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Review

β-Ionone: Its Occurrence and Biological Function and Metabolic Engineering

1
Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture, and Environment, University of Teramo, Via Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
2
Migal Galilee Research Institute, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 11016, Israel
3
Tel Hai College, P.O. Box 831, Kiryat Shmona, Upper Galilee 12210, Israel
4
Newe Yaar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laura Cornara
Plants 2021, 10(4), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040754
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 4 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 April 2021 / Published: 12 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds in Plants)
β-Ionone is a natural plant volatile compound, and it is the 9,10 and 9′,10′ cleavage product of β-carotene by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase. β-Ionone is widely distributed in flowers, fruits, and vegetables. β-Ionone and other apocarotenoids comprise flavors, aromas, pigments, growth regulators, and defense compounds; serve as ecological cues; have roles as insect attractants or repellants, and have antibacterial and fungicidal properties. In recent years, β-ionone has also received increased attention from the biomedical community for its potential as an anticancer treatment and for other human health benefits. However, β-ionone is typically produced at relatively low levels in plants. Thus, expressing plant biosynthetic pathway genes in microbial hosts and engineering the metabolic pathway/host to increase metabolite production is an appealing alternative. In the present review, we discuss β-ionone occurrence, the biological activities of β-ionone, emphasizing insect attractant/repellant activities, and the current strategies and achievements used to reconstruct enzyme pathways in microorganisms in an effort to to attain higher amounts of the desired β-ionone. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological activity; biosynthesis; β-ionone; insect attractant/repellant; metabolic engineering biological activity; biosynthesis; β-ionone; insect attractant/repellant; metabolic engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paparella, A.; Shaltiel-Harpaza, L.; Ibdah, M. β-Ionone: Its Occurrence and Biological Function and Metabolic Engineering. Plants 2021, 10, 754. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040754

AMA Style

Paparella A, Shaltiel-Harpaza L, Ibdah M. β-Ionone: Its Occurrence and Biological Function and Metabolic Engineering. Plants. 2021; 10(4):754. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040754

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paparella, Antonello, Liora Shaltiel-Harpaza, and Mwafaq Ibdah. 2021. "β-Ionone: Its Occurrence and Biological Function and Metabolic Engineering" Plants 10, no. 4: 754. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040754

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