Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022

A special issue of Zoonotic Diseases (ISSN 2813-0227).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 100005

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Sciences, St. Vincent’s Medical Center, Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine, Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT 06518, USA
Interests: immunology; ticks; tick-borne diseases; ectoparasites; vector-borne diseases; parasitology; zoonoses
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce a Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022”, which will be one of the first of a new journal, Zoonotic Diseases. Zoonotic Diseases is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides an advanced forum for studies related to mutually transmissible infections between humans and other animal species. The journal will complete the group of international journals in the field of Zoonotic Diseases that we are expecting to very soon gain popularity and prestige.

For this Special Issue, we are seeking the submission of manuscripts from zoonotic disease fields of interest to our international readers. In this case, well-designed studies and good datasets are required to promote the quality of, and interest in, our new journal. We welcome both original research articles and comprehensive review papers. The papers in this Special Issue will be published via our open access platform after a thorough peer review, a process which will benefit both our authors and readers.

As evidenced by the keywords list, the fields to be included in this Special Issue have been broadened to best represent the scope of the journal, while creating more opportunities for international research contributions.

You are welcome to send short proposals for feature paper submissions to the Editorial Office ([email protected]) before submission.

We look forward to receiving your excellent work.

Prof. Dr. Stephen K. Wikel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Zoonotic Diseases is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonotic diseases
  • zoonoses and public health
  • veterinary medicine
  • infectious diseases
  • veterinary medicine and human health
  • one health and eco-health
  • microbiology
  • virology
  • parasitology
  • epidemiology
  • control and prevention of zoonotic disease
  • disease ecology
  • disease vectors
  • disease detection and diagnostics
  • disease modeling

Published Papers (33 papers)

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16 pages, 7552 KiB  
Article
Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Adenovirus-Expressing Capsid Protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Types O and A
by Cancan Wang, Liping Zhang, Ruiming Yu, Peng Zhou, Zhongwang Zhang, Xin Miao, Mingxia Li, Jianliang Lv, Li Pan, Yonglu Wang and Xinsheng Liu
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(2), 104-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3020010 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant adenovirus expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein of types O and A for future FMDV vaccines to be used in the livestock industry for the reduction in losses caused by FMD [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant adenovirus expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein of types O and A for future FMDV vaccines to be used in the livestock industry for the reduction in losses caused by FMD outbreaks. Three recombinant adenoviruses, rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93, rAdv-P12A3B3C-OA58, and rAdv-P12A3C-AF72, were packaged, characterized, and amplified using the AdMaxTM adenovirus packaging system, and the humoral and cellular immunity levels were further evaluated in guinea pigs with monovalent or bivalent forms. The results showed that the three recombinant adenoviruses could elicit high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses against FMDV types O and A when immunizing monovalent or bivalent forms, and the immune effect changes with the change in the proportion of recombinant adenovirus types O and A, laying an important foundation for the future development of a new FMD live-carrier vaccine. These results implied that the recombinant adenovirus expressing the FMDV capsid protein of types O and A could be used to prevent FMDV in livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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11 pages, 1987 KiB  
Article
RNase P Ribozyme Effectively Inhibits Human CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection
by Bin Yan, Yujun Liu, Yuan-Chuan Chen, Isadora Zhang and Fenyong Liu
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(2), 93-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3020009 - 9 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Developing novel antiviral agents and approaches is essential for the treatment against human and zoonotic viruses. We had previously produced RNase P-based ribozyme variants capable of efficiently cleaving mRNA in vitro. Here, engineered ribozymes were constructed from an RNase P ribozyme variant to [...] Read more.
Developing novel antiviral agents and approaches is essential for the treatment against human and zoonotic viruses. We had previously produced RNase P-based ribozyme variants capable of efficiently cleaving mRNA in vitro. Here, engineered ribozymes were constructed from an RNase P ribozyme variant to target the mRNA encoding human CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), an HIV co-receptor. The constructed ribozyme efficiently cleaved the CCR5 mRNA in vitro. In cells expressing the engineered ribozyme, CCR5 expression diminished by more than 90% and the infection of HIV (R5 strain Ba-L) decreased by 200-fold. The ribozyme-expressing cells resistant to R5 strain Ba-L still supported the infection of HIV X4 strain IIIB due to its use of CXCR4 instead of CCR5 as the co-receptor. Thus, the ribozyme is specific against CCR5 but not CXCR4. This indicates that RNase P ribozyme is effective and specific against CCR5 to diminish HIV infection, and also displays the viability of developing engineered RNase P ribozymes against human and zoonotic viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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12 pages, 1021 KiB  
Article
Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) as Potential Reservoirs and Sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii in Northern Canada
by Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Adrián Hernández-Ortiz, Thomas S. Jung, N. Jane Harms, Caitlin N. Willier, Rudy Boonstra, Yasmine N. Majchrzak, Michael J. L. Peers, Géraldine-G. Gouin, Batol Al-Adhami, Audrey Simon, Patrick Leighton and Emily J. Jenkins
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 6-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010002 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily for their fur, and they are occasionally eaten. We examined carcasses salvaged from trappers from boreal regions of eastern (n = 97) and western (n = 357) Canada. We detected T. gondii antibodies in fluid from thawed heart tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA in brain and heart via magnetic capture and real-time PCR assay, and presence of DNA in feces using a real-time PCR with melt curve analysis. We detected antibodies against T. gondii and DNA in tissues in 24% and 19% of lynx, respectively. One lynx was positive for DNA of T. gondii in feces, which could indicate intestinal infection and potential for shedding oocysts. Our results indicate that lynx may be a useful sentinel species for monitoring environmental circulation of T. gondii in northern boreal regions and may pose a risk for transmission to other wildlife and to people handling or consuming lynx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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24 pages, 6074 KiB  
Article
A New Methodology to Comprehend the Effect of El Niño and La Niña Oscillation in Early Warning of Anthrax Epidemic Among Livestock
by Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa Suresh, Sushma Bylaiah, Sharanagouda Patil, Mohan Kumar, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Bhavya Anenahalli Panduranga, Palya Thimmaiah Srinivas, Chandan Shivamallu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Charley A. Cull and Raghavendra G. Amachawadi
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 267-290; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040022 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
Anthrax is a highly fatal zoonotic disease that affects all species of livestock. The study aims to develop an early warning of epidemiological anthrax using machine learning (ML) models and to study the effect of El Niño and La Niña oscillation, as well [...] Read more.
