Bioactive Compounds in Plants

A topical collection in Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This collection belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences (DISTAV), University of Genoa, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Interests: plant anatomy and micromorphology; medicinal plants; ethnobotany; pharmacognosy; biological activity of secondary plant metabolites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences (CHIBIOFARAM), University of Messina, Via SS Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Interests: natural compounds; polyphenols; plant extracts; pharmacognosy; functional foods; nutraceuticals; pharmacology; toxicology; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; cytoprotective activity; clinical studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal Plants will jointly be publishing a Topical Collection on bioactive compounds in plants. Plant secondary metabolites are receiving ever-increasing attention due to their several health properties for a multitude of applications, not only for more common uses such as those in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries, but also as new sources of eco-friendly biopesticides. Plant secondary metabolites play an important role as defense mechanisms in response to pathogenic organisms and predatory herbivores, and may also act as herbicides by inhibiting the growth of competing plants.

This Topical Collection will focus on a multidisciplinary approach to the study of plant secondary metabolites, including micro-morphological and histochemical studies aiming to identify and characterize the site of secretion and storage of bioactive compounds in plant tissues. Moreover, extraction and chemical characterization, as well as biological properties by in vitro cell-free and cell-based assays, of phytocomplexes or their isolated bioactive compounds, will be welcome.

Wide fields of application will be considered, including animal and human well-being as well as ecological aspects, also considering the ever-growing interest in the use of plant extracts and molecules of natural origin as biopesticides or for foodstuff management.

Moreover, studies related to the recovery of plant waste products will be also welcome, mainly from agri-food chains, including the agricultural production of medicinal plants. These studies should aim to highlight the potential use of plants and their byproducts as sources of bioactive compounds for animal or human interest, in light of the new concept of circular economy.

Dr. Laura Cornara
Dr. Antonella Smeriglio
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • essential oil
  • plant byproducts
  • micro-morphological features
  • histochemical features
  • phytochemical profile
  • bioactive compounds
  • health effects
  • biopesticides
  • circular economy

Published Papers (36 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020

23 pages, 3545 KiB  
Article
Thymus zygis, Valuable Antimicrobial (In Vitro and In Situ) and Antibiofilm Agent with Potential Antiproliferative Effects
by Milena D. Vukić, Natália Čmiková, Anis Ben Hsouna, Rania Ben Saad, Stefania Garzoli, Marianna Schwarzová, Nenad L. Vuković, Ana D. Obradović, Miloš M. Matić, Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak, Maciej Ireneusz Kluz and Miroslava Kačániová
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233920 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 935
Abstract
With the growing issues of food spoilage, microbial resistance, and high mortality caused by cancer, the aim of this study was to evaluate T. zygis essential oil (TZEO) as a potential solution for these challenges. Here, we first performed GC/MS analysis which showed [...] Read more.
With the growing issues of food spoilage, microbial resistance, and high mortality caused by cancer, the aim of this study was to evaluate T. zygis essential oil (TZEO) as a potential solution for these challenges. Here, we first performed GC/MS analysis which showed that the tested TZEO belongs to the linalool chemotype since the abundance of linalool was found to be 38.0%. Antioxidant activity assays showed the superiority of TZEO in neutralizing the ABTS radical cation compared to the DPPH radical. The TZEO was able to neutralize 50% of ABTS•+ at the concentration of 53.03 ± 1.34 μg/mL. Antimicrobial assessment performed by employing disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration assays revealed TZEO as a potent antimicrobial agent with the highest inhibition activity towards tested gram-negative strains. The most sensitive on the treatment with TZEO was Enterobacter aerogenes showing an MIC 50 value of 0.147 ± 0.006 mg/mL and a MIC 90 value of 0.158 ± 0.024 mg/mL. Additionally, an in situ analysis showed great effects of TZEO in inhibiting gram-negative E. coli, P. putida, and E. aerogenes growing on bananas and cucumbers. Treatment with the TZEO vapor phase in the concentration of 500 μg/mL was able to reduce the growth of these bacteria on the food models to the extent > 90%, except for E. coli growth on the cucumber, which was reduced to the extent of 83.87 ± 4.76%. Furthermore, a test on the antibiofilm activity of the tested essential oil revealed its biofilm prevention effects against Salmonella enterica which forms biofilms on plastic and stainless-steel surfaces. Performed tests on the TZEO effects towards cell viability showed no effects on the normal MRC-5 cell line. However, the results of MTT assay of TZEO effects on three cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, HCT-116, and K562) suggest that TZEO exerted the strongest effects on the inhibition of the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells, especially after long-term treatment in the highest concentration applied with reducing the viability of the cells to 57%. Additionally, results of NBT and Griess assays suggest that TZEO could be a convenient candidate for future testing for developing novel antitumor therapies. Full article
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13 pages, 2423 KiB  
Article
Anti-Lymphangiogenic Terpenoids from the Heartwood of Taiwan Juniper, Juniperus chinensis var. tsukusiensis
by Ho-Cheng Wu, Lung-Lin Shiu, Shih-Wei Wang, Chia-Ying Huang, Tzong-Huei Lee, Ping-Jyun Sung and Yueh-Hsiung Kuo
Plants 2023, 12(22), 3828; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12223828 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 748
Abstract
To look in-depth into the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Taiwan juniper, this study investigated the chemical profiles and anti-lymphangiogenic activity of Juniperus chinensis var. tsukusiensis. In this study, four new sesquiterpenes, 12-acetoxywiddrol (1), cedrol-13-al (2), α-corocalen-15-oic acid [...] Read more.
To look in-depth into the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Taiwan juniper, this study investigated the chemical profiles and anti-lymphangiogenic activity of Juniperus chinensis var. tsukusiensis. In this study, four new sesquiterpenes, 12-acetoxywiddrol (1), cedrol-13-al (2), α-corocalen-15-oic acid (3), 1,3,5-bisaoltrien-10-hydroperoxy-11-ol (4), one new diterpene, 1β,2β-epoxy-9α-hydroxy-8(14),11-totaradiene-3,13-dione (5), and thirty-three known terpenoids were successfully isolated from the heartwood of J. chinensis var. tsukusiensis. The structures of all isolates were determined through the analysis of physical data (including appearance, UV, IR, and optical rotation) and spectroscopic data (including 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS). Thirty-four compounds were evaluated for their anti-lymphangiogenic effects in human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Among them, totarolone (6) displayed the most potent anti-lymphangiogenic activity by suppressing cell growth (IC50 = 6 ± 1 µM) of LECs. Moreover, 3β-hydroxytotarol (7), 7-oxototarol (8), and 1-oxo-3β-hydroxytotarol (9) showed moderate growth-inhibitory effects on LECs with IC50 values of 29 ± 1, 28 ± 1, and 45 ± 2 µM, respectively. Totarolone (6) also induced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of LEC tube formation (IC50 = 9.3 ± 2.5 µM) without cytotoxicity. The structure–activity relationship discussion of aromatic totarane-type diterpenes against lymphangiogenesis of LECs is also included in this study. Altogether, our findings unveiled the promising potential of J. chinensis var. tsukusiensis in developing therapeutics targeting tumor lymphangiogenesis. Full article
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20 pages, 2835 KiB  
Article
Anti-Biofilm Activity of Carnosic Acid from Salvia rosmarinus against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
by Valeria Iobbi, Valentina Parisi, Giulia Bernabè, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Angela Bisio and Paola Brun
Plants 2023, 12(21), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12213679 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
The Salvia rosmarinus “Eretto Liguria” ecotype was studied as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. LC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract underlined the presence of diterpenoids, triterpenoids, polyphenolic acids, and flavonoids. The anti-virulence activity of carnosic acid along with the other most abundant [...] Read more.
