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Celiac Disease Diagnosed through Screening Programs in At-Risk Adults Is Not Associated with Worse Adherence to the Gluten-Free Diet and Might Protect from Osteopenia/Osteoporosis

1
Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2
Unit of Gastroenterology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121940
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
Screening strategies to detect celiac disease (CD) in at-risk subjects are of paramount importance to prevent the possible long-term complications of this condition. It is therefore of strategic relevance to understand whether patients diagnosed through screening follow a strict gluten-free diet (GFD), as the non-compliance to this diet can make screening efforts pointless. Currently, no studies have verified whether CD patients diagnosed in their adulthood are adhering to the GFD years after the diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 750 CD patients diagnosed in our center during January 2004–December 2013 to verify differences between screening detected and clinically diagnosed patients. The groups shared a similar adherence to the GFD (91.2 versus 89.8%, p = 0.857). Moreover, the rates of non-responsive CD, GFD-induced metabolic alterations, and persistence in controls were also similar. Instead, screening-detected patients had a significantly lower rate of osteopenia/osteoporosis at diagnosis (31.3 versus 46%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, screening strategies for CD in at-risk groups should be encouraged even in the adult population. Patients diagnosed through these strategies had no additional problems compared to those diagnosed for clinical suspicion and might benefit from a protective effect against metabolic bone disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten; gluten-free diet; screening; outcome; gluten sensitivity; osteoporosis celiac disease; gluten; gluten-free diet; screening; outcome; gluten sensitivity; osteoporosis
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Tovoli, F.; Negrini, G.; Sansone, V.; Faggiano, C.; Catenaro, T.; Bolondi, L.; Granito, A. Celiac Disease Diagnosed through Screening Programs in At-Risk Adults Is Not Associated with Worse Adherence to the Gluten-Free Diet and Might Protect from Osteopenia/Osteoporosis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1940.

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