Anthrax is a highly fatal zoonotic disease that affects all species of livestock. The study aims to develop an early warning of epidemiological anthrax using machine learning (ML) models and to study the effect of El Niño and La Niña oscillation, as well as the climate–disease relationship concerning the spatial occurrence and outbreaks in Karnataka. The disease incidence data are divided based on El Niño and La Niña events from 2004–2019 and subjected to climate-disease modeling to understand the disease pattern over the years. Machine learning models were implemented using R statistical software version 3.1.3 with Livestock density, soil profile, and meteorological and remote sensing variables as risk factors associated with anthrax incidence. Model evaluation is performed using statistical indices, viz., Cohen’s kappa, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, true skill statistics (TSS), etc. Models with good predictive power were combined to develop an average prediction model. The predicted results were mapped onto the Risk maps, and the Basic reproduction numbers (R0) for the districts that are significantly clustered were calculated. Early warning or risk prediction developed with a layer of R0 superimposed on a risk map helps in the preparedness for the disease occurrence, and precautionary measures before the spread of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 1378 KiB  
Article
Detection of Trematodes from the Host Exotic Aquatic Snail Melanoides tuberculata in an Urban Stormwater System
by Jason M. Post, Rachael J. Reasch and Emily S. Bailey
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 258-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040021 - 2 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The red-rimmed melania or Malaysian Trumpet Snail, Melanoides tuberculata, is a common exotic freshwater snail that has been invading an increasing number of water bodies in North America. As a well-known host for trematodes causing human and animal diseases, the pattern of [...] Read more.
The red-rimmed melania or Malaysian Trumpet Snail, Melanoides tuberculata, is a common exotic freshwater snail that has been invading an increasing number of water bodies in North America. As a well-known host for trematodes causing human and animal diseases, the pattern of invasion and parasitic infection for this species is of great concern. Snail specimens were collected from an urban stream in Los Angeles that drains into a fragile, protected wetland ecosystem. Molecular analysis identified four trematode species: Haplorchis pumilio, Fasciola jacksoni, Parorchis sp. TH-2019, and an unclassified trematode species, Trematoda distomecercaria WN-2016. H. pumilio is responsible for haplorchiasis infections, previously considered endemic to Asia. F. jacksoni infection is a significant cause of mortality in Asian elephants. This study represents the first occurrence of F. jacksoni in North America and a novel occurrence of that trematode in association with M. tuberculata. This study also represents new occurrences of Parorchis sp. TH-2019 and an unclassified trematode species, Trematoda distomecercaria WN-2016, within California and North America. Parorchis sp. TH-2019 has previously only been documented in a marine whelk. This identification of these trematodes in association with M. tuberculata further exemplifies the need for ongoing monitoring and detection, especially considering the significance of H. pumilio and haplorchiasis to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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11 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Rickettsial Agents Associated with Ectoparasites in Attica, Greece
by Maria Liodaki, Emmanouil Angelakis, Gregory Spanakos, Ioanna Papadogiannaki, Michael Samarkos, George L. Daikos, Barbara Christopoulou and Evangelia-Theophano Piperaki
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 247-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040020 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1704
Abstract
The bacteria of the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae, harbored by arthropod vectors, may cause disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to screen ectoparasites collected from cats and dogs in Attica, Greece for the bacteria of the Rickettsiales [...] Read more.
The bacteria of the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae, harbored by arthropod vectors, may cause disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to screen ectoparasites collected from cats and dogs in Attica, Greece for the bacteria of the Rickettsiales group, by molecular methods. The ectoparasites examined were Ctenocephalides felis fleas and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., Rhipicephalus sp., and Ixodes sp. ticks. Rickettsia felis was detected in 4.8% of C. felis fleas, and Rickettsia conorii was detected in 7.3% of R. sanguineus s.l. ticks. Ehrlichia canis was found in one R. sanguineus s.l. tick, and Wolbachia pipientis was detected in the majority of fleas. Another endosymbiont, Cancidatus Midichloria mitochondrii (Cancidatus Midichloriaceae), was detected in one Ixodes sp.. This is the first report of R. conorii and E. canis in R. sanguineus s.l. ticks in this study area. Given the fact that Greece is considered endemic for spotted fever group rickettsioses, further investigation of these rickettsial pathogens’ distribution in their vectors and hosts could enhance our knowledge of their epidemiology, in order to assess their potential implications for public health in this metropolitan area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 776 KiB  
Article
Exposure to Brucella spp. in Goats and Sheep in Karenga District, Uganda Diagnosed by Modified Rose Bengal Method
by Claire Julie Akwongo and Steven Kakooza
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(3), 163-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2030015 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
A retrospective study was conducted in 2022 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors among goat and sheep herds in the Karenga district, Karamoja region, Uganda. Sera from 332 goats and 81 sheep from 20 kraals in all seven administrative [...] Read more.
A retrospective study was conducted in 2022 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors among goat and sheep herds in the Karenga district, Karamoja region, Uganda. Sera from 332 goats and 81 sheep from 20 kraals in all seven administrative units of the district were tested using the modified Rose Bengal test (mRBT). It was determined that brucellosis was present in 20% of the small ruminant herds in the Karenga district, with an overall animal level seropositivity of 3.39% (CI: 1.87–5.62%; n = 14/413). Higher seropositivity was recorded in goats (3.92%, CI: 2.1–6.6%) than sheep (1.23%, CI: 0.03–6.69%). Similarly, seropositivity was higher in females (3.95%, CI: 2.12–6.66%) than males (1.19%, CI: 0.03–6.456), and also higher in goats and sheep more than two years old (4.15%, CI: 2.09–7.31%) than those one to two years old (1.98%, CI: 0.24–6.97%) or those less than one year old (2.13%, CI: 0.05–11.29%). Only herd size was statistically significant (p < 0.05) as a risk factor for exposure to brucellosis in the Karenga district. Although the prevalence of brucellosis among goats and sheep in the Karenga district is low, there still exists a risk to the pastoralists who closely interact with the animals and also practice risky behaviours such as consumption of uncooked or unpasteurised goat milk. There is need to expand herd health messaging in Karenga to include risk communication on brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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16 pages, 3095 KiB  
Article
Tracking Co-Occurrence of N501Y, P681R, and Other Key Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 Spike for Surveillance
by Carol Lee, Shruthi Mangalaganesh, Laurence O. W. Wilson, Michael J. Kuiper, Trevor W. Drew and Seshadri S. Vasan
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(3), 147-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2030014 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced five variants of concern (VOC) to date. The important spike mutation ‘N501Y’ is common to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron VOC, while the ‘P681R’ is key to Delta’s spread. We have analysed circa [...] Read more.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced five variants of concern (VOC) to date. The important spike mutation ‘N501Y’ is common to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron VOC, while the ‘P681R’ is key to Delta’s spread. We have analysed circa 10 million SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from the world’s largest repository, ‘Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID)’, and demonstrated that these two mutations have co-occurred on the spike ‘D614G’ mutation background at least 5767 times from 12 May 2020 to 28 April 2022. In contrast, the Y501-H681 combination, which is common to Alpha and Omicron VOC, is present in circa 1.1 million entries. Over half of the 5767 co-occurrences were in France, Turkey, or US (East Coast), and the rest across 88 other countries; 36.1%, 3.9%, and 4.1% of the co-occurrences were Alpha’s Q.4, Gamma’s P.1.8, and Omicron’s BA.1.1 sub-lineages acquiring the P681R; 4.6% and 3.0% were Delta’s AY.5.7 sub-lineage and B.1.617.2 lineage acquiring the N501Y; the remaining 8.2% were in other variants. Despite the selective advantages individually conferred by N501Y and P681R, the Y501-R681 combination counterintuitively did not outcompete other variants in every instance we have examined. While this is a relief to worldwide public health efforts, in vitro and in vivo studies are urgently required in the absence of a strong in silico explanation for this phenomenon. This study demonstrates a pipeline to analyse combinations of key mutations from public domain information in a systematic manner and provide early warnings of spread. The study here demonstrates the usage of the pipeline using the key mutations N501Y, P681R, and D614G of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Host–Virus Interactions in Japanese Encephalitis Virus
