microbial diversity and structure were mainly driven by the plant genotype (species), with weak influences from their host plant classification level or dispersal mode. Seed microbial composition differences were clear at the microbial phylum level, with dominant proportions (~75%) for Proteobacteria and Ascomycota. The light seeds studied harbored unique microbial signatures, sharing only two Halomonas amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and two fungal ASVs affiliated to Alternaria and Cladosporium. A genome-level functional profile analysis revealed that seed bacterial microbiota were enriched in amino acid, nucleoside, and nucleotide biosynthesis, while in fungal communities the generation of precursor metabolites and respiration were more highly represented. Together, these novel insights provide a deeper understanding of highly diversified plant-specific light seed microbiota and ecological strategies for plants in harsh environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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Developing Penicillium digitatum Management Strategies on Post-Harvest Citrus Fruits with Metabolic Components and Colonization of Bacillus subtilis L1-21
J. Fungi 2022, 8(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8010080 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Citrus is among the most important plants in the fruit industry severely infected with pathogens. Citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum is one of the most devastating diseases during post-harvest stages of citrus fruit. In this study, a potential endophyte Bacillus subtilis [...] Read more.
Citrus is among the most important plants in the fruit industry severely infected with pathogens. Citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum is one of the most devastating diseases during post-harvest stages of citrus fruit. In this study, a potential endophyte Bacillus subtilis L1-21, isolated from healthy citrus plants, was assessed for its biocontrol activity against the pathogen P. digitatum. Based on an in vitro crosstalk assay, we suggested that B. subtilis L1-21 inhibits the pathogen with an inhibition zone of 3.51 ± 0.08 cm. Biocontrol efficacy was highest for the fermented culture filtrate of B. subtilis L1-21. Additionally, using GC-MS analysis, 13 compounds were detected in the extract of this endophyte. The culture filtrate in Landy medium could enlarge and deform pathogen spores and prevent them from developing into normal mycelium. Accordingly, the Landy culture filtrate of B. subtilis L1-21 was stable in the temperature range of 4–90 °C and pH of 3–11. Further, MALDI-TOF-MS for B. subtilis L1-21 detected surfactin, fengycin, bacillaene and bacilysin as potential antifungal compounds. GFP-tagged B. subtilis L1-21 easily colonized in citrus fruit peel and pulp, suggesting its role in eliminating the fungal pathogen. Altogether, it is highly expected that the production of antifungal compounds, and the colonization potential of B. subtilis L1-21 are required against the post-harvest P. digitatum pathogen on citrus fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fungal Diversity)
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