The Salvia rosmarinus “Eretto Liguria” ecotype was studied as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. LC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract underlined the presence of diterpenoids, triterpenoids, polyphenolic acids, and flavonoids. The anti-virulence activity of carnosic acid along with the other most abundant compounds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was evaluated. Only carnosic acid induced a significant reduction in the expression of agrA and rnaIII genes, which encode the key components of quorum sensing (QS), an intracellular signaling mechanism controlling the virulence of MRSA. At a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL, carnosic acid inhibited biofilm formation by MRSA and the expression of genes involved in toxin production and made MRSA more susceptible to intracellular killing, with no toxic effects on eukaryotic cells. Carnosic acid did not affect biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen that often coexists with MRSA in complex infections. The selected ecotype showed a carnosic acid content of 94.3 ± 4.3 mg/g. In silico analysis highlighted that carnosic acid potentially interacts with the S. aureus AgrA response regulator. Our findings suggest that carnosic acid could be an anti-virulence agent against MRSA infections endowed with a species-specific activity useful in multi-microbial infections. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021, 2020

13 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Cachrys spp. from Southern Italy: Phytochemical Characterization and JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway Inhibition
by Maria Rosaria Perri, Michele Pellegrino, Stefano Aquaro, Fabiola Cavaliere, Carmine Lupia, Dimitar Uzunov, Mariangela Marrelli, Filomena Conforti and Giancarlo Statti
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2913; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212913 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Different phytochemical compounds have been demonstrated to modulate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Here, three Cachrys species from Southern Italy were investigated for both the phytochemical profile and the potential anti-inflammatory properties. The aerial parts were extracted with methanol through Naviglio Extractor®, [...] Read more.
Different phytochemical compounds have been demonstrated to modulate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Here, three Cachrys species from Southern Italy were investigated for both the phytochemical profile and the potential anti-inflammatory properties. The aerial parts were extracted with methanol through Naviglio Extractor®, an innovative solid-liquid extraction technique that allows to obtain high quality extracts by working with gradient pressure. Extracts were analyzed with GC-MS and standardized in furanocoumarin content, resulting rich in xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin. Given the known ability of bergapten to inhibit the JAK/STAT signaling pathway by decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and inflammatory mediators (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells activated by LPS, Cachrys extracts were investigated for their biological properties. The results obtained in this study showed that Cachrys pungens extract, presenting the highest content in furanocoumarins (7.48 ± 0.48 and 2.94 ± 0.16 mg/50 mg of extract for xanthotoxin and bergapten, respectively), significantly decreased STAT3 protein levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and increased IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. Cachrys ferulacea significantly decreased JAK2 phosphorylation, being even more effective than bergapten. In conclusion, investigated extracts could be potential candidates for the search of novel anti-inflammatory agents acting via inhibiting the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Full article
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15 pages, 1208 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Screening and Bioactivities of Cactaceae Family Members Endemic to Mexico
by Clara Angélica Rodríguez-Mendoza, Rubí Esmeralda González Campos, Ana Cecilia Lorenzo-Leal, Elizabeth Bautista Rodríguez, Genaro Alberto Paredes Juárez, Elie Girgis El Kassis, Luis Ricardo Hernández, Zaida Nelly Juárez and Horacio Bach
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212856 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Mexico is a center of diversification for the Cactaceae family, with 69% of the species recorded as endemic. Certain members of the Cactaceae family have been chemically analyzed to relate their medicinal use with their phytochemistry. Here, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of ethanol [...] Read more.
Mexico is a center of diversification for the Cactaceae family, with 69% of the species recorded as endemic. Certain members of the Cactaceae family have been chemically analyzed to relate their medicinal use with their phytochemistry. Here, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of ethanol extracts of Ferocactus echidne, F. latispinus, and Mammillaria geminispina were evaluated. A preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed, detecting the presence of saponins, tannins, cardiotonic glycosides, and sesquiterpene lactones. The presence of nicotinic acid in F. echidne and F. latispinus was identified by GC-MS. Other compounds found in the extracts of these three species were gentisic acid, diosmetin, chlorogenic acid, N-methyltyramide, and hordenine. The antioxidant activity was estimated with the DPPH free radical scavenging test. To determine the toxicity of the extracts, the in vivo model of Artemia spp. was used. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the extract was tested on C6, HaCaT, THP-1, and U937 cell lines, while the inflammatory activity was tested by measuring the secretion of cytokines using macrophage cells. The three species showed different bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, the results presented here are the first described for these species. Full article
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16 pages, 1684 KiB  
Article
New Insights on Phytochemical Features and Biological Properties of Alnus glutinosa Stem Bark
by Antonella Smeriglio, Valeria D’Angelo, Anna Cacciola, Mariarosaria Ingegneri, Francesco Maria Raimondo, Domenico Trombetta and Maria Paola Germanò
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192499 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Alnus glutinosa (namely black alder or European alder) is a tree of the Betulaceae family widely spread through Europe, Southeastern Asia, the Caucasus mountains, and Western Siberia. Its bark is traditionally used for medicinal purposes as an astringent, cathartic, febrifuge, emetic, hemostatic, and [...] Read more.
Alnus glutinosa (namely black alder or European alder) is a tree of the Betulaceae family widely spread through Europe, Southeastern Asia, the Caucasus mountains, and Western Siberia. Its bark is traditionally used for medicinal purposes as an astringent, cathartic, febrifuge, emetic, hemostatic, and tonic, suggesting that it may contain bioactive compounds useful to counteract inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical profile of A. glutinosa stem bark extract (AGE) by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis and to validate some biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties by in vitro and in vivo models (chick chorioallantoic membranes and zebrafish embryos), that can justify its use against inflammatory-based diseases. The AGE showed a high total phenols content expressed as gallic acid equivalents (0.71 g GAE/g of AGE). Diarylheptanoids have been identified as the predominant compounds (0.65 g/g of AGE) with oregonin, which alone constitutes 74.67% of the AGE. The AGE showed a strong and concentration-dependent antioxidant (IC50 0.15–12.21 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 5.47–12.97 µg/mL) activity. Furthermore, it showed promising anti-angiogenic activity, inhibiting both the vessel growth (IC50 23.39 µg/egg) and the release of an endogenous phosphatase alkaline enzyme (IC50 44.24 µg/embryo). In conclusion, AGE is a promising source of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and angio-modulator compounds. Full article
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13 pages, 1235 KiB  
Article
Antifungal Activity and Biochemical Profiling of Exudates from Germinating Maize Nostrano di Storo Local Variety
by Stefano Rosa, Stefano De Benedetti, Stefania Mazzini, Gigliola Borgonovo, Elisa Bona, Maria Cavaletto, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Martina Ghidoli, Salvatore Roberto Pilu and Alessio Scarafoni
Plants 2022, 11(18), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11182435 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Plant pathogens are responsible for important damages to valuable crops causing important economic losses. Agrobiodiversity protection is crucial for the valorization of local varieties that could possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. At the beginning of germination, seeds are susceptible to [...] Read more.
Plant pathogens are responsible for important damages to valuable crops causing important economic losses. Agrobiodiversity protection is crucial for the valorization of local varieties that could possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. At the beginning of germination, seeds are susceptible to pathogens attacks, thus they can release endogenous antimicrobial compounds of different natures in the spermosphere, to contrast proliferation of microorganisms. The work aimed at characterizing the maize of local variety Nostrano di Storo seed exudates secreted during the first phases of germination, to identify compounds active in the defense towards pathogens. Storo seed exudates were proven to inhibit F. verticilloides germination. In order to investigate the cause of the described effect, compositional profiling of the exudates was performed through NMR, lipidomic, and proteomic analyses. This study suggests an important role of microbial endophytic communities in the protection of the seed during the early phases of the germination process and their interplay with fatty acids released by the seeds, rather than a specific antifungal compound. The valorization of agronomically acceptable maize lines with pre-harvest enhanced resistances to pathogens contamination could lead, in the near future, to commercially available varieties potentially requiring more limited chemical protective treatments. Full article
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15 pages, 2897 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Silico Study of the α-Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitory Activities of Chemical Constituents from Piper cumanense (Piperaceae) and Synthetic Analogs
by Juliet A. Prieto-Rodríguez, Kevin P. Lévuok-Mena, Juan C. Cardozo-Muñoz, Jorge E. Parra-Amin, Fabián Lopez-Vallejo, Luis E. Cuca-Suárez and Oscar J. Patiño-Ladino
Plants 2022, 11(17), 2188; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11172188 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Digestive enzymes are currently considered important therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and some associated metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Piper cumanense is a species characterized by the presence of bioactive constituents, particularly prenylated benzoic acid derivatives. In this study, [...] Read more.