by Urmi Roy
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(3), 117-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2030012 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that causes severe brain inflammation. The JE virus envelope protein domain III (JEV-ED3) plays a critical role in activating receptor binding and membrane fusion. This communication briefly describes, in a computational approach, how structural changes [...] Read more.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that causes severe brain inflammation. The JE virus envelope protein domain III (JEV-ED3) plays a critical role in activating receptor binding and membrane fusion. This communication briefly describes, in a computational approach, how structural changes within the JEV-ED3 mutant epitopes suppress their antibody neutralization function. The simulated results demonstrate that mutant Ser40Lys acts as an antibody neutralization escape while Asp41Arg may play the role of an escape mutant. Additionally, an examination of the double mutants on JEV-ED3 suggests that these mutants may qualify as stronger neutralizing escape agents than their single variants. The structural analysis of this work helps to identify the proper antiviral target sequences and specific monoclonal antibodies for the JEV-ED3 escape mutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
A Variety of Leptospira Serovar Distribution in Bullfighting Cattle in Southern of Thailand
by Ruttayaporn Ngasaman, Baramee Chanchayanon, Domechai Kaewnoi and Ketsarin Kamyingkird
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(2), 73-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2020008 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2168
Abstract
Bullfighting cattle are selected from domestic cattle (Bos indicus) that demonstrate good performance in Thai bullfighting without a matador [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
15 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Simulation of the Progression of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Northwest Syria Using a Basic and Adjusted SIR Model
by Orwa Al-Abdulla, Agneta Kallström, Camilo Valderrama and Jussi Kauhanen
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(2), 44-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2020006 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3900
Abstract
Syria has experienced armed conflict since 2011, and the provision of health care has been severely compromised due to the hostilities. At the time of writing, Northwest Syria (NWS) was outside governmental control and faced the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak. Since the [...] Read more.
Syria has experienced armed conflict since 2011, and the provision of health care has been severely compromised due to the hostilities. At the time of writing, Northwest Syria (NWS) was outside governmental control and faced the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak. Since the emergence of this disease, several studies have looked at the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission, predicted its progression, and determined the impact of different preventive measures. While most of these studies’ settings were in stable contexts, this study investigated the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic in Northwest Syria, a conflict-affected region, for nine months (from July 2020 to March 2021) using the Suspected-Infected-Removed (SIR) model. We adjusted the SIR model to study the impact of wearing facial masks on the outbreak dynamics and progression. Based on available data and using the basic and adjusted SIR models, we estimated the value of the basic reproduction number (R0), which provides an initial prediction of disease progression. Using the basic SIR model, the estimated R0 for the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 in Northwest Syria was 2.38. The resulting figures were overestimated in comparison with the reported numbers and data on the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the results were significantly reasonable when we adjusted the model for a preventive measure (in this case, wearing face masks). Face masks, the most available preventive measure to be applied in emergency and conflict settings, remarkably affect the outbreak dynamics and may play a key role in controlling and limiting the spread of COVID-19. The novelty of the study is provided by simulating the progress of the COVID-19 outbreak in conflict settings, as it is the first study to predict the dynamics of COVID-19 disease in NWS by adjusting for face-mask-wearing as a preventive measure to explore its impact on outbreak dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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7 pages, 795 KiB  
Article
Autoantibodies against Proinsulin, Human Endogenous Retrovirus W (HERV-W) and Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Slowly Decrease Years after T1DM Diagnosis
by Marta Noli, Gianfranco Meloni, Elena Rita Simula, Maria Antonietta Manca, Seyedesomaye Jasemi, Stefano Ruberto, Davide Cossu, Mario Palermo and Leonardo A. Sechi
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(1), 37-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2010005 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Previous studies have highlighted the potential role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and human endogenous retrovirus W (HERV-W) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) among Sardinian subjects. To better understand how antibody responses evolve during disease progression, a serological evaluation [...] Read more.
Previous studies have highlighted the potential role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and human endogenous retrovirus W (HERV-W) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) among Sardinian subjects. To better understand how antibody responses evolve during disease progression, a serological evaluation of IgG antibodies was performed in Sardinian children with T1DM collected at different time-points following the onset of the disease. It is known that anti-PI and anti-insulin (IAA) autoantibodies are the first to appear before the clinical onset of T1DM. In order to investigate the humoral responses, 69 children with T1DM were enrolled in the study, including 25 with new onset, 25 with T1DM at 1–5 years since diagnosis and 19 with T1DM at 6–12 years since diagnosis. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies (Abs) against PI46–61, three MAP epitopes (including MAP 2404c, which has a homologous sequence with PI) and two HERV-W-derived epitopes via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data obtained from the analysis showed significantly higher IgG responses against all peptides detected in the new onset group compared to longer suffering (1–5 and 6–12 years) T1DM patients, also showing a robust correlation between the proinsulin autoantibody and anti-MAP/HERV antibodies, characterized by a progressive decline the first year after onset. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that MAP and HERV could act as risk factors for T1DM, suggesting that they may serve as potential biomarkers of disease progression in early-stage T1DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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5 pages, 385 KiB  
Communication
A Lethal Case of Natural Infection with the H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus of Clade 2.3.4.4 in a Mandarin Duck
by Ahmed Magdy Khalil, Hitoshi Hatai, Yoshikazu Fujimoto, Isshu Kojima, Misuzu Okajima, Mana Esaki, Kyonha Kinoshita and Makoto Ozawa
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(1), 32-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2010004 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2550
Abstract
Recent global outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N8 subtype in poultry and wild birds have raised concerns about animal and human health, particularly after its first evidence of zoonotic transmission from birds to humans. Here, we report a [...] Read more.
