Special Issue "Gluten-Free Diet"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Luca Elli Website E-Mail
Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
Interests: gastroenterology disorders; FODMAP diet; non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few years, an increasing number of subjects have started a gluten free diet (GFD). Part of them is composed by patients affected by celiac disease (CD), who have to follow a strict GFD for medical purposes. However, a high number of subjects are, nowadays, following a GFD without medical counseling and without a specific diagnosis needing a gluten withdrawal from the diet. This is due to the frequently incorrect information diffused on the Internet and mass media on the topic of GFD. For these reasons, the research on the GFD and its clinical use and biological effects is extremely needed.

Dr. Luca Elli
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Gluten
  • Gluten free Diet
  • Celiac disease
  • Non celiac gluten sensitivity
  • Non celiac wheat sensitivity
  • Amylase trypsin inhibitor
  • Gliadin
  • Microbiota
  • Intestinal barrier

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Gluten Rhapsody
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030589 - 11 Mar 2019
Abstract
For decades, gluten-free dieting (GFD) has been accepted as the only therapeutic approach to coeliac disease (CD) and, more recently, for non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), a term to refer to the so-called gluten-related disorders (GRD) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Celiac Immunogenic Potential of α-Gliadin Epitope Variants from Triticum and Aegilops Species
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020220 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The high global demand of wheat and its subsequent consumption arise from the physicochemical properties of bread dough and its contribution to the protein intake in the human diet. Gluten is the main structural complex of wheat proteins and subjects affected by celiac [...] Read more.
The high global demand of wheat and its subsequent consumption arise from the physicochemical properties of bread dough and its contribution to the protein intake in the human diet. Gluten is the main structural complex of wheat proteins and subjects affected by celiac disease (CD) cannot tolerate gluten protein. Within gluten proteins, α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic fraction since they contain the main T-cell stimulating epitopes (DQ2.5-glia-α1, DQ2.5-glia-α2, and DQ2.5-glia-α3). In this work, the celiac immunotoxic potential of α-gliadins was studied within Triticeae: diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species. The abundance and immunostimulatory capacity of CD canonical epitopes and variants (with one or two mismatches) in all α-gliadin sequences were determined. The results showed that the canonical epitopes DQ2.5-glia-α1 and DQ2.5-glia-α3 were more frequent than DQ2.5-glia-α2. A higher abundance of canonical DQ2.5-glia-α1 epitope was found to be associated with genomes of the BBAADD, AA, and DD types; however, the abundance of DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope variants was very high in BBAADD and BBAA wheat despite their low abundance in the canonical epitope. The most abundant substitution was that of proline to serine, which was disposed mainly on the three canonical DQ2.5 domains on position 8. Interestingly, our results demonstrated that the natural introduction of Q to H at any position eliminates the toxicity of the three T-cell epitopes in the α-gliadins. The results provided a rational approach for the introduction of natural amino acid substitutions to eliminate the toxicity of three T-cell epitopes, while maintaining the technological properties of commercial wheats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exposure to Different Amounts of Dietary Gluten in Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS): An Exploratory Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010136 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
It is unclear whether patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can tolerate gluten. We have evaluated the changes of both gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life for NCGS patients after the re-introduction of dietary gluten. Twenty-two NCGS patients reporting functional gastroenterological symptoms and [...] Read more.