Digestive enzymes are currently considered important therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and some associated metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Piper cumanense is a species characterized by the presence of bioactive constituents, particularly prenylated benzoic acid derivatives. In this study, the inhibitory potential of chemical constituents from P. cumanense and some synthesized compounds was determined on digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase (PL) and α-glucosidase (AG)). The methodology included isolating and identifying secondary metabolites from P. cumanense, synthesizing some analogs, and a molecular docking study. The chemical study allowed the isolation of four prenylated benzoic acid derivatives (14). Four analogs (58) were synthesized. Seven compounds were found to significantly inhibit the catalytic activity of PL with IC50 values between 28.32 and 55.8 µM. On the other hand, only two compounds (6 and 7) were active as inhibitors of AG with IC50 values lower than 155 µM, standing out as the potential multitarget of these chromane compounds. Enzyme kinetics and molecular docking studies showed that the bioactive compounds mainly interact with amino acids other than those of the catalytic site in both PL and AG. This work constitutes the first report on the antidiabetic and antiobesity potential of substances derived from P. cumanense. Full article
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14 pages, 1642 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Study of Eryngium cymosum F. Delaroche and the Inhibitory Capacity of Its Main Compounds on Two Glucose-Producing Pathway Enzymes
by Adriana Romo-Pérez, Sonia Marlen Escandón-Rivera, Luis D. Miranda and Adolfo Andrade-Cetto
Plants 2022, 11(7), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070992 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
One undescribed acylated flavonol glucoside and five known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Eryngium cymosum F. Delaroche, a plant that is used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat type 2 diabetes. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated [...] Read more.
One undescribed acylated flavonol glucoside and five known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Eryngium cymosum F. Delaroche, a plant that is used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat type 2 diabetes. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Chlorogenic acid (1), rosmarinic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), protocatechuic acid (4), kaempferol-3-O-(2,6-di-O-trans-ρ-coumaryl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), and the new acylated flavonol glucoside quercetin-3-O-(2,6-di-O-trans-ρ-coumaryl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of quercetin-3-O-(2,6-di-O-trans-ρ-coumaryl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). In addition, according to the HPLC profile obtained for the water extract (WE), chlorogenic acid (1) and rosmarinic acid (2) were identified as the main compounds, while kaempferol-3-O-(2,6-di-O-trans-ρ-coumaryl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5) were the main compound in the butanolic extract. We demonstrate the important role of compound 5 over the inhibition of G6Pase and FBPase. The isolated compounds may play an important role in the hypoglycemic effect of the extract and may act in a synergic way, but more experiments are needed to corroborate these findings. Full article
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13 pages, 766 KiB  
Review
Elderberries—A Source of Bioactive Compounds with Antiviral Action
by Mirela Lăcrămioara Mocanu and Sonia Amariei
Plants 2022, 11(6), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060740 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4733
Abstract
In the current context, when more and more unknown pathogens appear, healthy eating and supplementing it with natural products play an increasingly important role in maintaining the health of the body. The European black elder (Sambucus nigra), found in abundance in [...] Read more.
In the current context, when more and more unknown pathogens appear, healthy eating and supplementing it with natural products play an increasingly important role in maintaining the health of the body. The European black elder (Sambucus nigra), found in abundance in the spontaneous flora, can provide us, as a raw material, elderberries, which have been known for thousands of years as having nutritional and healing properties. The phytotherapeutic principles found in elderberry fruits give them antiviral, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties, antitumor potential, antioxidant, antidepressant and immune boosting properties, as well as a certain impacts on obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Polyphenols and lectins give elderberry fruits the ability to inhibit coronaviruses, which is a topic of great interest in our times. This article summarizes the existing data regarding the chemical composition, active principles and biopharmaceutical properties of elderberries, as well as their use. Full article
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13 pages, 1383 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxic Phenylpropanoid Derivatives and Alkaloids from the Flowers of Pancratium maritimum L.
by Diaa T. A. Youssef, Lamiaa A. Shaala and Ahmed E. Altyar
Plants 2022, 11(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040476 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Regarding our growing interest in identifying biologically active leads from Amaryllidaceous plants, the flowers of Pancratium maritimum L. (Amaryllidaceae) were investigated. Purification of the cytotoxic fractions of the alcoholic extract of the flowers gave a new glycoside, 3-[4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]-2-(Z)-propenoic acid [...] Read more.
Regarding our growing interest in identifying biologically active leads from Amaryllidaceous plants, the flowers of Pancratium maritimum L. (Amaryllidaceae) were investigated. Purification of the cytotoxic fractions of the alcoholic extract of the flowers gave a new glycoside, 3-[4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]-2-(Z)-propenoic acid methyl ester (1), together with the previously reported compounds 3-methoxy-4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzoic acid methyl ester (2), 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-1-ol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester (4), caffeic acid (5), dihydrocaffeic acid methyl ester (6), and pancratistatin (7). Interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 are phenolic-O-glycosides, while the glucose moiety in 3 is attached to the propanol side chain. This is the first report about the existence of 16 in the genus Pancratium. Further, glycosides 13 from the Amaryllidaceae family are reported on here for the first time. The structures of 17 were determined by analyses of their 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR spectra, and by high-resolution mass spectral measurements. Pancratistatin displayed potent and selective growth inhibitory effects against MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and HCT 116 cells with an IC50 value down to 0.058 µM, while it possessed lower selectivity towards the normal human dermal fibroblasts with IC50 of 6.6 µM. Full article
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20 pages, 6523 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Biological Activity of Fiber-Type Cannabis sativa L. Aerial Parts at Different Growth Stages
by Giulia Mastellone, Arianna Marengo, Barbara Sgorbini, Federica Scaglia, Francesca Capetti, Francesco Gai, Pier Giorgio Peiretti, Patrizia Rubiolo and Cecilia Cagliero
Plants 2022, 11(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030419 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Currently, there is a renewed interest in cannabis-related products in different fields because of the rich phytocomplex of this plant, together with its fiber and agricultural features. In this context, the current study aims to chemically characterize different samples of fiber-type Cannabis sativa [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a renewed interest in cannabis-related products in different fields because of the rich phytocomplex of this plant, together with its fiber and agricultural features. In this context, the current study aims to chemically characterize different samples of fiber-type Cannabis sativa L. grown in Italy as a potential health promoting source. An ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction (UA-SLE) method was first developed and optimized to obtain a fingerprinting of the investigated phytocomplex. Analyses were carried out through an ultra high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector in series with triple quadrupole system with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface (UHPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS) and showed that the phytocomplex mainly includes flavonoids and non-psychotomimetic cannabinoids. The method was then applied to characterize and compare 24 samples of fiber-type Cannabis sativa L. aerial parts (mainly stems and leaves), which differed for the growth stages (from mid-vegetative to early flowering), growth land plots, and methods of drying (forced-draft oven or freeze-drying). The quali-quantitative analysis showed that a freeze-drying method seems to better preserve the chemical composition of the samples, while the location of the land plot and the growth stage of the plant (which did not comprise inflorescences) had minor influences on the chemical pattern. These results were also supported by spectrophotometric in-vitro assays (scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS+•) radicals and inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and elastase enzymes) to investigate the potential biological activity of these samples and the contribution of non-psychotomimetic cannabinoids. Full article
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55 pages, 19977 KiB  
Article
Ethnomedicinal and Ethnobotanical Survey in the Aosta Valley Side of the Gran Paradiso National Park (Western Alps, Italy)
by Cristina Danna, Laura Poggio, Antonella Smeriglio, Mauro Mariotti and Laura Cornara
Plants 2022, 11(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020170 - 09 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3243
Abstract
Most of traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing because of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in bio-cultural refugia, such as mountain areas. New data on Traditional Ethnobotanical Knowledge (TEK) of Italian alpine regions were [...] Read more.