Recent global outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N8 subtype in poultry and wild birds have raised concerns about animal and human health, particularly after its first evidence of zoonotic transmission from birds to humans. Here, we report a lethal infection with the H5N8 HPAIV in a mandarin duck that had previously demonstrated resistance to the H5N8 HPAIV infection. In addition, we revealed that the isolated virus was a genetic reassortant between the existing H5N8 HPAIV and LPAIV(s). Although further studies are warranted to assess the impact of the genetic reassortment on virus pathogenicity, the potential role of mandarin ducks in HPAIV dissemination should be re-evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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13 pages, 2237 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification and Ecology of Portuguese Wild-Caught Phlebotomine Sandfly Specimens
by Líbia Zé-Zé, Fátima Amaro, Hugo Costa Osório, Marta Giovanetti, José Lourenço and Maria João Alves
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(1), 19-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2010003 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
Phlebotomine sandflies are important vectors of Leishmania spp. and phleboviruses causing disease in animals and humans. Morphological identification of phlebotomine sandflies to the species level is challenging, requiring microscopical examination of the genitalia, which is demanding and time consuming. Molecular sandfly species identification [...] Read more.
Phlebotomine sandflies are important vectors of Leishmania spp. and phleboviruses causing disease in animals and humans. Morphological identification of phlebotomine sandflies to the species level is challenging, requiring microscopical examination of the genitalia, which is demanding and time consuming. Molecular sandfly species identification can be a practical solution to save resources since it enables further molecular studies capable of generating data, such as biting preferences by blood meal analysis. In this study, resorting to a sandfly dataset collected between 2014 and 2018 across Portuguese territory under active mosquito surveillance and sandfly specific surveys, we used molecular methods to explore the genetic diversity and spatial distribution, further exploring ecological co-variants of four sandfly species—Phlebotomus ariasi, P. perniciosus, P. sergenti, and Sergentomyia minuta—all of which are of public health importance. Sandflies were collected from Spring to Autumn (May–November) following local temperature patterns. P. perniciosus was the most widespread detected species, with a nationwide distribution. All studied species clustered together with known samples from the Iberian Peninsula. Further monitoring studies of sandfly species diversity, distribution, and seasonality are essential for surveillance and control of sandfly-borne pathogens both nationally and globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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10 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Detection of Hepatitis E Virus Infections in Wild Boars in Southwest Germany Using a Stepwise Laboratory Diagnostic Approach
by Birgitta Polley, Matthias Contzen, Sandra Wiedmann, Lisa Schneider-Bühl and Reinhard Sting
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(1), 9-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2010002 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis in humans worldwide. Among HEV, genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic agents associated with domestic pigs and wild boars, showing an increasing trend in Europe. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis in humans worldwide. Among HEV, genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic agents associated with domestic pigs and wild boars, showing an increasing trend in Europe. The aim of this study is to contribute data on the prevalence of HEV in wild boars in Southwest Germany and to present a time and cost-effective two-step laboratory diagnostic approach for serological monitoring of blood samples. This method uses enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by testing for HEV RNA by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 2295 blood samples were collected in 234 municipalities in 12 counties in the period from 2016 to 2020. There was an overall seroprevalence of 10.8%, ranging from 3.6% to 17.5% per county and 7.5% to 14% per year. Retesting of these blood samples for HEV RNA revealed 15.7% viremic wild boars originating from 30 municipalities in 11 counties. Viremic wild boars were found in seven regional clusters, including 84% of the animals that tested positive for HEV. Seropositive animals <1 year of age were significantly more likely to be viremic than those >1 year. Further characterization of HEV RNA resulted in the identification of genotype 3. Altogether, serological monitoring of the blood samples, complemented by successive and targeted investigations into the presence of HEV RNA based on blood samples, provide reliable information on the seroprevalence and virus load in wild boars, which proved to be a relevant and persistent sylvatic reservoir for HEV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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8 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
Use of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Diagnosis of Rabies Virus in Bats
by Charles E. Rupprecht, Lolita I. Van Pelt, April D. Davis, Richard B. Chipman and David L. Bergman
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(1), 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2010001 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3470
Abstract
Rabies, a zoonotic encephalitis due to transmission of a lyssavirus, such as rabies virus (RABV), has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. A global program for the elimination of human rabies caused by dogs is proposed for realization by 2030. Sensitive, [...] Read more.
Rabies, a zoonotic encephalitis due to transmission of a lyssavirus, such as rabies virus (RABV), has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. A global program for the elimination of human rabies caused by dogs is proposed for realization by 2030. Sensitive, specific, and inexpensive diagnostic tests are necessary for enhanced surveillance to detect infection, inform public health and veterinary professionals during risk assessments of exposure, and support overall programmatic goals. Multiple laboratory techniques are used to confirm a suspect case of rabies. One method for the detection of lyssavirus antigens within the brain is the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), using light microscopy, and suitable for use under field conditions. Besides dogs, other major RABV reservoirs reside among mammalian mesocarnivores and bats. To date, use of the dRIT has been applied primarily for the diagnosis of RABV in suspect mesocarnivores. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the dRIT to the diagnosis of rabies in bats, compared to the gold-standard, the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT). Brains of 264 suspect bats, consisting of 21 species from Arizona and Texas, were used in the evaluation of the dRIT. The overall sensitivity of the dRIT was 100% (0.969–1.0, 95% CI) and the specificity was 94.6% (0.896–0.976, 95% CI), comparable to the DFAT. This preliminary study demonstrated the utility of the dRIT in the confirmation of RABV infection in bats. Future studies should include additional geographic, lyssavirus, and mammalian species representations for broader application during enhanced rabies surveillance, with incorporation of any potential adjustments to standard protocols, as needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

28 pages, 2067 KiB  
Review
Review of Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens of Dogs in Nigeria: Missing Link in One Health Approach
by Dorcas A. Gado, David O. Ehizibolo, Clement A. Meseko, Neil E. Anderson and Peter W. W. Lurz
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(2), 134-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3020012 - 4 May 2023
Viewed by 4844
Abstract
Dogs live in close contact with humans as pets, for hunting, for security, and as a source of income. In addition, the meat is also consumed by some tribes in Nigeria. Dogs could therefore serve as reservoirs, carriers, and transmitters of zoonotic diseases. [...] Read more.