It is unclear whether patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can tolerate gluten. We have evaluated the changes of both gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life for NCGS patients after the re-introduction of dietary gluten. Twenty-two NCGS patients reporting functional gastroenterological symptoms and on gluten-free diet (GFD) for the previous three weeks were exposed to incremental gluten-containing diets. Three groups were compared at baseline (immediately after 3-weeks on GFD) and immediately after the return of symptomatology: (i) a group tolerating a low-gluten diet (3.5 g gluten/day, week 1, n = 8), (ii) a group tolerating a mid-gluten diet (8 g gluten/day, week 2, n = 6), and (iii) a group tolerating a high-gluten diet (13 g gluten/day, week 3, n = 8). Their gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. The most common symptoms were: constipation (46%), abdominal pain (50%) and dyspepsia (38%). A decrease in several short form health survey (SF-36) sub-scores (all p < 0.03) after gluten re-introduction was only observed in the group tolerating the low-gluten diet; the same group showed a lower post-intervention role-emotional SF-36 score (p = 0.01). Most gastrointestinal symptoms remained similar after gluten re-introduction. However, a decrease in the general perception of well-being was only found after gluten re-introduction in the group tolerating a low-gluten diet (p = 0.01); the same was true when comparing the post-intervention general well-being perception among the three groups (p = 0.050). In conclusion, dissimilar responses from patients with NCGS were observed after the re-introduction of gluten, with gluten at a low dosage affecting the quality of life and general well-being of a group of patients, whereas others tolerate even higher doses of dietary gluten. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Celiac Disease Diagnosed through Screening Programs in At-Risk Adults Is Not Associated with Worse Adherence to the Gluten-Free Diet and Might Protect from Osteopenia/Osteoporosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121940 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Screening strategies to detect celiac disease (CD) in at-risk subjects are of paramount importance to prevent the possible long-term complications of this condition. It is therefore of strategic relevance to understand whether patients diagnosed through screening follow a strict gluten-free diet (GFD), as [...] Read more.
Screening strategies to detect celiac disease (CD) in at-risk subjects are of paramount importance to prevent the possible long-term complications of this condition. It is therefore of strategic relevance to understand whether patients diagnosed through screening follow a strict gluten-free diet (GFD), as the non-compliance to this diet can make screening efforts pointless. Currently, no studies have verified whether CD patients diagnosed in their adulthood are adhering to the GFD years after the diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 750 CD patients diagnosed in our center during January 2004–December 2013 to verify differences between screening detected and clinically diagnosed patients. The groups shared a similar adherence to the GFD (91.2 versus 89.8%, p = 0.857). Moreover, the rates of non-responsive CD, GFD-induced metabolic alterations, and persistence in controls were also similar. Instead, screening-detected patients had a significantly lower rate of osteopenia/osteoporosis at diagnosis (31.3 versus 46%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, screening strategies for CD in at-risk groups should be encouraged even in the adult population. Patients diagnosed through these strategies had no additional problems compared to those diagnosed for clinical suspicion and might benefit from a protective effect against metabolic bone disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Body Composition and a Gluten Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111817 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet (GFD). However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and adverse changes in body composition. The study aimed to assess [...] Read more.
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet (GFD). However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and adverse changes in body composition. The study aimed to assess the impact of a GFD on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), muscle mass (MM) [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and body cell mass (BCM) [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented a significantly higher increase in weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021). The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Retrospective Study on Dietary FODMAP Intake in Celiac Patients Following a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111769 - 15 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Our aim was to evaluate the intake of foods containing fermentable oligo/di/mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a possible factor that induces gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease (CD) patients. We collected seven-day weighed food records for 104 CD patients and 91 healthy volunteers. [...] Read more.
Our aim was to evaluate the intake of foods containing fermentable oligo/di/mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a possible factor that induces gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease (CD) patients. We collected seven-day weighed food records for 104 CD patients and 91 healthy volunteers. All evaluated food items were from sources with high and low content of FODMAP, which were divided into cereals and sweets, sweeteners and soft drinks, fruits, dried fruits, and vegetables. Nutrient intake was calculated using the food database of the European Institute of Oncology. The symptoms reported were assessed by a Rome IV Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnostic questionnaire and by specific questions for the evaluation of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The 12% of CD patients met IBS symptoms criteria as opposed to 6% of controls (p = 0.09) and 27% of patients reported FGIDs symptoms vs. 22% of healthy controls (p = 0.42). The intake by CD patients was significantly higher than healthy volunteers for: sweeteners and sugars with low content of FODMAP (p = 0.0007), fruits, dried fruits, and vegetables high in FODMAP (p = 0.003) and low in FODMAP (p = 0.04) when compared to controls. CD patients had a lower intake of cereals and sweets with a high content of FODMAP (p = 0.00001). Healthy volunteers consumed significantly higher alcoholic beverages and fats high in FODMAP (both p < 0.044). The mean daily intake of other food categories did not differ between both groups. Even though CD patients had a low intake of gluten-free cereals high in FODMAP, they still consumed a significant amount of fruits and vegetables high in FODMAP. The clinical effect of a concomitant gluten-free diet and low-FODMAP diet should be prospectively evaluated as a supportive therapy in CD patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Celiac Male’s Gluten-Free Diet Profile: Comparison to that of the Control Population and Celiac Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111713 - 08 Nov 2018