Most of traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing because of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in bio-cultural refugia, such as mountain areas. New data on Traditional Ethnobotanical Knowledge (TEK) of Italian alpine regions were collected relating to three valleys (Cogne, Valsavarenche, Rhêmes) of the Gran Paradiso National Park. Extensive dialogues and semi-structured interviews with 68 native informants (30 men, 38 women; mean age 70) were carried out between 2017 and 2019. A total of 3918 reports were collected, concerning 217 taxa (including 10 mushrooms, 1 lichen) mainly used for medicinal (42%) and food (33%) purposes. Minor uses were related to liquor making (7%), domestic (7%), veterinary (5%), forage (4%), cosmetic (1%) and other (2%). Medicinal plants were used to treat 14 ailment categories, of which the most important were respiratory (22%), digestive (19%), skin (13%), musculoskeletal (10%) and genitourinary (10%) diseases. Data were also evaluated by quantitative ethnobotanical indexes. The results show a rich and alive traditional knowledge concerning plants uses in the Gran Paradiso National Park. Plants resources may provide new opportunities from the scientific point of view, for the valorization of local products for health community and for sustainable land management. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2020

32 pages, 1855 KiB  
Review
Comparison between the Biological Active Compounds in Plants with Adaptogenic Properties (Rhaponticum carthamoides, Lepidium meyenii, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng)
by Velislava Todorova, Kalin Ivanov and Stanislava Ivanova
Plants 2022, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010064 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5010
Abstract
Background: In the 1960s, research into plant adaptogens began. Plants with adaptogenic properties have rich phytochemical compositions and have been used by humanity since ancient times. However, it is not still clear whether the adaptogenic properties are because of specific compounds or because [...] Read more.
Background: In the 1960s, research into plant adaptogens began. Plants with adaptogenic properties have rich phytochemical compositions and have been used by humanity since ancient times. However, it is not still clear whether the adaptogenic properties are because of specific compounds or because of the whole plant extracts. The aim of this review is to compare the bioactive compounds in the different parts of these plants. Methods: The search strategy was based on studies related to the isolation of bioactive compounds from Rhaponticum carthamoides, Lepidium meyenii, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Results: This review includes data from 259 articles. The phytochemicals isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides, Lepidium meyenii, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng were described and classified in several categories. Conclusions: Plant species have always played an important role in drug discovery because their effectiveness is based on the hundreds of years of experience with folk medicine in different nations. In our view, there is great potential in the near future for some of the phytochemicals found in these plants species to become pharmaceutical agents. Full article
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16 pages, 3715 KiB  
Article
Dihydrophenanthrenes from a Sicilian Accession of Himantoglossum robertianum (Loisel.) P. Delforge Showed Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antiproliferative Activities
by Natale Badalamenti, Sabino Russi, Maurizio Bruno, Viviana Maresca, Alessandro Vaglica, Vincenzo Ilardi, Anna Zanfardino, Michela Di Napoli, Mario Varcamonti, Piergiorgio Cianciullo, Giovanni Calice, Simona Laurino, Geppino Falco and Adriana Basile
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122776 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
The peculiar aspect that emerges from the study of Orchidaceae is the presence of various molecules, which are particularly interesting for pharmaceutical chemistry due to their wide range of biological resources. The aim of our study was to investigate the properties of two [...] Read more.
The peculiar aspect that emerges from the study of Orchidaceae is the presence of various molecules, which are particularly interesting for pharmaceutical chemistry due to their wide range of biological resources. The aim of our study was to investigate the properties of two dihydrophenanthrenes, isolated, for the first time, from Himantoglossum robertianum (Loisel.) P. Delforge (Orchidaceae) bulbs and roots. Chemical and spectroscopic study of the bulbs and roots of Himantoglossumrobertianum (Loisel.) P. Delforge resulted in the isolation of two known dihydrophenanthrenes—loroglossol and hircinol—never isolated from this plant species. The structures were evaluated based on 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional spectra, and by comparison with the literature. These two molecules have been tested for their possible antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic activities. In particular, it has been shown that these molecules cause an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); show antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and have anti-proliferative effects on gastric cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis effects. Therefore, these two molecules could be considered promising candidates for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical preparations. Full article
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24 pages, 4934 KiB  
Review
Vegetal Compounds as Sources of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Agents in Dentistry
by Raluca-Adriana Milutinovici, Doina Chioran, Roxana Buzatu, Ioana Macasoi, Susan Razvan, Raul Chioibas, Ion Virgil Corlan, Alina Tanase, Calniceanu Horia, Ramona Amina Popovici, Stefania Dinu, Cristina Dehelean, Alexandra Scurtu, Iulia Pinzaru and Codruta Soica
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102148 - 10 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Dental pathology remains a global health problem affecting both children and adults. The most important dental diseases are dental caries and periodontal pathologies. The main cause of oral health problems is overpopulation with pathogenic bacteria and for this reason, conventional therapy can often [...] Read more.
Dental pathology remains a global health problem affecting both children and adults. The most important dental diseases are dental caries and periodontal pathologies. The main cause of oral health problems is overpopulation with pathogenic bacteria and for this reason, conventional therapy can often be ineffective due to bacterial resistance or may have unpleasant side effects. For that reason, studies in the field have focused on finding new therapeutic alternatives. Special attention is paid to the plant kingdom, which offers a wide range of plants and active compounds in various pathologies. This review focused on the most used plants in the dental field, especially on active phytocompounds, both in terms of chemical structure and in terms of mechanism of action. It also approached the in vitro study of active compounds and the main types of cell lines used to elucidate the effect and mechanism of action. Thus, medicinal plants and their compounds represent a promising and interesting alternative to conventional therapy. Full article
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15 pages, 866 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Composition and Biological Properties of Rhus microphylla and Myrtillocactus geometrizans Fruit Extracts
by Jorge L. Guía-García, Ana V. Charles-Rodríguez, Julio C. López-Romero, Heriberto Torres-Moreno, Zlatina Genisheva, Armando Robledo-Olivo, M. Humberto Reyes-Valdés, Francisca Ramírez-Godina, Hermila T. García-Osuna and María L. Flores-López
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102010 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2801
Abstract
Plants from arid zones of Mexico are an interesting source of phytochemicals that exhibit a large number of biological properties. In this context, Rhus microphylla (Rm) and Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Mg) fruits have been used as folk remedies and to make traditional foods, respectively; [...] Read more.
Plants from arid zones of Mexico are an interesting source of phytochemicals that exhibit a large number of biological properties. In this context, Rhus microphylla (Rm) and Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Mg) fruits have been used as folk remedies and to make traditional foods, respectively; however, studies on their composition and bioactivity are limited. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the yields, phenolic composition, and bioactive properties (scavenging and reducing capacities, antiproliferative, and antifungal) of aqueous and hydroalcohol extracts of Rm and Mg fruits obtained by conventional agitation and ohmic heating (OH). The results showed that the Rm fruit extracts had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) values and the strongest scavenging and reducing capacities compared to those of Mg fruits, being characterized by the presence of gallic acid, while the composition of the Mg extracts varied with respect to the extraction conditions used. Regarding antifungal activity in vitro against two phytopathogenic fungi, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum, the hydroalcohol extracts obtained by conventional agitation of both plants (RmH-C and MgH-C) showed the best inhibitory effect, respectively. Interestingly, none of the extracts under study presented cytotoxicity against the noncancerous ARPE-19 cell line, while three extracts of Rm fruit exhibited a moderate antiproliferative activity against HeLa (cancerous) cell line. These findings reveal for the first time the potential of Rm and Mg fruits as a new source of bioactive compounds for future industrial applications. Full article
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24 pages, 4862 KiB  
Article
Variation in Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Volatile Composition of Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) during Seasonal Growth and Development
by Arun Kumar Gupta, Subhamoy Dhua, Partha Pratim Sahu, Giulia Abate, Poonam Mishra and Andrea Mastinu
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091941 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 8840
Abstract
Citrus fruits exhibit a high level of different phytoconstituents, of which the changes in the different parts of the fruit during ripening have not been thoroughly studied yet. Thus, in this study, we have investigated how different parts of pomelo fruit (Citrus [...] Read more.