Dogs live in close contact with humans as pets, for hunting, for security, and as a source of income. In addition, the meat is also consumed by some tribes in Nigeria. Dogs could therefore serve as reservoirs, carriers, and transmitters of zoonotic diseases. This review evaluates the literature from 2000 to 2020 for the prevalence and incidence of zoonotic pathogens associated with dogs in Nigeria. The results obtained show that overall, parasites constituted a majority (64%) of the zoonotic pathogens (or species) identified in dog hosts. A good number of studies have examined the role of ticks in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Further, bacteria make up 22% of the zoonotic pathogens. From this study, it appears that rabies is the major pathogen in dogs for which there is reliable evidence linking contact between humans and dogs. Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria and Plateau State in north-central Nigeria were the most frequently studied states, while prevalence/disease surveillance studies constituted 80% of the overall papers assessed. Interdisciplinary collaborations as well as research and diagnosis policy amendments are missing links to fully appreciate the role of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in Nigeria. Policies should integrate a one health approach in the Nigerian health system, whereby diagnostic screening of humans and animals by physicians and veterinarians includes zoonotic pathogens for more accurate diagnosis and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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17 pages, 1412 KiB  
Review
Extrahepatic Replication Sites of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)
by Kush Kumar Yadav and Scott P. Kenney
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 68-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010007 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2933
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging viral disease known to cause acute viral hepatitis globally. Various genotypes of HEV have been identified that produce genotype specific lesions depending on the HEV targeted population. Pregnant or immunosuppressed individuals develop significantly more severe hepatitis [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging viral disease known to cause acute viral hepatitis globally. Various genotypes of HEV have been identified that produce genotype specific lesions depending on the HEV targeted population. Pregnant or immunosuppressed individuals develop significantly more severe hepatitis E in comparison to the general population. In the last 40 years, we discovered that the tropism of HEV is not restricted to the liver, and virus replication was demonstrated in multiple organs. Out of the 10 body systems described in humans, HEV produces lesions causing a broad range of extrahepatic clinical manifestations in each of them. Affected body systems include nervous and musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, integumentary, renal, respiratory, immune, and reproductive systems producing systemic lesions. All extrahepatic signs are caused by either direct HEV replication in these tissues, or indirectly by various immune mediated mechanisms. Extrahepatic replication features of HEV allowed it to cross the placental barrier, blood–brain barrier (BBB), and blood–testis barrier (BTB) that do not typically grant entry to viruses in general. Thus, in this review, we summarized the extrahepatic replication sites of HEV, listed the body systems where HEV invaded, and described multiple animal models including immunocompetent and immunosuppressed that were used to study the extrahepatic replication sites of HEV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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16 pages, 2771 KiB  
Review
Livestock Reservoir Hosts: An Obscured Threat to Control of Human Schistosomiasis in Nigeria
by Hammed Oladeji Mogaji, Olaitan Olamide Omitola, Adedotun Ayodeji Bayegun, Uwem Friday Ekpo and Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 52-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010006 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4090
Abstract
Schistosomiasis is one of the leading neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Recorded case numbers of this chronic and debilitating helminth disease indicate Nigeria to be the most endemic country within this region. National control efforts have focused intensively on restricting human contact [...] Read more.
Schistosomiasis is one of the leading neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Recorded case numbers of this chronic and debilitating helminth disease indicate Nigeria to be the most endemic country within this region. National control efforts have focused intensively on restricting human contact with freshwater sources of intermediate host snails. However, limited attention has been paid to the role of livestock as reservoir hosts and the prevalence of transmission of schistosomes to humans via farmed animals. The West African nations of Mali, Senegal, and the neighbouring Niger, Benin, and Cameroon have all reported the hybridization of the closely related species of Schistosoma haematobium, which infects humans, and S. bovis, which infects cattle. As these countries share the Niger and Benue rivers, with their tributaries, there is a distinct possibility of aquatic snails infected with hybrid schistosomes migrating to become established in the Nigerian river system. Here, we report on the current state of research in Nigeria that aims to elucidate key aspects of zoonotic schistosomiasis epidemiology. Factors promoting the hybridization of Schistosoma species are highlighted, and how available control measures can be optimized to address the emergence of schistosome hybrids is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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18 pages, 748 KiB  
Review
Ecology and Epidemiology of Lyme Disease in Western North America
by Carl Dizon, Tim J. Lysyk, Isabelle Couloigner and Susan C. Cork
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 20-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010004 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3379
Abstract
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged [...] Read more.
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. Surveillance and modelling efforts indicate that I. pacificus is primarily found in coastal California, Oregon, Washington and the southern coastal regions of British Columbia However, infection rates with B. burgdorferi among I. pacificus ticks remain low, ranging from 0.6% to 9.9%. Lyme disease case numbers in western North America are also relatively low compared to eastern North America. Enzootic maintenance of B. burgdorferi by hosts in natural environments and climatic factors may influence Lyme disease risk. The borreliacidal western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, may contribute to the low infection rates observed in I. pacificus ticks, while the migratory nature of avian hosts can allow for long-distance tick dispersal. Moderately warm and moist environments and protection from sunlight define the suitable habitats of I. pacificus ticks. In this review, we discuss the ecology and epidemiology of Lyme disease in relation to I. pacificus, as well as the need for more studies in western North America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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10 pages, 300 KiB  
Review
Viral Zoonotic Diseases of Public Health Importance and Their Effect on Male Reproduction
by Olabisi Lateef Okeleji, Lydia Oluwatoyin Ajayi, Aduragbemi Noah Odeyemi, Victor Amos, Hezekiah Oluwatobi Ajayi, Amos Olalekan Akinyemi, Chibueze Samuel Nzekwe, Johnson Wale Adeyemi and Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 291-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040023 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3553
Abstract
Zoonotic diseases occur as a result of human interactions with animals with the inadvertent transmission of pathogens from one to another. Zoonoses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human populations, as they have been a source of pandemics in human [...] Read more.
Zoonotic diseases occur as a result of human interactions with animals with the inadvertent transmission of pathogens from one to another. Zoonoses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human populations, as they have been a source of pandemics in human history. Viral zoonoses account for a significant percentage of pathogens of zoonotic sources, posing a huge risk to men’s general health and fertility. This review identifies the existing knowledge on the effects of viral zoonotic diseases on male fertility. Evidence from reviewed articles showed that viral zoonotic diseases elicit an immune reaction that induces inflammatory mediators and impairs testicular functions such as spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, leading to abnormal semen parameters that lead to subfertility/infertility. Although most zoonotic viruses linger in semen long after recovery, their presence in semen does not directly translate to sexual transmission. There is a need to further delineate the possible risk of the sexual transmission of these diseases. While a few of the viral zoonotic diseases discussed have been well-studied, there is a need to place attention on others so as to fully understand their effects on male reproduction and therefore take the right steps towards preserving male fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
13 pages, 3428 KiB  
Review
Monkeypox: Re-Emerging Zoonotic Threat
by Rajeev Ranjan and Jitendra Kumar Biswal
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 234-246; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040019 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
Monkeypox (MPX) is a relatively unknown and minor resurgent viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV). The disease can spread from person to person or from animal to person. The disease is most prevalent in the tropical rainforests of West and [...] Read more.