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to analyze the body composition and dietary profile of Spanish celiac men and to compare them to control men and celiac women from our previous studies. Forty-two celiac men (31.5 ± 11.9 years) were recruited and [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to analyze the body composition and dietary profile of Spanish celiac men and to compare them to control men and celiac women from our previous studies. Forty-two celiac men (31.5 ± 11.9 years) were recruited and anthropometric measurements were taken. Analysis of energy consumption, macro- and micronutrient intake and food frequency consumption was carried out. Celiac men were more overweight and obese than celiac women, but less than the control population, reporting the same energy intake and macronutrient distribution. Most micronutrient deficiencies in celiac men were not directly related to a gluten free diet; these were also observed for the entire population. The least adherence to Dietary Reference Intakes in women was reported for iron, iodine, potassium and selenium, whereas magnesium intake was higher than in men. Among celiac participants (both genders), cereal, vegetable and legume consumption was poor and meat intake was contrastingly excessive. In conclusion, the dietary profile of celiac men is as unbalanced as that of control men but slightly more than that of celiac women. General nutritional education should be given to both general and celiac populations, and specific advices to celiac men, in order to decrease the risk of celiac disease-related pathologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
First Insights into the Gut Microbiota of Mexican Patients with Celiac Disease and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111641 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are common chronic enteropathies and increasing evidence suggests an involvement of the gut microbiota. We examined the gut microbiota in Mexican people afflicted with GRDs. Ultra-high-throughput 16S marker sequencing was used to deeply describe the duodenal and fecal microbiota of [...] Read more.
Gluten-related disorders (GRDs) are common chronic enteropathies and increasing evidence suggests an involvement of the gut microbiota. We examined the gut microbiota in Mexican people afflicted with GRDs. Ultra-high-throughput 16S marker sequencing was used to deeply describe the duodenal and fecal microbiota of patients with celiac disease (CD, n = 6), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS, n = 12), and healthy subjects (n = 12) from our local area. Additionally, we also investigated the changes in gut microbiota after four weeks on a gluten-free diet (GFD) in a subset of patients from whom paired samples were available. Despite a high inter-individual variability, significant differences in various microbial populations were identified. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) method revealed that the genus Actinobacillus and the family Ruminococcaceae were higher in the duodenal and fecal microbiota of NCGS patients, respectively, while Novispirillum was higher in the duodenum of CD patients (p < 0.05, LDA score > 3.5). Interestingly, paired samples from NCGS patients showed a significant difference in duodenal Pseudomonas between the baseline period (median: 1.3%; min/max: 0.47–6.8%) and the period after four weeks on GFD (14.8%; 2.3–38.5%, p < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). These results encourage more research on GRDs in México. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101424 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) can only be treated by rigorous life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). The study included 102 mothers and their CD children treated with GFD for at least two years. Frequency and cause of diet failure in children treated at present (54 children) [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) can only be treated by rigorous life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). The study included 102 mothers and their CD children treated with GFD for at least two years. Frequency and cause of diet failure in children treated at present (54 children) and 10 years ago (48 children) were compared. Dietary adherence was evaluated serologically (tTG), while diet management difficulties were examined by means of a questionnaire. The study shows that one-third of patients fail to follow GFD, more often 10 years ago than now (40% vs. 26%; p < 0.05), mainly children aged 13–18 (54% vs. 40% now; p < 0.05). Younger children (up to 12) are less likely to abandon the diet (27% vs. 8%; p < 0.05). In this age group non-intentional diet failure prevails, while teenagers interrupt their diet intentionally (45% vs. 33%; p = ns (small population of children in this groups)). Currently, the most common causes of teenage diet failure are the absence of symptoms after consuming a small amount of gluten and, even more often, troublesome diet administration. Previously, the absence of peer acceptance prevailed. With this study we found that: 1. In West Pomerania, every fourth CD child does not follow GFD. 2. For years, teenagers have failed to follow GFD due to the absence of symptoms after consuming small amounts of gluten. 3. The incidence of non-intentional failure to follow GFD has significantly decreased over years, which indicates better dietary care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Social and Emotional Fears and Worries Influencing the Quality of Life of Female Celiac Disease Patients Following a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101414 - 03 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The gluten-free diet is effective in the majority of celiac disease (CD) patients, but it is burdensome and may influence quality of life (QoL). The aim of the study was to analyze the social and emotional fears and worries influencing the QoL of [...] Read more.