Citrus fruits exhibit a high level of different phytoconstituents, of which the changes in the different parts of the fruit during ripening have not been thoroughly studied yet. Thus, in this study, we have investigated how different parts of pomelo fruit (Citrus grandis L.) are modified throughout the development of two consecutive growing seasons. In detail, the main phytochemical compounds, such as total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and naringin and tannin content, were analyzed. A systematic metabolism of these compounds was found during the development of the fruit, but some pomelo tissues showed a fluctuating trend, suggesting a dependence on the different growing season. Focusing on the tissue distribution of these compounds, the fruit membrane contained the highest level of total phenolic and flavonoid content; fruit flavedo displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and FRAP activities, whereas maximum accumulation of naringin was noticed in fruit albedo. Instead, the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and tannin contents were found in the pomelo juice. Regarding the distribution of compounds, a possible bias pattern for the accumulation of those compounds has been noticed throughout the fruit development. From the GC-MS analysis, a total of 111 compounds were identified, where 91 compounds were common in both seasons. Overall, these results could be useful for the food processing industry as guidelines for excellent quality foods and for introducing health-beneficial products and components into our daily diets. Full article
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15 pages, 3249 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study on Photo-Protective and Anti-Melanogenic Properties of Different Kadsura coccinea Extracts
by Joong Suk Jeon, He Mi Kang, Ju Ha Park, Jum Soon Kang, Yong Jae Lee, Young Hoon Park, Byoung Il Je, Sun Young Park and Young Whan Choi
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081633 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Kadsura coccinea (KC), a beneficial plant for human health, has been used for centuries in China, Thailand, and Korea in folk medicine and food. There is evidence supporting the biological effects of highly bioactive ingredients in KC such as lignans, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic [...] Read more.
Kadsura coccinea (KC), a beneficial plant for human health, has been used for centuries in China, Thailand, and Korea in folk medicine and food. There is evidence supporting the biological effects of highly bioactive ingredients in KC such as lignans, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, steroids, and amino acids. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects, functions, and mechanisms of the extracts from KC root (KCR), stem (KCS), leaf (KCL), and fruit (KCF) in UVA and UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanocytes. First, the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of KCR, KCS, KCL, and KCF and their radical scavenging activities were investigated. These parameters were found to be in the following order: KCL > KCR > KCS > KCF. UVA and UVB-irradiated keratinocytes were treated with KCR, KCS, KCL, and KCF, and keratinocyte viability, LDH release, intracellular ROS production, and apoptosis were examined. Our results demonstrated that KC extracts improved keratinocyte viability and reduced LDH release, intracellular ROS production, and apoptosis in the presence UVA and UVB irradiation. The overall photoprotective activity of the KC extracts was confirmed in the following order: KCL > KCR > KCS > KCF. Moreover, KC extracts significantly decreased the intracellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated melanocytes. Mechanistically, KC extracts reduced the protein and mRNA expression levels of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) in α-MSH-stimulated melanocytes. In addition, these extracts markedly downregulated myophthalmosis-related transcription factor expression and cAMP-related binding protein phosphorylation, which is upstream of the regulation of Tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. The overall anti-melanogenic activity of the KC extracts was established in the following order. KCL > KCR > KCS > KCF. Overall, the KC extracts exert photoprotective and anti-melanogenic effects, providing a basis for developing potential skin-whitening and photoprotective agents. Full article
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14 pages, 12235 KiB  
Article
Selective Anticancer Properties, Proapoptotic and Antibacterial Potential of Three Asplenium Species
by Venelin Petkov, Tsvetelina Batsalova, Plamen Stoyanov, Tsvetelina Mladenova, Desislava Kolchakova, Mariana Argirova, Tsvetanka Raycheva and Balik Dzhambazov
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061053 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
The ferns Asplenium ceterach L., Asplenium scolopendrium L. and Asplenium trichomanes L. have wide application in traditional medicine worldwide. However, the scientific research on their anticancer and antibacterial properties is insufficient. The present article aims to provide more information on this topic. Extracts [...] Read more.
The ferns Asplenium ceterach L., Asplenium scolopendrium L. and Asplenium trichomanes L. have wide application in traditional medicine worldwide. However, the scientific research on their anticancer and antibacterial properties is insufficient. The present article aims to provide more information on this topic. Extracts derived from the aerial parts of A. ceterach, A. scolopendrium and A. trichomanes were examined using a panel of in vitro assays with different bacterial and mammalian cells. The cytotoxicity and anticancer activity of the samples were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Trypan blue assays with three human (A549, FL, HeLa) and three murine (3T3, TIB-71, LS48) cell lines. Inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by the agar diffusion assay. Apoptosis-inducing properties of the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extract-treated cells was investigated by ELISA. The obtained results demonstrate selective anticancer activity of all three Asplenium species. The extract from A. ceterach displayed the strongest inhibitory properties against human cervical cancer cells and bacterial cells. It induced a lower level of cytotoxicity against mouse cell lines, indicating a species-specific effect. The extract from A. trichomanes demonstrated better anticancer and antibacterial properties than the sample from A. scolopendrium. Further experiments linked the mechanism of action of A. ceterach extract with oxidative stress-inducing potential and strong proapoptotic potential against the cervical cancer cell line HeLa. A. trichomanes and A. scolopendrium extracts appeared to be potent inducers of necrotic cell death. Full article
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12 pages, 3646 KiB  
Review
β-Ionone: Its Occurrence and Biological Function and Metabolic Engineering
by Antonello Paparella, Liora Shaltiel-Harpaza and Mwafaq Ibdah
Plants 2021, 10(4), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040754 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 6879
Abstract
β-Ionone is a natural plant volatile compound, and it is the 9,10 and 9′,10′ cleavage product of β-carotene by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase. β-Ionone is widely distributed in flowers, fruits, and vegetables. β-Ionone and other apocarotenoids comprise flavors, aromas, pigments, growth regulators, and [...] Read more.
β-Ionone is a natural plant volatile compound, and it is the 9,10 and 9′,10′ cleavage product of β-carotene by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase. β-Ionone is widely distributed in flowers, fruits, and vegetables. β-Ionone and other apocarotenoids comprise flavors, aromas, pigments, growth regulators, and defense compounds; serve as ecological cues; have roles as insect attractants or repellants, and have antibacterial and fungicidal properties. In recent years, β-ionone has also received increased attention from the biomedical community for its potential as an anticancer treatment and for other human health benefits. However, β-ionone is typically produced at relatively low levels in plants. Thus, expressing plant biosynthetic pathway genes in microbial hosts and engineering the metabolic pathway/host to increase metabolite production is an appealing alternative. In the present review, we discuss β-ionone occurrence, the biological activities of β-ionone, emphasizing insect attractant/repellant activities, and the current strategies and achievements used to reconstruct enzyme pathways in microorganisms in an effort to to attain higher amounts of the desired β-ionone. Full article
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10 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of the Balkan Endemic Micromeria frivaldszkyana (Degen) Velen. (Lamiaceae)
by Tsvetelina Mladenova, Plamen Stoyanov, Petko Denev, Stela Dimitrova, Mariana Katsarova, Desislava Teneva, Krasimir Todorov and Anelia Bivolarska
Plants 2021, 10(4), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040710 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
The current study investigates the content of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Balkan-endemic Micromeria frivaldszkyana. Glucose was the most abundant sugar in the plant (2.77%), followed by fructose (1.18%) and galactose (0.82%). [...] Read more.
The current study investigates the content of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Balkan-endemic Micromeria frivaldszkyana. Glucose was the most abundant sugar in the plant (2.77%), followed by fructose (1.18%) and galactose (0.82%). Eight organic acids were detected with quinic acid being in the highest content—556.3 mg/100 g DW. From the individual phenolic acids, rosmarinic acid was found in the most significant amounts (2040.1 ± 1.97 mg/100 g) and hesperidin was the major representative of flavonoids with content 131.2 ± 5.6 mg/100 g DW. The antioxidant activity of the plant was studied by six methods: 2,2′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH)—286.4 ± 10.43 mM TE/g, 2,2′azinobis (3)-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)—358.4 ± 10.4 mM TE/g, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)—388.0 ± 32.4 mM TE/g, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC)—905.6 ± 19.2 mM TE/g, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC)—3250.5 ± 208.1 µmol TE/g and Hydroxyl Radical Averting Capacity (HORAC)—306.1 ± 23.5 µmol GAE/g. In vitro antimicrobial activity against nine microorganism was evaluated but the extract displayed antimicrobial activity only against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 with inhibition zone diameter 9 mm and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 10 mg/mL. Full article
14 pages, 2604 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Quantification of Four Marker Compounds in Bauhinia coccinea Extract and Their Potential Inhibitory Effects on Alzheimer’s Disease Biomarkers
by Yu Jin Kim, Eunjin Sohn, Hye-Sun Lim, Yoonju Kim, Joo-Hwan Kim and Soo-Jin Jeong
Plants 2021, 10(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040702 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Bauhinia coccinea is a tropical woody plant widely distributed in Vietnam and Unnan in southern China. Although many studies have shown the biological activities of extracts from various other species in the genus, no studies have investigated the effects of B. coccinea extracts [...] Read more.