Monkeypox (MPX) is a relatively unknown and minor resurgent viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV). The disease can spread from person to person or from animal to person. The disease is most prevalent in the tropical rainforests of West and Central Africa. The first MPXV outbreak was recorded in a monkey during 1958 as a small pox-like disease causing flu-like symptoms, such as chills and fever, as well as a rash, and the first MPXV case in a human was in a 9-month-old child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 1 September 1970. There were 16,016 laboratory confirmed cases of MPXV infection and five deaths reported in 75 countries/territories/areas across all six WHO Regions as of 22 July 2022. MPXV has a wide host range, including humans, squirrels, mice, rabbits, hamsters, porcupines, non-human primates (orangutans, chimps, sooty mangabeys, cynomolgus monkeys), black-tailed prairie dogs, African brush-tailed porcupines, rats, and shrews. MPXV replicates at the site of inoculation, the respiratory or oropharyngeal mucosa, and spreads to other organs, such as the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, where clinical signs and symptoms of the disease manifest. Before the rash appears, most patients have prominent lymphadenopathy, which distinguishes human MPX from small pox. This is followed by macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, umbilication, scabbing, and desquamation. Laboratory tools, such as virus isolation, PCR-based assays, haemagglutination inhibition assays, electron microscopy, ELISA, Western blotting, or immunohistochemistry, have been used to confirm diagnoses. Following a confirmatory diagnosis, tecovirimat, an FDA-approved antiviral drug, is currently available to treat severe cases of MPXV infection, along with symptomatic and supportive therapies. Physical and close contact activities, such as sleeping in the same room or on the same bed as the infected person, intimate contact with an infected partner, living in the same house as infected people, and sharing the same cups and plates, must be avoided to prevent the spread of the disease. Vaccination with vaccinia virus against monkeypox is approximately 85% effective and may protect against MPXV infection if administered within 4 days and up to 14 days (without showing any symptoms) after initial contact with a confirmed monkeypox case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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11 pages, 309 KiB  
Review
Preventing Laboratory-Acquired Brucellosis in the Era of MALDI-TOF Technology and Molecular Tests: A Narrative Review
by Pablo Yagupsky
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 172-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040016 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Brucellosis is one of the most common etiologies of laboratory-acquired infections worldwide, and handling of living brucellae should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet. The low infecting dose, multiple portals of entry to the body, the wide variety of potentially [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is one of the most common etiologies of laboratory-acquired infections worldwide, and handling of living brucellae should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet. The low infecting dose, multiple portals of entry to the body, the wide variety of potentially contaminated specimens, and the unspecific clinical manifestations of human infections facilitate the unintentional transmission of brucellae to laboratory personnel. Work accidents such as spillage of culture media cause only a small minority of exposures, whereas >80% of events result from unfamiliarity with the phenotypic features of the genus, misidentification of isolates, and unsafe laboratory practices such as working on an open bench without protective goggles or gloves or the aerosolization of bacteria. The bacteriological diagnosis of brucellae by traditional methods is simple and straightforward but requires extensive manipulation of the isolates, and, nowadays, many laboratory technicians are not familiar with the genotypic features of the genus, resulting in inadvertent exposure and contagion. Detection of brucellar infections by culture-independent molecular methods is safe, but the identification of the organism using MALDI-TOF technology is not hazard-free, requiring an initial bacterial inactivation step to avoid transmission. Unfortunately, these novel and safer methods are costly and frequently unavailable in resource-limited endemic countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
22 pages, 2599 KiB  
Review
Zoonotic Significance and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella in Poultry in Bangladesh for the Period of 2011–2021
by Md. Jannat Hossain, Youssef Attia, Fatimah Muhammad Ballah, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Abdus Sobur, Md. Amirul Islam, Samina Ievy, Asadur Rahman, Akira Nishiyama, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Jayedul Hassan and Md. Tanvir Rahman
Zoonotic Dis. 2021, 1(1), 3-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis1010002 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 8244
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in poultry poses a serious human health threat as it has zoonotic importance. Poultry is often linked with outbreaks of Salmonella-associated foodborne illness. Since antimicrobials are heavily used in poultry in Bangladesh, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is quite [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in poultry poses a serious human health threat as it has zoonotic importance. Poultry is often linked with outbreaks of Salmonella-associated foodborne illness. Since antimicrobials are heavily used in poultry in Bangladesh, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is quite frequently found there. MDR Salmonella is challenging to treat with antimicrobials and often causes a severe economic loss in the poultry sector. By horizontal gene transfer and/or evolutionary mutations, antimicrobials primarily exert selection pressure that contributes to antimicrobials resistance. In addition, resistance patterns can vary with variations in time and space. Without having prior knowledge of resistance patterns, no effective drugs could be prescribed. Therefore, it is crucial to have updated knowledge on the status of AMR in Salmonella in Bangladesh for effective treatment and management of the flocks against salmonellosis. There are several review articles on AMR in Salmonella in poultry in Bangladesh; they lack the whole scenario of the country and particularly do not have enough data on the poultry environment. Considering this scenario, in this review, we have focused on AMR in Salmonella in poultry in Bangladesh (2011–2021), with particular emphasis on data from the poultry and farm environments on a divisional zone basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

22 pages, 1469 KiB  
Systematic Review
Clinical Features of BoDV-1 Encephalitis: A Systematic Review
by Matteo Riccò, Silvia Corrado, Federico Marchesi and Marco Bottazzoli
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(4), 279-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3040023 - 9 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Human cases of fatal encephalitis caused by Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) have been increasingly reported. We envisaged the present systematic review in order to provide a comprehensive summary of clinical features associated with BoDV-1 encephalitis. Systematic research of four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, [...] Read more.