The gluten-free diet is effective in the majority of celiac disease (CD) patients, but it is burdensome and may influence quality of life (QoL). The aim of the study was to analyze the social and emotional fears and worries influencing the QoL of female CD patients following a gluten-free (GF) diet, as well as to indicate the sociodemographic interfering factors. The study was conducted on a group of 251 female CD patients, while emotional, social and worries subscales of the Celiac Disease Questionnaire (CDQ) were applied, as well as purchase-related emotions and behaviors were assessed. Respondents declaring worse economic status obtained significantly lower scores in the emotional, social and worries subscales of the CDQ than respondents declaring better economic status, while for other factors (CD duration, GFD adherence, BMI, place of residence and educational level) no significant association was stated in the multi-factor analysis. Moreover, respondents declaring worse economic status more often declared that a bad mood affected their purchase decisions than did respondents declaring better economic status. It was stated, that the economic status of CD patient could be one of the most important factors influencing their social and emotional fears and worries. It may be supposed that low economic status may lead some CD patients to choose to relieve stress by purchasing GF products instead of other products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of a Defined Gluten Hydrolysate for Diagnosis and Clinical Investigations of Wheat Hypersensitivities
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101411 - 02 Oct 2018
Abstract
Gluten is the trigger for celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCGS), and wheat allergy. An oral food challenge is often needed for diagnosis, but there are no standardized gluten challenge materials with known composition available. To fill this gap, two materials, commercially [...] Read more.
Gluten is the trigger for celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCGS), and wheat allergy. An oral food challenge is often needed for diagnosis, but there are no standardized gluten challenge materials with known composition available. To fill this gap, two materials, commercially available gluten and a food-grade gluten hydrolysate (pepgluten), were extensively characterized. Pepgluten was prepared from gluten by incubation with a pepsin dietary supplement and acetic acid at 37 °C for 120 min. The components of pepgluten were crude protein (707 mg/g), starch (104 mg/g), water (59 mg/g), fat (47 mg/g), dietary fiber (41 mg/g) and ash (11 mg/g). The protein/peptide fraction of pepgluten (1 g) contained equivalents derived from 369 mg gliadins and 196 mg glutenins, resulting in 565 mg total gluten equivalents, 25 mg albumins/globulins, 22 mg α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and 48 mg pepsin capsule proteins. The slightly acidic, dough-like smell and bitter taste of pepgluten could be completely camouflaged in multivitamin juice with bitter lemon, grapefruit juice, or vegetable and fruit smoothies. Thus, pepgluten met the criteria for placebo-controlled challenges (active and placebo materials are identical regarding appearance, taste, smell, and texture) and is appropriate as a standard preparation for the oral food challenge and clinical investigations to study wheat hypersensitivities. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Availability and Nutritional Adequacy of Gluten-Free Bread and Pasta
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101370 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Management of coeliac disease (CD) requires the removal of gluten from the diet. Evidence of the availability, cost, and nutritional adequacy of gluten-free (GF) bread and pasta products is limited. GF flours are exempt from UK legislation that requires micronutrient fortification of white [...] Read more.