Bauhinia coccinea is a tropical woody plant widely distributed in Vietnam and Unnan in southern China. Although many studies have shown the biological activities of extracts from various other species in the genus, no studies have investigated the effects of B. coccinea extracts on biological systems. In the present study, a quantitative analysis of four marker compounds of ethanol extracts of B. coccinea branches (EEBC) was performed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) method. Among gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ellagic acid, and quercitrin contained in EEBC, the most abundant compound was (+)-catechin (18.736 mg/g). In addition, we investigated the EEBC on neuroprotection, antioxidation, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) marker molecules, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ). EEBC significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in a HT22 neuronal cell line and increased 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity markedly. EEBC also inhibited AChE and Aβ aggregation. Among the four compounds, gallic acid exhibited strong inhibitory effects against AChE activation. In the Aβ aggregation assay, the four marker compounds exhibited inhibitory effects lower than 30%. According to the results, EEBC could exert anti-AChE activation and Aβ aggregation activities based on the interactive effects of the marker compounds. Our findings suggest that EEBC are sources of therapeutic candidates for application in the development of AD medication based on AChE and Aβ dual targeting. Full article
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20 pages, 1273 KiB  
Article
Chemical Screening of Metabolites Profile from Romanian Tuber spp.
by Adina-Elena Segneanu, Melinda Cepan, Adrian Bobica, Ionut Stanusoiu, Ioan Cosmin Dragomir, Andrei Parau and Ioan Grozescu
Plants 2021, 10(3), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030540 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Truffles are the rarest species and appreciated species of edible fungi and are well-known for their distinctive aroma and high nutrient content. However, their chemical composition largely depends on the particularities of their grown environment. Recently, various studies investigate the phytoconstituents content of [...] Read more.
Truffles are the rarest species and appreciated species of edible fungi and are well-known for their distinctive aroma and high nutrient content. However, their chemical composition largely depends on the particularities of their grown environment. Recently, various studies investigate the phytoconstituents content of different species of truffles. However, this research is still very limited for Romanian truffles. This study reports the first complete metabolites profiles identification based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) of two different types of Romania truffles: Tuber magnatum pico and Tuber brumale. In mass spectra (MS) in positive mode, over 100 metabolites were identified from 14 secondary metabolites categories: amino acids, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, organic acids, fatty acids, phenolic acids, sulfur compounds, sterols, hydrocarbons, etc. Additionally, the biological activity of these secondary metabolite classes was discussed. Full article
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16 pages, 1274 KiB  
Article
Preserving Biodiversity as Source of Health Promoting Compounds: Phenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Four Varieties of Solanum lycopersicum L.
by Immacolata Faraone, Daniela Russo, Maria Ponticelli, Vincenzo Candido, Donato Castronuovo, Loriana Cardone, Chiara Sinisgalli, Fabiana Labanca and Luigi Milella
Plants 2021, 10(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030447 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a precious source of specialized metabolites with a great role in human health. Many varieties of tomatoes characterize the south of Italy’s agronomic production and biodiversity, thanks to its warm temperatures and favorable weather. The preservation of [...] Read more.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a precious source of specialized metabolites with a great role in human health. Many varieties of tomatoes characterize the south of Italy’s agronomic production and biodiversity, thanks to its warm temperatures and favorable weather. The preservation of biodiversity is a major goal of recent years, as each variety shows a peculiar phytochemical profile and provides a wide variety of metabolites with health-beneficial properties. Among the wide range of tomato varieties, literature focused on the most commercially-known types, including San Marzano and Datterino, while this study considered typical South Italy varieties for the first time, as well as Crovarese and Arsicolo. The aim of our work is to enrich the current knowledge about the tomato by evaluating the carotenoid content, the phytochemical profile by HPLC-DAD, and the biological activity of the different parts (peel, fruit, pulp, and seeds) of niche cultivars compared with commercial ones. Radical scavenging activity, assessed by the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, was higher in Crovarese peel extract, while Arsicolo possessed the highest lycopene content, underlying the importance of local ecotypes as a precious source of health promoting compounds. However, out of all of the varieties considered, peel extract was the most active one, opening new insights on their valorization in light of the circular economy. Full article
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19 pages, 3659 KiB  
Article
Flavan-3-ols and Proanthocyanidins in Japanese, Bohemian and Giant Knotweed
by Maja Bensa, Vesna Glavnik and Irena Vovk
Plants 2021, 10(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020402 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of invasive alien plants Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtkova) J.P. Bailey) were investigated using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled [...] Read more.
Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins of invasive alien plants Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.), giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia × bohemica (Chrtek & Chrtkova) J.P. Bailey) were investigated using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled to densitometry, image analysis and mass spectrometry (HPTLC–MS/MS). (+)-Catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epicatechin gallate and procyanidin B2 were found in rhizomes of these three species, and for the first time in Bohemian knotweed. (−)-Epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin C1 were found in giant knotweed rhizomes for the first time. Rhizomes of Bohemian and giant knotweed have the same chemical profiles of proanthocyanidins with respect to the degree of polymerization and with respect to gallates. Japanese and Bohemian knotweed have equal chromatographic fingerprint profiles with the additional peak not present in giant knotweed. Within the individual species giant knotweed rhizomes and leaves have the most similar fingerprints, while the fingerprints of Japanese and Bohemian knotweed rhizomes have additional peaks not found in leaves. Rhizomes of all three species proved to be a rich source of proanthocyanidins, with the highest content in Japanese and the lowest in Bohemian knotweed (based on the total peak areas). The contents of monomers in Japanese, Bohemian and giant knotweed rhizomes were 2.99 kg/t of dry mass (DM), 1.52 kg/t DM, 2.36 kg/t DM, respectively, while the contents of dimers were 2.81 kg/t DM, 1.09 kg/t DM, 2.17 kg/t DM, respectively. All B-type proanthocyanidins from monomers to decamers (monomers—flavan-3-ols, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers and decamers) and some of their gallates (monomer gallates, dimer gallates, dimer digallates, trimer gallates, tetramer gallates, pentamer gallates and hexamer gallates) were identified in rhizomes of Bohemian knotweed and giant knotweed. Pentamer gallates, hexamers, hexamer gallates, nonamers and decamers were identified for the first time in this study in Bohemian and giant knotweed rhizomes. Full article
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7 pages, 909 KiB  
Communication
Phenolic Acid Derivatives, Flavonoids and Other Bioactive Compounds from the Leaves of Cardiocrinum cordatum (Thunb.) Makino (Liliaceae)
by Kengo Hori, Takashi Watanabe and Hari Prasad Devkota
Plants 2021, 10(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020320 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Cardiocrinum cordatum (Thunb.) Makino (Family: Liliaceae), commonly known as ‘Ubayuri’, is native to Japan and some islands in the Russian Far East. It has high value as food, medicinal, and ornamental species. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the [...] Read more.
