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Correction published on 6 March 2019, see Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 566.
Open AccessArticle

A Low FODMAP Gluten-Free Diet Improves Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Overall Mental Health of Celiac Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Centre for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease/Division of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, University of Milano, 20100 Milan, Italy
Department of Nutrition, University of Chile, 8380453 Santiago, Chile
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20100 Milan, Italy
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Bipolar Disorders Clinic, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5723, USA
CRC “Aldo Ravelli” for Neuro-technology & Experimental Brain Therapeutics, University of Milan, 20100 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1023;
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Diet)
A subset of patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) reported the persistence of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Foods containing fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) can trigger a broad range of gastrointestinal symptoms in sensitive individuals. We evaluated the effects of a low FODMAP diet (LFD) on gastrointestinal and psychological symptomatology in CD patients. A total of 50 celiac patients on GFDs and with persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms were included. The patients were randomly allocated to one of two dietary groups—one on a low FODMAP GFD (LF-GFD, n = 25) and the other on a regular GFD (R-GFD, n = 25)—for 21 days. Psychological symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires, respectively. Gastrointestinal symptomatology and general well-being were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. After 21 days, 21 and 23 patients completed the dietary treatment on LF-GFD and R-GFD, respectively. A reduced global SCL-90 index (p < 0.0003) was found in the LF-GFD group but not in the R-GFD one. However, the SF-36 scores did not differ between groups after treatment. The VAS for abdominal pain was much lower, and the VAS for fecal consistency enhanced after treatment in the LF-GFD group. General well-being increased in both groups but with a much higher improvement in the LF-GFD (p = 0.03). A short-term LFD regimen helps to improve the psychological health and gastrointestinal symptomatology with enhanced well-being of CD patients with persisting functional gastrointestinal symptomatology. The long-term clinical effects of LFD in particular subgroups of CD patients need further evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free diet; gastrointestinal symptoms; quality of life gluten-free diet; gastrointestinal symptoms; quality of life
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Roncoroni, L.; Bascuñán, K.A.; Doneda, L.; Scricciolo, A.; Lombardo, V.; Branchi, F.; Ferretti, F.; Dell’Osso, B.; Montanari, V.; Bardella, M.T.; Elli, L. A Low FODMAP Gluten-Free Diet Improves Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and Overall Mental Health of Celiac Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1023.

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