Management of coeliac disease (CD) requires the removal of gluten from the diet. Evidence of the availability, cost, and nutritional adequacy of gluten-free (GF) bread and pasta products is limited. GF flours are exempt from UK legislation that requires micronutrient fortification of white wheat flour. This study surveyed the number and cost of bread and pasta products available and evaluated the back-of-pack nutritional information, the ingredient content, and the presence of fortification nutrients of GF bread and pasta, compared to standard gluten-containing equivalent products. Product information was collected from four supermarket websites. Standard products were significantly cheaper, with more products available than GF (p < 0.05). GF bread products were significantly higher in fat and fiber (p < 0.05). All GF products were lower in protein than standard products (p < 0.01). Only 5% of GF breads were fortified with all four mandatory fortification nutrients (calcium, iron, nicotinic acid or nicotamide and thiamin), 28% of GF breads were fortified with calcium and iron only. This lack of fortification may increase the risk of micronutrient deficiency in coeliac sufferers. It is recommended that fortification legislation is extended to include all GF products, in addition to increased regulation of the nutritional content of GF foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Life of Celiac Patients in Brazil: Questionnaire Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091167 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
(1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder. The manifestations of the disease and the obligatory life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) are associated with the impairment of patients’ quality of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and validate [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder. The manifestations of the disease and the obligatory life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) are associated with the impairment of patients’ quality of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and validate a celiac disease quality of life (CD-QoL) questionnaire and apply it to a representative number of Brazilian CD patients. (2) Methods: A cross-cultural Brazilian-Portuguese version of the CD-QoL was developed according to revised international guidelines. The questionnaire was administered to 450 celiac patients. The reliability, reproducibility and validity were studied. (3) Results: The Brazilian CD-QoL questionnaire presents valid measures of reproducibility and internal consistency. Early diagnosis is related to higher scores of Brazilian CD-QoL social, sub- and total scale. There was a positive correlation between higher education level and higher QoL. Individuals with partners tend to have a better emotional subscale of QoL. CD-patients who follow a strict GFD have highest QoL scale values. Men scored higher than women on the CD-QoL. All results were statistically significant except for the gastrointestinal subscale. (4) Conclusions: Brazilian CD-QoL allows comparative research between different celiac populations in the world. QoL research will help in the development of effective strategies to improve Brazilian celiac patients’ quality of life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Low FODMAP Gluten-Free Diet Improves Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Overall Mental Health of Celiac Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081023 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Correction
Abstract
A subset of patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) reported the persistence of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Foods containing fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) can trigger a broad range of gastrointestinal symptoms in sensitive individuals. We evaluated the [...] Read more.
A subset of patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) reported the persistence of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Foods containing fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) can trigger a broad range of gastrointestinal symptoms in sensitive individuals. We evaluated the effects of a low FODMAP diet (LFD) on gastrointestinal and psychological symptomatology in CD patients. A total of 50 celiac patients on GFDs and with persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms were included. The patients were randomly allocated to one of two dietary groups—one on a low FODMAP GFD (LF-GFD, n = 25) and the other on a regular GFD (R-GFD, n = 25)—for 21 days. Psychological symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires, respectively. Gastrointestinal symptomatology and general well-being were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. After 21 days, 21 and 23 patients completed the dietary treatment on LF-GFD and R-GFD, respectively. A reduced global SCL-90 index (p < 0.0003) was found in the LF-GFD group but not in the R-GFD one. However, the SF-36 scores did not differ between groups after treatment. The VAS for abdominal pain was much lower, and the VAS for fecal consistency enhanced after treatment in the LF-GFD group. General well-being increased in both groups but with a much higher improvement in the LF-GFD (p = 0.03). A short-term LFD regimen helps to improve the psychological health and gastrointestinal symptomatology with enhanced well-being of CD patients with persisting functional gastrointestinal symptomatology. The long-term clinical effects of LFD in particular subgroups of CD patients need further evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Gluten-Containing Meal on Gastric Emptying and Gallbladder Contraction
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070910 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The ingestion of gluten has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms even in the absence of detectable immune responses. Little is known about the pathophysiological effects of gluten on the upper gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to assess whether the ingestion of gluten leads to [...] Read more.