Cardiocrinum cordatum (Thunb.) Makino (Family: Liliaceae), commonly known as ‘Ubayuri’, is native to Japan and some islands in the Russian Far East. It has high value as food, medicinal, and ornamental species. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the main chemical constituents of the leaves of C. cordatum. A total of 19 compounds, namely caffeic acid (1), caffeic acid methyl ester (2), caffeic acid β-glucopyranosyl ester (3), caffeic acid 4-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), ferulic acid (5), isoferulic acid (6), protocatechuic acid (7), syringic acid (8), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-hydroquinone 1-O-β-glucopyranoside (9), esculetin (10), taxifolin (11), quercetin 3-O-(6-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)β-glucopyranoside-7-O-β-rhamnopyranoside (12), 2,7-dimethyl-2,4-diene-deca-α,ω-diacid β-glucopyranoside (13), 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (14), (3Z)-3-hexenyl β-glucopyranoside (15), tryptophan (16), adenine (17), adenosine (18), and 2-deoxyadenosine (19) were isolated using various chromatographic methods. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of their NMR spectroscopic data. All these compounds were isolated for the first time from the genus Cardiocrinum. Phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids can be considered as chemotaxonomic markers in the leaves of Cardiocrinum species. Full article
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10 pages, 966 KiB  
Communication
Monoterpenoids from the Fruits of Amomum tsao-ko Have Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production
by Seong Su Hong, Ji Eun Lee, Yeon Woo Jung, Ju-Hyoung Park, Jung A. Lee, Wonsik Jeong, Eun-Kyung Ahn, Chun Whan Choi and Joa Sub Oh
Plants 2021, 10(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020257 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
In our search for novel plant-derived inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) with potential for treating inflammatory diseases, the phytochemicals of Amomum tsao-ko fruits were investigated, leading to the isolation of one bicyclic nonane (1), three menthene skeleton monoterpenoids (2 [...] Read more.
In our search for novel plant-derived inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) with potential for treating inflammatory diseases, the phytochemicals of Amomum tsao-ko fruits were investigated, leading to the isolation of one bicyclic nonane (1), three menthene skeleton monoterpenoids (24), and two acyclic monoterpenoids (5 and 6). Their structures were identified using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 25 were obtained from the genus Amomum for the first time. All isolates were tested for their ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NO overproduction in RAW264.7 cells. Compound 4 was found to inhibit NO production. Western blotting analysis indicated that active compound 4 can regulate inducible NO synthase expression. In addition, lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 1 beta and interleukin-6 overproduction was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Full article
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15 pages, 1584 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activities of Crude and Purified Leonurus cardiaca Extracts
by Simone Angeloni, Eleonora Spinozzi, Filippo Maggi, Gianni Sagratini, Giovanni Caprioli, Germana Borsetta, Gunes Ak, Kouadio Ibrahime Sinan, Gokhan Zengin, Sabrina Arpini, Giacomo Mombelli and Massimo Ricciutelli
Plants 2021, 10(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020195 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3751
Abstract
Leonurus cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb distributed in Asia and Southeastern Europe and has been used in traditional medicine since antiquity for its role against cardiac and gynecological disorders. The polar extracts obtained from L. cardiaca aerial parts contain several compounds [...] Read more.
Leonurus cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb distributed in Asia and Southeastern Europe and has been used in traditional medicine since antiquity for its role against cardiac and gynecological disorders. The polar extracts obtained from L. cardiaca aerial parts contain several compounds among which alkaloids, iridoids, labdane diterpenes, and phenylethanoid glycosides play a major role in conferring protection against the aforementioned diseases. On the other hand, the antioxidant activities and the enzyme inhibitory properties of these extracts have not yet been deeply studied. On the above, in the present study, crude and purified extracts were prepared from the aerial parts of L. cardiaca and have been chemically characterized by spectrophotometric assays and HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Notably, the content of twelve secondary metabolites, namely phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, caffeoylmalic and trans-ferulic acids), flavonoids (rutin and quercetin), phenylethanoid glycosides (verbascoside and lavandulifolioside), guanidine pseudoalkaloids (leonurine), iridoids (harpagide), diterpenes (forskolin), and triterpenes (ursolic acid), has been determined. Furthermore, the extracts were tested for their antioxidant capabilities (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, and ferrous chelating assays) and enzyme inhibitory properties against cholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase, and glucosidase. The purified extracts contained higher phytochemical content than the crude ones, with caffeoylmalic acid and verbascoside as the most abundant compounds. A linear correlation between total phenolics, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power of extracts has been found. Notably, quercetin, caffeic acid, lavandulifolioside, verbascoside, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and ursolic acid influenced the main variations in the bioactivities found in L. cardiaca extracts. Our findings provide further insights into the chemico-biological traits of L. cardiaca and a scientific basis for the development of nutraceuticals and food supplements. Full article
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2020

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34 pages, 12936 KiB  
Review
Sterols and Triterpenes: Antiviral     Potential Supported by In-Silico Analysis
by Nourhan Hisham Shady, Khayrya A. Youssif, Ahmed M. Sayed, Lassaad Belbahri, Tomasz Oszako, Hossam M. Hassan and Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
Plants 2021, 10(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010041 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5133
Abstract
The acute respiratory syndrome caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) caused severe panic all over the world. The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has already brought massive human suffering and major economic disruption and unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 so far. Herbal [...] Read more.
The acute respiratory syndrome caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) caused severe panic all over the world. The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has already brought massive human suffering and major economic disruption and unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 so far. Herbal medicines and purified natural products can provide a rich resource for novel antiviral drugs. Therefore, in this review, we focused on the sterols and triterpenes as potential candidates derived from natural sources with well-reported in vitro efficacy against numerous types of viruses. Moreover, we compiled from these reviewed compounds a library of 162 sterols and triterpenes that was subjected to a computer-aided virtual screening against the active sites of the recently reported SARS-CoV-2 protein targets. Interestingly, the results suggested some compounds as potential drug candidates for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Full article
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14 pages, 1905 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Profile, Safety Assessment and Wound Healing Activity of Artemisia absinthium L.
by Amel Boudjelal, Antonella Smeriglio, Giovanna Ginestra, Marcella Denaro and Domenico Trombetta
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121744 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3465
Abstract
The aim of study was to validate, by in vitro and in vivo studies, the traditional use for wound-healing activity of Artemisia absinthium L. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS) analysis allowed to identify [...] Read more.
The aim of study was to validate, by in vitro and in vivo studies, the traditional use for wound-healing activity of Artemisia absinthium L. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS) analysis allowed to identify eleven polyphenols with chlorogenic acid as the most abundant compound (3.75 g/100 g of dry extract). After that, antibacterial activity as well as acute dermal and oral toxicity were assessed in animal models. In order to investigate the wound-healing activity of A. absinthium methanol extract, two ointments were formulated (MEO 5% and 10%). The ointment with the highest concentration of plant extract (10%) showed a statistically significant effect on the rats wound contraction, similar to that exerted by the reference drug Cicatryl-Bio. Moreover, A. absinthium methanol extract showed the best antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 (MIC 1.25–2.5 mg/mL) and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (0.31–0.625 mg/mL). The absence of oral and topical toxicity of the treated animals allowed to establish the safety of the ointments. Overall, data collected in the present study support and validate the use of A. absinthium as a wound healing agent in the Algerian traditional medicine. Full article
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19 pages, 5411 KiB  
Article
Phytochemistry of Verbascum Species Growing in Iraqi Kurdistan and Bioactive Iridoids from the Flowers of Verbascum calvum
by Hawraz Ibrahim M. Amin, Faiq H. S. Hussain, Gianluca Gilardoni, Zaw Min Thu, Marco Clericuzio and Giovanni Vidari
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091066 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7486
Abstract
Traditional medicine is still widely practiced in Iraqi Kurdistan, especially by people living in villages on mountainous regions; medicinal plants are also sold in the markets of the large towns, such as at Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region. About a [...] Read more.
Traditional medicine is still widely practiced in Iraqi Kurdistan, especially by people living in villages on mountainous regions; medicinal plants are also sold in the markets of the large towns, such as at Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region. About a dozen of Verbascum species (Scrophulariaceae) are commonly employed in the Kurdish traditional medicine, especially for treating burns and other skin diseases. However, the isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites from these plants has not been the subject of intense scientific investigations in Iraq. Therefore, the information reported in the literature about the species growing in Kurdistan has been summarized in the first part of this paper, although investigations have been performed on vegetable samples collected in neighbouring countries, such as Turkey and Iran. In the second part of the work, we have investigated, for the first time, the contents of a methanol and a hydromethanol extract of V. calvum flowers. The extracts exhibited weak antimicrobial activities, whereas the methanol extract showed significant antiproliferative effects against an A549 lung cancer cell line. Moreover, both extracts exhibited a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging action against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, comparable to that of ascorbic acid. In the subsequent phytochemical study, a high phenolic content was determined in both extracts by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and medium-pressure liquid chromatographic (MPLC) separation led to the isolation of iridoid glucosides ajugol and aucubin from the methanol extract. In conclusion, the high anti-inflammatory effects of aucubin and the remarkable antioxidant (antiradical) properties of the extracts give scientific support to the traditional use of V. calvum flowers for the preparation in Kurdistan of remedies to cure skin burns and inflammations. Full article
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33 pages, 1359 KiB  
Review
Artemisia absinthium L.—Importance in the History of Medicine, the Latest Advances in Phytochemistry and Therapeutical, Cosmetological and Culinary Uses
by Agnieszka Szopa, Joanna Pajor, Paweł Klin, Agnieszka Rzepiela, Hosam O. Elansary, Fahed A. Al-Mana, Mohamed A. Mattar and Halina Ekiert
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091063 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 20650
Abstract
Artemisia absinthium—wormwood (Asteraceae)—is a very important species in the history of medicine, formerly described in medieval Europe as “the most important master against all exhaustions”. It is a species known as a medicinal plant in Europe and also in West [...] Read more.