Human cases of fatal encephalitis caused by Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) have been increasingly reported. We envisaged the present systematic review in order to provide a comprehensive summary of clinical features associated with BoDV-1 encephalitis. Systematic research of four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MedRxiv, BioRxiv) was performed during July 2023, and corresponding clinical and epidemiological data were collected and analyzed. A total of 37 BoDV-1 encephalitis cases from 15 different study cases and two countries (Germany, No. 35; France, No. 2) were detected, and their features were summarized (case fatality ratio, 91.9%). Age distribution followed a “U-shaped” distribution, with a first peak in individuals younger than 14 years (18.9%) and the second one in subjects older than 50 years (43.2%). Environmental risk factors were irregularly reported, but 17 out of 37 cases either lived in rural areas or reported repeated outdoor activities (45.9%). Interaction with pets and livestock was reported in eight cases (21.6%), stressing the zoonotic potential of BoDV-1 infections. Moreover, 16.2% of cases were reported among recipients of solid organ transplantations (five kidneys; one liver). Overall survival in children/adolescents vs. adults (≥18 years) was not significantly different (Hazard Ratio 0.878; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.366 to 2.105). Magnetic Resonance Imaging identified the involvement of basal ganglia, mostly of the caudate nucleus (42.4%) and thalamus (33.3%). Cerebrospinal fluid was often characterized by pleocytosis (78.4%). On the other hand, no distinctive clinical features were identified: initial symptoms were specific and included headache, fever, and confusion. In conclusion, BoDV-1 infection can result in fatal encephalitis, whose actual burden still remains unascertained. As the epidemiology of BoDV-1 is similarly elusive, encephalitis cases of unclear cause should be routinely tested for bornaviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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8 pages, 269 KiB  
Opinion
Stocking Density and Homogeneity, Considerations on Pandemic Potential
by Max J. Moreno-Madriñan and Eric Kontowicz
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(2), 85-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3020008 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Zoonotic pathogens, an increasing threat to human health, typically originate in the wild but spill over to humans from domestic animals because of the high contact with them. Industrial farming involves an increased number of animals of a single species per given area. [...] Read more.
Zoonotic pathogens, an increasing threat to human health, typically originate in the wild but spill over to humans from domestic animals because of the high contact with them. Industrial farming involves an increased number of animals of a single species per given area. Such high stocking density facilitates pathogen transmission. This speeds evolution and also offsets the natural tendency of pathogens to trend toward mildness. On the other hand, close contact reduces transmission dependence on host mobility and thus could favor virulence. Forestalling this problem requires understanding opportunities for spillovers and evolution created by animal farming technologies and human-animal-ecosystem interactions. This manuscript considers two important risk factors of intensive animal farming, stoking density and homogeneity, to inform practices that could stop the next pandemic at its source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
14 pages, 4579 KiB  
Systematic Review
Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Occupational Settings: A Meta-Analysis of Italian Studies
by Matteo Riccò, Antonio Baldassarre, Silvia Corrado and Federico Marchesi
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 38-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010005 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) can cause a serious human disease known as Q Fever (QF). Our study summarized seroprevalence data from occupational settings in Italy, a country characterized by low notification rates of QF (17 cases between 2015 and 2021). Through [...] Read more.
Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) can cause a serious human disease known as Q Fever (QF). Our study summarized seroprevalence data from occupational settings in Italy, a country characterized by low notification rates of QF (17 cases between 2015 and 2021). Through systematic research on 3 databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MedRxiv), all studies including seroprevalence rates of C. burnetii in Italy were retrieved, and their results summarized and compared. We identified a total of 7 articles for a total of 1178 workers, mostly from agricultural settings. A pooled seroprevalence of 44.0% (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] 27.6 to 61.8) was calculated. Subgroup estimates ranged from 2.8% (95%CI 0.9–6.3) in forestry rangers to 49.2% (95%CI 26.8–72.0) in livestock farmers, and peaked at 73.7% (95%CI 56.9–86.6) and 75.9% (95%CI 13.4–98.5) in abattoir workers and veterinary professionals, respectively. Seroprevalence rates for C. burnetii largely exceeded the official notification rates, suggesting its substantial underreporting in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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5 pages, 283 KiB  
Case Report
Recurrent Penicillin-Resistant Tonsillitis Due to Lactococcus garvieae, a New Zoonosis from Aquaculture
by Miguel Mayo-Yáñez and Lucía González-Torres
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010001 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
Zoonotic diseases are a group of infectious diseases that are transmitted naturally from animals to humans. L. garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium which is present in the aquaculture of freshwater and marine fish. Some isolated cases of infection have been described, considering it [...] Read more.
Zoonotic diseases are a group of infectious diseases that are transmitted naturally from animals to humans. L. garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium which is present in the aquaculture of freshwater and marine fish. Some isolated cases of infection have been described, considering it an opportunistic agent in immunosuppressed patients. The most recent appearance of severe infections in immunocompetent patients or colonizing cardiac prostheses has set off the alarms. This manuscript presents the first two patients with recurrent tonsillitis due to L. garvieae. A 15-year-old male and an 8-year-old male had recurrent tonsillitis with more than three episodes per year. A culture of tonsillar exudate in both cases showed growth of L. garvieae with an antibiogram showing multi-resistance to antibiotics. Given the parents’ wish not to carry out surgery, an autovaccine regimen with lysed bacteria was proposed with good evolution and remission of tonsillitis episodes in both cases. The oral autovaccine produces an immunomodulatory effect and could be a therapeutic weapon in the prevention of this zoonosis. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of foodborne transmission in human L. garvieae infections and to find suitable treatments for this wide range of infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
6 pages, 265 KiB  
Brief Report
Lack of Evidence of Hepatitis E Virus Infections in a Cohort of Boars and Deer Species in a Game Reserve in Northern Germany
by Tim Westphal, Michel Delling, Maria Mader, Christin Ackermann, Thomas Horvatits, Marc Lütgehetmann, Julian Schulze zur Wiesch, Sven Pischke and Claudia Beisel
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 228-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040018 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1816
Abstract
The risk of acquiring hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by wild animals living in the European wild nature has previously been reported and high anti-HEV antibody detection rates were detected in several animal species. However, data on the HEV seroprevalence of wild boars [...] Read more.
The risk of acquiring hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by wild animals living in the European wild nature has previously been reported and high anti-HEV antibody detection rates were detected in several animal species. However, data on the HEV seroprevalence of wild boars and deer held in game reserves are rare. In the present study, we investigated anti-HEV seroprevalence and HEV RNA in 38 deer and 15 wild boars living in a game reserve in Northern Germany. Surprisingly, none of the animals tested positive for HEV RNA in blood, liver, or muscle (diaphragm), and all animals (n = 53, 100%) were anti-HEV negative. In conclusion, HEV infections in enclosed areas, such as game reserves, in Germany are rare, and the risk of HEV transmission through meat from these animals to humans seems to be low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
16 pages, 4189 KiB  
Case Report
Bone Lesions in a Young Dog and a NEEM (Azadirachta indica) Spray as the Only Preventive Measure against Leishmaniasis: A Case Report
by Giulia De Feo, George Lubas, Simonetta Citi, Caterina Puccinelli and Roberto Amerigo Papini
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(3), 95-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2030010 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2902
Abstract
As the spread of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is increasing throughout the world, the need for effective agents to prevent its transmission has intensified. In this case report, an intact 1.5-year-old male French bulldog was presented for treatment of severe, sudden, and constant lameness [...] Read more.