The ingestion of gluten has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms even in the absence of detectable immune responses. Little is known about the pathophysiological effects of gluten on the upper gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to assess whether the ingestion of gluten leads to an impairment of the physiological mechanisms of gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction and relaxation. A total of 17 healthy subjects underwent ultrasound evaluation of gastric emptying dynamics and gallbladder contractions at baseline and every 30 min after a standard gluten-containing and gluten-free meal (250 kcal, 70% carbohydrates). The pattern of gastric emptying was similar after a standard meal with or without gluten, but differed in terms of the peak of the antral filling curve, which was wider (mean area 5.69, median 4.70, range 3.71‒9.27 cm2 vs. mean 4.89, median 4.57, 2.27‒10.22 cm2, p = 0.023) after the gluten-containing meal. The pattern of gallbladder contractions was different after the gluten-free meal (p < 0.05), with higher gallbladder volumes in the late refilling phases. The results of this study show that gluten ingestion exerts objective effects on gastric and gallbladder motility. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unknown, these results could account for some of the gluten-related symptoms reported by patients with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Association between Gluten-Free Diet Adherence and Symptoms in Celiac Disease: Analysis of a Patient Powered Research Network
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050538 - 26 Apr 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of depression in celiac disease (CD) is high, and patients are often burdened socially and financially by a gluten-free diet. However, the relationship between depression, somatic symptoms and dietary adherence in CD is complex and poorly understood. We used a [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of depression in celiac disease (CD) is high, and patients are often burdened socially and financially by a gluten-free diet. However, the relationship between depression, somatic symptoms and dietary adherence in CD is complex and poorly understood. We used a patient powered research network (iCureCeliac®) to explore the effect that depression has on patients’ symptomatic response to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Methods: We identified patients with biopsy-diagnosed celiac disease who answered questions pertaining to symptoms (Celiac Symptom Index (CSI)), GFD adherence (Celiac Dietary Adherence Test (CDAT)), and a 5-point, scaled question regarding depressive symptoms relating to patients’ celiac disease. We then measured the correlation between symptoms and adherence (CSI vs. CDAT) in patients with depression versus those without depression. We also tested for interaction of depression with regard to the association with symptoms using a multiple linear regression model. Results: Among 519 patients, 86% were female and the mean age was 40.9 years. 46% of patients indicated that they felt “somewhat,” “quite a bit,” or “very much” depressed because of their disorder. There was a moderate correlation between worsened celiac symptoms and poorer GFD adherence (r = 0.6, p < 0.0001). In those with a positive depression screen, there was a moderate correlation between worsening symptoms and worsening dietary adherence (r = 0.5, p < 0.0001) whereas in those without depression, the correlation was stronger (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001). We performed a linear regression analysis, which suggests that the relationship between CSI and CDAT is modified by depression. Conclusions: In patients with depressive symptoms related to their disorder, correlation between adherence and symptoms was weaker than those without depressive symptoms. This finding was confirmed with a linear regression analysis, showing that depressive symptoms may modify the effect of a GFD on celiac symptoms. Depressive symptoms may therefore mask the relationship between inadvertent gluten exposure and symptoms. Additional longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to further explore this potentially important finding. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease—Forever and for All?
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111796 - 18 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment available for celiac disease. However, it is difficult to adhere to and a closer look on the diet’s implementation and indications reveals several ambiguities: Not only is there controversy on the threshold of gluten that [...] Read more.
The gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment available for celiac disease. However, it is difficult to adhere to and a closer look on the diet’s implementation and indications reveals several ambiguities: Not only is there controversy on the threshold of gluten that can be tolerated in the frame of a strict gluten-free diet, but it is also unclear whether the gluten-free diet is an appropriate treatment in patient subgroups with asymptomatic or potential celiac disease. Reports from a number of research groups suggest that a certain proportion of patients may effectively develop tolerance to gluten and thus become suitable for gluten reintroduction over time. In this review, we set out to create an overview about the current state of research as regards the definition of a strict gluten-free diet in terms of the gluten thresholds considered tolerable and the indication for a gluten-free diet in the absence of histological abnormalities or symptoms. Furthermore, we discuss the concept that a gluten-free diet must be followed for life by all patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Descriptive Study of the Different Tools Used to Evaluate the Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111777 - 16 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically conditioned autoimmune process that appears in susceptible people. It can affect people of any age, and slightly predominates in females. It has a fairly homogenous global distribution, with an average prevalence of 1–2%, the frequency having increased [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically conditioned autoimmune process that appears in susceptible people. It can affect people of any age, and slightly predominates in females. It has a fairly homogenous global distribution, with an average prevalence of 1–2%, the frequency having increased in recent decades. The only effective treatment is a strict and permanent gluten-free diet (GFD), although the level of compliance is poor, at about 50% of cases. To monitor the effectiveness of the GFD, several procedures involving various approaches are employed: (a) Periodic visits by expert Nutritionists; (b) Clinical follow-up; (c) Serological time controls of specific antibodies; (d) Serial endoscopies with collection of duodenal biopsies; (e) Use of structured questionnaires; and (f) Determination of gluten peptides derived from gluten in faeces and/or urine. All of these procedures are useful when applied, alone or in combination, depending on the cases. Some patients will only need to consult to their doctors, while others will require a multidisciplinary approach to assess their compliance with the GFD. In children, normalization of duodenal mucosa was achieved in 95% of cases within two years, while it is more delayed in adults, whose mucosa take longer time (3–5 years) to heal completely. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Possible Prevention of Diabetes with a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111746 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Gluten seems a potentially important determinant in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intake of gluten, a major component of wheat, rye, and barley, affects the microbiota and increases the intestinal permeability. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that gluten peptides, after [...] Read more.