Artemisia absinthium—wormwood (Asteraceae)—is a very important species in the history of medicine, formerly described in medieval Europe as “the most important master against all exhaustions”. It is a species known as a medicinal plant in Europe and also in West Asia and North America. The raw material obtained from this species is Absinthii herba and Artemisiae absinthii aetheroleum. The main substances responsible for the biological activity of the herb are: the essential oil, bitter sesquiterpenoid lactones, flavonoids, other bitterness-imparting compounds, azulenes, phenolic acids, tannins and lignans. In the official European medicine, the species is used in both allopathy and homeopathy. In the traditional Asian and European medicine, it has been used as an effective agent in gastrointestinal ailments and also in the treatment of helminthiasis, anaemia, insomnia, bladder diseases, difficult-to-heal wounds, and fever. Today, numerous other directions of biological activity of the components of this species have been demonstrated and confirmed by scientific research, such as antiprotozoal, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, analgesic, neuroprotective, anti-depressant, procognitive, neurotrophic, and cell membrane stabilizing and antioxidant activities. A. absinthium is also making a successful career as a cosmetic plant. In addition, the importance of this species as a spice plant and valuable additive in the alcohol industry (famous absinthe and vermouth-type wines) has not decreased. The species has also become an object of biotechnological research. Full article
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27 pages, 12025 KiB  
Article
Comparative and Functional Screening of Three Species Traditionally used as Antidepressants: Valeriana officinalis L., Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. and Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC.
by Laura Cornara, Gabriele Ambu, Domenico Trombetta, Marcella Denaro, Susanna Alloisio, Jessica Frigerio, Massimo Labra, Govinda Ghimire, Marco Valussi and Antonella Smeriglio
Plants 2020, 9(8), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080994 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6742
Abstract
The essential oils (EOs) of three Caprifoliaceae species, the Eurasiatic Valeriana officinalis (Vo), the Himalayan Valeriana jatamansi (Vj) and Nardostachys jatamansi (Nj), are traditionally used to treat neurological disorders. Roots/rhizomes micromorphology, DNA barcoding and EOs phytochemical characterization were carried out, while biological effects [...] Read more.
The essential oils (EOs) of three Caprifoliaceae species, the Eurasiatic Valeriana officinalis (Vo), the Himalayan Valeriana jatamansi (Vj) and Nardostachys jatamansi (Nj), are traditionally used to treat neurological disorders. Roots/rhizomes micromorphology, DNA barcoding and EOs phytochemical characterization were carried out, while biological effects on the nervous system were assessed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and microelectrode arrays (MEA). Nj showed the highest inhibitory activity on AChE (IC50 67.15 μg/mL) followed by Vo (IC50 127.30 μg/mL) and Vj (IC50 246.84 μg/mL). MEA analyses on rat cortical neurons, carried out by recording mean firing rate (MFR) and mean bursting rate (MBR), revealed stronger inhibition by Nj (IC50 18.8 and 11.1 μg/mL) and Vo (16.5 and 22.5 μg/mL), compared with Vj (68.5 and 89.3 μg/mL). These results could be related to different EO compositions, since sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes significantly contribute to the observed effects, but the presence of oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes and ketones is a discriminating factor in determining the order of potency. Our multidisciplinary approach represents an important tool to avoid the adulteration of herbal drugs and permits the evaluation of the effectiveness of EOs that could be used for a wide range of therapeutic applications. Full article
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19 pages, 3760 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Content of Some Groups of Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activity of Extracts of Various Parts of Heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull) at Different Growth Stages
by Victoria Chepel, Valery Lisun and Liubov Skrypnik
Plants 2020, 9(8), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9080926 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5049
Abstract
Heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull.) is noted for a diverse chemical composition and a broad range of biological activity. The current study was aimed at monitoring changes in the accumulation of certain groups of phenolic compounds in various organs of heather (leaves, [...] Read more.
Heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull.) is noted for a diverse chemical composition and a broad range of biological activity. The current study was aimed at monitoring changes in the accumulation of certain groups of phenolic compounds in various organs of heather (leaves, stems, roots, rhizomes, flowers, and seeds) at different growth stages (vegetative, floral budding, flowering, and seed ripening) as well as studying antioxidant (employing the DPPH and FRAP assays) and antibacterial activity of its extracts. The highest total amount of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and proanthocyanidins was detected in leaves and roots at all growth stages, except for the flowering stage. At the flowering stage, the highest content of some groups of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins) was observed in flowers. Highest antioxidant activity was recorded for the flower extracts (about 500 mg of ascorbic acid equivalents per gram according to the DPPH assay) and for the leaf extract at the ripening stage (about 350 mg of ascorbic acid equivalents per gram according to the FRAP assay). Strong correlation was noted between antioxidant activity (DPPH) and the content of anthocyanins (r = 0.75, p ≤ 0.01) as well as between antioxidant activity (FRAP) and the total content of phenolic compounds (r = 0.77, p ≤ 0.01). Leaf extracts and stem extracts turned out to perform antibacterial action against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, whereas root extracts appeared to be active only against B. subtilis, and rhizome extracts against E. coli. Full article
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14 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity of β-Carboline Profile of Banisteriopsis caapi and Ayahuasca, a Plant and a Brew with Neuropharmacological Potential
by Beatriz Werneck Lopes Santos, Regina Célia de Oliveira, Julia Sonsin-Oliveira, Christopher William Fagg, José Beethoven Figueiredo Barbosa and Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Plants 2020, 9(7), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9070870 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 8355
Abstract
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive infusion with a large pharmacological application normally prepared with Banisteriopsis caapi, which contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors β-carbolines, and Psichotria virids, which contains the serotonin receptor agonist N,N dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The objectives of this study were to [...] Read more.
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive infusion with a large pharmacological application normally prepared with Banisteriopsis caapi, which contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors β-carbolines, and Psichotria virids, which contains the serotonin receptor agonist N,N dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical profile of B. caapi and of ayahuasca collected in various Brazilian regions. In total, 176 plant lianas, of which 159 B. caapi and 33 ayahuasca samples were analyzed. Dried liana samples were powdered, extracted with methanol, diluted, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Ayahuasca samples were diluted and analyzed. Mean concentrations in B. caapi were 4.79 mg/g harmine, 0.451 mg/g harmaline, and 2.18 mg/g tetrahydroharmine (THH), with a high variability among the samples (RSD from 78.9 to 170%). Native B. caapi samples showed significantly higher harmine concentrations than cultivated ones, and samples from the Federal District/Goiás had higher THH content than those collected in the State of Acre. The other Malpighiaceae samples did not contain β-carbolines, except for one D. pubipetala sample. Concentrations in ayahuasca samples ranged from 0.109 to 7.11 mg/mL harmine, 0.012 to 0.945 mg/mL harmaline, 0.09 to 3.05 mg/mL THH, and 0.10 to 3.12 mg/mL DMT. The analysis of paired ayahuasca/B. caapi confirmed that harmine is reduced to harmaline and to THH during the brew preparation. This is the largest study conducted with Malpighiaceae samples and showed a large variability in the main β-carbolines present in B. caapi. This biodiversity is a challenge for standardization of the material used in ethnopharmacological studies of B. caapi and ayahuasca. Full article
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