As the spread of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is increasing throughout the world, the need for effective agents to prevent its transmission has intensified. In this case report, an intact 1.5-year-old male French bulldog was presented for treatment of severe, sudden, and constant lameness on his right hindlimb, which had started approximately four months previously and was unresponsive to routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A Neem oil-based product was sprayed three times a week on the dog’s coat for about fourteen months as the only prophylactic measure against CanL. The orthopedic examination revealed grade 3–4 lameness and marked atrophy of the thigh muscles with swollen and painful right stifle joint. The radiological investigation showed polyostotic periosteal proliferation at both hindlimbs. The diagnosis of CanL was established by examination of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes (left prescapular, right and left popliteal) and immunofluorescence antibody testing. A leishmanicidal therapeutic protocol was prescribed. Within ten days of starting the therapy, the dog was significantly less lame, and eight months later radiographic examination revealed complete regression of the bone lesions. Some owners resort to a naturalistic approach for CanL prevention, also using products that have not been clinically evaluated. Neem oil is thought to prevent sandfly bites in dogs. Some laboratory and field studies have identified Neem oil as a possible alternative herbal drug that is repellent to sandflies. However, the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings clearly show that the Neem oil spray formulation used in this case report was not an effective means of CanL prevention. There is no clinical evidence in support of Neem oil-based products for the protection of dogs against CanL transmission. As Neem oil has previously been shown to be somewhat volatile, this case report suggests that even though it is a very effective repellent against sandflies, in practice, its effect on the dogs’ coat was only short-lived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 305 KiB  
Brief Report
Molecular Detection of Human Pathogenic Gastric Helicobacter Species in Wild Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Wild Quails (Coturnix coturnix)
by Francisco Cortez Nunes, Teresa Letra Mateus, Sílvia Teixeira, Patrícia F. Barradas, Fátima Gärtner, Freddy Haesebrouck and Irina Amorim
Zoonotic Dis. 2021, 1(1), 42-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis1010005 - 8 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4280
Abstract
Wildlife plays a major role in the maintenance and transmission of multihost pathogens. Several Helicobacter spp. have been described to have zoonotic potential; thus, human, domestic and wild animal interactions deserve more attention. In this study, the presence of the DNA of human [...] Read more.
Wildlife plays a major role in the maintenance and transmission of multihost pathogens. Several Helicobacter spp. have been described to have zoonotic potential; thus, human, domestic and wild animal interactions deserve more attention. In this study, the presence of the DNA of human pathogenic gastric Helicobacter species was determined in gastric samples collected from wild rabbits and wild quails during the national hunting campaigns in Portugal. Eleven out of the 12 wild rabbits (91.7%) and all six wild quails tested (100%) were PCR positive for one or more gastric Helicobacter species. In both animal species, H. felis, H. bizzozeronii and H. salomonis DNA were detected. In addition to these non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter spp. (NHPH), H. pylori DNA was also identified in gizzard samples of wild quails. These findings might indicate that wild rabbits and wild quails may act as reservoirs and contribute to the H. pylori and NHPH environment dissemination, causing both Public Health and One health concerns to arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
5 pages, 269 KiB  
Case Report
Q Fever Endocarditis Mimicking Lymphoma and ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: Two Cases and a Literature
by Gonzague Martin-Lecamp, Etienne Meriglier, Hélene Chaussade, Ines Aureau, Celine Pailler-Valton, Thoma Pires, Julien Desblache, Xavier Delbrel, Fabrice Bonnet and Marie-Anne Vandenhende
Zoonotic Dis. 2021, 1(1), 37-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis1010004 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2579
Abstract
Q fever endocarditis may be accompanied by immunological abnormalities complicating the diagnosis. We report two cases of Q fever endocarditis mimicking lymphoma and ANCA-associated vasculitis illustrating the immune disorders that can be triggered by Coxiella burnetii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
12 pages, 1100 KiB  
Case Report
Leishmania Infection during Chemotherapy in a Dog Diagnosed with Multicentric Large B-Cell Lymphoma—A Diagnostic Challenge
by Giulia De Feo, Petra Simčič, George Lubas and Roberto Amerigo Papini
Zoonotic Dis. 2021, 1(1), 25-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis1010003 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 3824
Abstract
Dogs with lymphoma are at risk of developing clinical complications due to immunosuppression and side effects of chemotherapy. Clinical reports of concurrent lymphoma and leishmaniasis are rare and confined to single cases of comorbidity at presentation. Herein, we describe a case of lymphoma [...] Read more.
Dogs with lymphoma are at risk of developing clinical complications due to immunosuppression and side effects of chemotherapy. Clinical reports of concurrent lymphoma and leishmaniasis are rare and confined to single cases of comorbidity at presentation. Herein, we describe a case of lymphoma during maintenance chemotherapy in which bone marrow cytology showed myelodysplasia associated with leishmaniasis. The dog was a seven-year-old intact female Parson Russel Terrier with a two-week history of generalized lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis of multicentric high-grade B-cell lymphoma stage Va was carried out with cytological and cytofluorimetric assays of external lymph nodes, abdominal ultrasound, chest radiology, and lymphoid blasts blood smear examination. The dog lived and had traveled in endemic areas of Leishmania with uninterrupted prevention against sand fly bites by an insecticide-impregnated collar and presented seronegativity to Leishmania at presentation. Chemotherapy for lymphoma was successful and the patient achieved complete remission. Approximately eight months after the diagnosis, a persistent pancytopenia was assessed. Unexpectedly, Leishmania amastigotes were identified in the bone marrow. Combined treatment rounds were administered with antileishmanial and antineoplastic drugs for approximately eight months. Eventually, lymphoma relapsed and became unresponsive to chemotherapy, and the dog was euthanatized. Canine lymphoma overlapping with subsequent Leishmania infection as a complication is rare and lacks specific clinical manifestations. A delayed diagnosis of leishmaniasis may occur. We suggest considering leishmaniasis as part of the differential diagnosis of persistent pancytopenia in dogs with lymphoma, particularly in dogs who reside or travel to endemic areas, when treatment fails or abnormal laboratory findings are present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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