Gluten seems a potentially important determinant in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intake of gluten, a major component of wheat, rye, and barley, affects the microbiota and increases the intestinal permeability. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that gluten peptides, after crossing the intestinal barrier, lead to a more inflammatory milieu. Gluten peptides enter the pancreas where they affect the morphology and might induce beta-cell stress by enhancing glucose- and palmitate-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, animal studies and a human study have demonstrated that a gluten-free (GF) diet during pregnancy reduces the risk of T1D. Evidence regarding the role of a GF diet in T2D is less clear. Some studies have linked intake of a GF diet to reduced obesity and T2D and suggested a role in reducing leptin- and insulin-resistance and increasing beta-cell volume. The current knowledge indicates that gluten, among many environmental factors, may be an aetiopathogenic factors for development of T1D and T2D. However, human intervention trials are needed to confirm this and the proposed mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gluten-Free Diet and Its ‘Cousins’ in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111727 - 11 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Functional disorders are common, with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) being the commonest and most extensively evaluated functional bowel disorder. It is therefore paramount that effective therapies are available to treat this common condition. Diet appears to play a pivotal role in symptom generation [...] Read more.
Functional disorders are common, with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) being the commonest and most extensively evaluated functional bowel disorder. It is therefore paramount that effective therapies are available to treat this common condition. Diet appears to play a pivotal role in symptom generation in IBS, with a recent interest in the role of dietary therapies in IBS. Over the last decade, there has been a substantial increase in awareness of the gluten-free diet (GFD), with a recent focus of the role of a GFD in IBS. There appears to be emerging evidence for the use of a GFD in IBS, with studies demonstrating the induction of symptoms following gluten in patients with IBS. However, there are questions with regards to which components of wheat lead to symptom generation, as well as the effect of a GFD on nutritional status, gut microbiota and long-term outcomes. Further studies are required, although the design of dietary studies remain challenging. The implementation of a GFD should be performed by a dietitian with a specialist interest in IBS, which could be achieved via the delivery of group sessions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mood Disorders and Gluten: It’s Not All in Your Mind! A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111708 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Gluten elimination may represent an effective treatment strategy for mood disorders in individuals with gluten-related disorders. However, the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. We performed a systematic review of prospective studies for effects of gluten on mood symptoms in patients with or [...] Read more.
Gluten elimination may represent an effective treatment strategy for mood disorders in individuals with gluten-related disorders. However, the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. We performed a systematic review of prospective studies for effects of gluten on mood symptoms in patients with or without gluten-related disorders. Six electronic databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library) were searched, from inception to 8 August 2018, for prospective studies published in English. Meta-analyses with random-effects were performed. Three randomised-controlled trials and 10 longitudinal studies comprising 1139 participants fit the inclusion criteria. A gluten-free diet (GFD) significantly improved pooled depressive symptom scores in GFD-treated patients (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) −0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.55 to −0.20; p < 0.0001), with no difference in mean scores between patients and healthy controls after one year (SMD 0.01, 95% CI −0.18 to 0.20, p = 0.94). There was a tendency towards worsening symptoms for non-coeliac gluten sensitive patients during a blinded gluten challenge vs. placebo (SMD 0.21, 95% CI −0.58 to 0.15; p = 0.25). Our review supports the association between mood disorders and gluten intake in susceptible individuals. The effects of a GFD on mood in subjects without gluten-related disorders should be considered in future research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Motility Disorders in Celiac Disease and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The Impact of a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111705 - 07 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: There is evidence that digestive motor disorders are frequently present in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients. Similarly, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be associated with gut motor disorders. In both cases, gut dysmotility can improve or be completely reversed with a gluten-free [...] Read more.
