Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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18 pages, 748 KiB  
Review
Ecology and Epidemiology of Lyme Disease in Western North America
by Carl Dizon, Tim J. Lysyk, Isabelle Couloigner and Susan C. Cork
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 20-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010004 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3586
Abstract
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged [...] Read more.
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. Surveillance and modelling efforts indicate that I. pacificus is primarily found in coastal California, Oregon, Washington and the southern coastal regions of British Columbia However, infection rates with B. burgdorferi among I. pacificus ticks remain low, ranging from 0.6% to 9.9%. Lyme disease case numbers in western North America are also relatively low compared to eastern North America. Enzootic maintenance of B. burgdorferi by hosts in natural environments and climatic factors may influence Lyme disease risk. The borreliacidal western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, may contribute to the low infection rates observed in I. pacificus ticks, while the migratory nature of avian hosts can allow for long-distance tick dispersal. Moderately warm and moist environments and protection from sunlight define the suitable habitats of I. pacificus ticks. In this review, we discuss the ecology and epidemiology of Lyme disease in relation to I. pacificus, as well as the need for more studies in western North America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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12 pages, 1021 KiB  
Article
Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) as Potential Reservoirs and Sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii in Northern Canada
by Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Adrián Hernández-Ortiz, Thomas S. Jung, N. Jane Harms, Caitlin N. Willier, Rudy Boonstra, Yasmine N. Majchrzak, Michael J. L. Peers, Géraldine-G. Gouin, Batol Al-Adhami, Audrey Simon, Patrick Leighton and Emily J. Jenkins
Zoonotic Dis. 2023, 3(1), 6-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis3010002 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3368
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily for their fur, and they are occasionally eaten. We examined carcasses salvaged from trappers from boreal regions of eastern (n = 97) and western (n = 357) Canada. We detected T. gondii antibodies in fluid from thawed heart tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA in brain and heart via magnetic capture and real-time PCR assay, and presence of DNA in feces using a real-time PCR with melt curve analysis. We detected antibodies against T. gondii and DNA in tissues in 24% and 19% of lynx, respectively. One lynx was positive for DNA of T. gondii in feces, which could indicate intestinal infection and potential for shedding oocysts. Our results indicate that lynx may be a useful sentinel species for monitoring environmental circulation of T. gondii in northern boreal regions and may pose a risk for transmission to other wildlife and to people handling or consuming lynx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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13 pages, 3428 KiB  
Review
Monkeypox: Re-Emerging Zoonotic Threat
by Rajeev Ranjan and Jitendra Kumar Biswal
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(4), 234-246; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040019 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4049
Abstract
Monkeypox (MPX) is a relatively unknown and minor resurgent viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV). The disease can spread from person to person or from animal to person. The disease is most prevalent in the tropical rainforests of West and [...] Read more.
Monkeypox (MPX) is a relatively unknown and minor resurgent viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV). The disease can spread from person to person or from animal to person. The disease is most prevalent in the tropical rainforests of West and Central Africa. The first MPXV outbreak was recorded in a monkey during 1958 as a small pox-like disease causing flu-like symptoms, such as chills and fever, as well as a rash, and the first MPXV case in a human was in a 9-month-old child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 1 September 1970. There were 16,016 laboratory confirmed cases of MPXV infection and five deaths reported in 75 countries/territories/areas across all six WHO Regions as of 22 July 2022. MPXV has a wide host range, including humans, squirrels, mice, rabbits, hamsters, porcupines, non-human primates (orangutans, chimps, sooty mangabeys, cynomolgus monkeys), black-tailed prairie dogs, African brush-tailed porcupines, rats, and shrews. MPXV replicates at the site of inoculation, the respiratory or oropharyngeal mucosa, and spreads to other organs, such as the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, where clinical signs and symptoms of the disease manifest. Before the rash appears, most patients have prominent lymphadenopathy, which distinguishes human MPX from small pox. This is followed by macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, umbilication, scabbing, and desquamation. Laboratory tools, such as virus isolation, PCR-based assays, haemagglutination inhibition assays, electron microscopy, ELISA, Western blotting, or immunohistochemistry, have been used to confirm diagnoses. Following a confirmatory diagnosis, tecovirimat, an FDA-approved antiviral drug, is currently available to treat severe cases of MPXV infection, along with symptomatic and supportive therapies. Physical and close contact activities, such as sleeping in the same room or on the same bed as the infected person, intimate contact with an infected partner, living in the same house as infected people, and sharing the same cups and plates, must be avoided to prevent the spread of the disease. Vaccination with vaccinia virus against monkeypox is approximately 85% effective and may protect against MPXV infection if administered within 4 days and up to 14 days (without showing any symptoms) after initial contact with a confirmed monkeypox case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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9 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Host–Virus Interactions in Japanese Encephalitis Virus
by Urmi Roy
Zoonotic Dis. 2022, 2(3), 117-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2030012 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that causes severe brain inflammation. The JE virus envelope protein domain III (JEV-ED3) plays a critical role in activating receptor binding and membrane fusion. This communication briefly describes, in a computational approach, how structural changes [...] Read more.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that causes severe brain inflammation. The JE virus envelope protein domain III (JEV-ED3) plays a critical role in activating receptor binding and membrane fusion. This communication briefly describes, in a computational approach, how structural changes within the JEV-ED3 mutant epitopes suppress their antibody neutralization function. The simulated results demonstrate that mutant Ser40Lys acts as an antibody neutralization escape while Asp41Arg may play the role of an escape mutant. Additionally, an examination of the double mutants on JEV-ED3 suggests that these mutants may qualify as stronger neutralizing escape agents than their single variants. The structural analysis of this work helps to identify the proper antiviral target sequences and specific monoclonal antibodies for the JEV-ED3 escape mutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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22 pages, 2599 KiB  
Review
Zoonotic Significance and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella in Poultry in Bangladesh for the Period of 2011–2021
by Md. Jannat Hossain, Youssef Attia, Fatimah Muhammad Ballah, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Abdus Sobur, Md. Amirul Islam, Samina Ievy, Asadur Rahman, Akira Nishiyama, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Jayedul Hassan and Md. Tanvir Rahman
Zoonotic Dis. 2021, 1(1), 3-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis1010002 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8584
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in poultry poses a serious human health threat as it has zoonotic importance. Poultry is often linked with outbreaks of Salmonella-associated foodborne illness. Since antimicrobials are heavily used in poultry in Bangladesh, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is quite [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in poultry poses a serious human health threat as it has zoonotic importance. Poultry is often linked with outbreaks of Salmonella-associated foodborne illness. Since antimicrobials are heavily used in poultry in Bangladesh, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is quite frequently found there. MDR Salmonella is challenging to treat with antimicrobials and often causes a severe economic loss in the poultry sector. By horizontal gene transfer and/or evolutionary mutations, antimicrobials primarily exert selection pressure that contributes to antimicrobials resistance. In addition, resistance patterns can vary with variations in time and space. Without having prior knowledge of resistance patterns, no effective drugs could be prescribed. Therefore, it is crucial to have updated knowledge on the status of AMR in Salmonella in Bangladesh for effective treatment and management of the flocks against salmonellosis. There are several review articles on AMR in Salmonella in poultry in Bangladesh; they lack the whole scenario of the country and particularly do not have enough data on the poultry environment. Considering this scenario, in this review, we have focused on AMR in Salmonella in poultry in Bangladesh (2011–2021), with particular emphasis on data from the poultry and farm environments on a divisional zone basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Zoonotic Diseases 2021–2022)
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