Background: There is evidence that digestive motor disorders are frequently present in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients. Similarly, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be associated with gut motor disorders. In both cases, gut dysmotility can improve or be completely reversed with a gluten-free diet (GFD). Methods: A literature search for motility disorders in CD and NCGS patients was carried out using the online databases PubMed, Medline and Cochrane. Results: Esophageal, gastric, small bowel and gallbladder motor disorders are common in both children and adults with CD. Although the clinical consequences of these disorders are not clearly defined, gastric dysfunction could affect drug absorption and metabolism in the thyroid and neurological conditions associated with CD. The impact of a GFD on motility disorders is, however, controversial. No systematic studies are available on NCGS. NCGS frequently overlaps with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and similar pathophysiological mechanisms may be hypothesized. Conclusions: Mucosal damage may affect gut motility in untreated CD through perturbation of hormonal and neuro-immunomodulatory regulation. A persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation could explain the cases of persistent motor disorders despite a GFD. Further studies are needed to definitely assess the role of gut motor disorders in NCGS. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Handbook of Minerals on a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111683 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The importance of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the treatment of celiac disease and other gluten-related disorders is undisputable. However, strict GFD often lead to nutritional imbalances and, therefore, to deficiencies. One of the most common deficiencies from a GFD are an insufficient [...] Read more.
The importance of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the treatment of celiac disease and other gluten-related disorders is undisputable. However, strict GFD often lead to nutritional imbalances and, therefore, to deficiencies. One of the most common deficiencies from a GFD are an insufficient amount of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Zn. This is mainly because the most of popular gluten-free (GF) raw materials are poor in minerals. Although the popularity of GFD is constantly growing, the data on minerals in GF products are still limited. More importantly, an access to the data is even more restricted. Therefore, the paper reviews the Ca, Fe, Mg, and Zn contents in hundreds of grain GF products available worldwide. The data for 444 products from categories of flours, mixes for cooking, bakery products, cereals, groats, rice, and pasta are obtained from research papers and nutritional databases. The calculation of the realization of mineral requirements from a portion of each product with its graphical classification as rich/average/poor source of each mineral is given. The review is a handbook of minerals for people on a GFD, dietitians, and food producers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Gluten-Free Diet on Health and the Gut Microbiota Cannot Be Extrapolated from One Population to Others
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101421 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Gluten-related disorders (GRD) affect millions of people worldwide and have been related to the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota. These disorders present differently in each patient and the only treatment available is a strict life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). Several studies have [...] Read more.
Gluten-related disorders (GRD) affect millions of people worldwide and have been related to the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota. These disorders present differently in each patient and the only treatment available is a strict life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). Several studies have investigated the effect of a GFD on the gut microbiota of patients afflicted with GRD as well as healthy people. The purpose of this review is to persuade the biomedical community to think that, while useful, the results from the effect of GFD on health and the gut microbiota cannot be extrapolated from one population to others. This argument is primarily based on the highly individualized pattern of gut microbial composition and metabolic activity in each person, the variability of the gut microbiota over time and the plethora of factors associated with this variation. In addition, there is wide variation in the composition, economic viability, and possible deleterious effects to health among different GFD, both within and among countries. Overall, this paper encourages the conception of more collaborative efforts to study local populations in an effort to reach biologically and medically useful conclusions that truly contribute to improve health in patients afflicted with GRD. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Roncoroni, L. et al. A Low FODMAP Gluten-Free Diet Improves Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Overall Mental Health of Celiac Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1023
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030566 - 06 Mar 2019
Abstract
The authors have requested that the following changes be made to their paper [...] Full article
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